Peacebuilding in War Child 2007


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This presentation was given at the 2007 IPM week, to present and discuss findings of a study and to develop War Child policy on this matter.

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Peacebuilding in War Child 2007

  1. 1. Peacebuilding M&M WEEK 2007
  2. 2. Session Overview <ul><li>Introduction 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Planet… 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Planet Peace? 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Planet Peace explored 50 </li></ul><ul><li>===LUNCH BREAK=== </li></ul><ul><li>Outline SoA on Peacebuilding 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Youth 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations Carroussel 60 </li></ul><ul><li>21 / 9 Brainstorm 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Questions / Next steps ?? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>M&M WEEK 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation MoFA Peacebuilding 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary Peacebuilding Framework </li></ul><ul><li>M&M WEEK 2007 </li></ul>
  4. 4. War Child Peacebuilding overview Temporary Peacebuilding Framework <ul><li>General Intervention Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased support for peace and reconciliation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing groups together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness raising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff skills training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT IS PEACEBUILDING? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Animal Planet… <ul><li>Imitate the sound of your animal and form your ‘animal groups’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carry out the assignment on your piece of paper </li></ul>
  6. 6. Animal Planet… contradiction attitude behaviour actual or perceived incompatibility of goals emotive (feeling), cognitive (belief) and conative (will) elements cooperation or coercion, gestures signifying conciliation or hostility
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>SO... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT IS PEACEBUILDING? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ negative peace”; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to transform conflict in a just and sustainable manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ positive peace” </li></ul></ul></ul>Planet Peace? WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  9. 9. Planet Peace? <ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation. </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  10. 10. Planet Peace? WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW <ul><li>Typology of Violence </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disagreement through which the people involved perceive a threat to their positions , interests or needs . </li></ul></ul>Planet Peace? WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  12. 12. Planet Peace? <ul><li>Conflict transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process of transforming factors that support the continuation of violent conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict is potentially constructive and a catalyst or source of change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles of insiders and outsiders complementary towards sustainable long-term peace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment of local change agents is crucial to gradually transform the conflicting society to a more just society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through a series of small and large changes, in which all the actors have an important role to play </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW Temporary Peacebuilding Framework <ul><li>War Child works towards ‘positive peace’, aiming to transform social relationships, structures, and culture in a directionn conducive to reduction of root causes of social conflicts, and enhancing the capacities to manage emerging conflicts non-violently and constructively </li></ul>
  13. 13. Planet Peace explored <ul><li>Context typology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-violent conflict areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict-prone fragile states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phases of violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-violent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overtly-violent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-violent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portfolio analysis </li></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  14. 14. Planet Peace explored <ul><li>Level of Violence / </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul>Context typology POST-VIOLENT CONFLICTS NO CRISIS CONFLICT –PRONE FRAGILE STATES COMPLEX EMERGENCY WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  15. 15. Planet Peace explored Level of Violence / Intensity Intervention Post-conflict rehabilitation Conflict prevention No interventions Escalation De-escalation Open war WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION
  16. 16. Actors for Peace? <ul><li>Insider </li></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW Outsider Connector Divider WAR CHILD Y o u n g P e o p l e
  17. 17. Temporary Peacebuilding Framework: ‘Deficits’ <ul><li>War Child works in the realm of psychological/social ‘deficit’. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly, human rights, education and media activities are becoming part of War Child interventions </li></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW Psycho-social Socio-economic Intervention Level: Track 1,2,3 Military / Security Political / Institutional Educational 1 2 3 Cultural
  18. 18. Temporary Peacebuilding Framework: Dimensions <ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li> public education and advocacy initiatives around the theme peace on national and international levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li> reconnect children and youth from divided groups, with the specific aim of (re-) connecting and trust building. </li></ul><ul><li> facilitate the creation and strengthening of community platforms or mechanisms to solve disputes / conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li> train staff who are working in communities on issues related to conflict, and increases skills in conflict prevention and resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li> implement programmes to increase the psychosocial wellbeing of children. </li></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  19. 19. MoFA Evaluation 2006 [1] This means linking Dutch groups and individuals to groups and individuals in conflict areas as well as linking groups in conflict areas to each other. WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW X X X X X Saferworld X X X X X X X IKV X X X X X War Child X X X X X X X Pax Christi X X X X X X Int Alert X X X X ECCP Horizontal linking [1] Psycho-social assis-tance Capacity building Organi-sing dialogue Suppor-ting local peace initiatives Research and analysis Advocacy and public aware-ness raising Lobby Networking Strategies / Instruments
  20. 20. Interventions: Impact on conflict? <ul><li>Peace practice </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Development aid </li></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  21. 21. Intervention types and Impact <ul><li>Development assistance </li></ul>CONFLICT Humanitarian aid Peace practice Resources IMPACT IMPACT Resources Implicit ethical messages DO NO HARM: HOW CAN WE REDUCE NEGATIVE IMPACTS AND INCREASE POSITIVE IMPACTS? REFLECTING ON PEACE PRACTICE: HOW CAN WE BE MORE EFFECTIVE? CONTEXT CONTEXT
  23. 23. Conflict Sensitivity <ul><li>Being conflict sensitive means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the interaction between the intervention and the context and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act upon the understanding of this interaction, in order to avoid negative and maximize positive impacts on the socio-economic and political tensions, root causes of conflict and structural factors. </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  24. 24. The Road to Peace <ul><li>“ If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will get you there…” </li></ul><ul><li>Well intended, successful interventions do not automatically add up to PEACE! </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible – and necessary – to identify effective peacebuilding </li></ul>
  25. 25. Effectiveness <ul><li>Positive impact </li></ul><ul><li>Negative impact </li></ul><ul><li>Means of work </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  26. 26. Effectiveness criteria (1) <ul><li>Positive impacts (Maximizing the good) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own initiatives for peace are developed by participants and communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and political institutions are created or reformed to handle grievances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence and provocations to violence are increasingly resisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s (sense of) security is increased </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  27. 27. Effectiveness criteria (2) <ul><li>Negative impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worsening divisions between conflicting groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing danger for participants in peace activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcing structural or overt violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverting human and material resources from productive peace activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing cynicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disempowering local people </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  28. 28. Effectiveness criteria (3) <ul><li>Means of work (Reflecting on peace) </li></ul><ul><li>Principles - Peace practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is honest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respects differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eschews violence and intimidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commits to justice as essential to peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>honors that peace belongs to those who make it </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  29. 29. Effectiveness Criteria (3) <ul><li>Means of work (Lederach, Galtung) </li></ul><ul><li>Key Peace Competencies – Practitioners should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have capacity to show empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have willingness to risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand centrality of relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uphold Non-violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate tension and ambiguity </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  30. 30. Effectiveness criteria (4) <ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation, passion / Knowledge / Reputation, credibility / Leverage, contacts / Continuity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lobby / Leverage, pressure / Global constituency / Comparative experience / Host safe space / Resource mobilization </li></ul></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  31. 31. Effectiveness criteria (4) <ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful partnerships are result of interaction rather than ‘intrinsic rightness’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal, mutual consultations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear definition of roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of shared criteria of success </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess and value differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insiders make the agenda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design strategy for sustainability </li></ul></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  32. 32. Impact: Analysis (1) and Approach <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often not analyzed, but important: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the conflict not about? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who needs to be stopped? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International, regional dimensions? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What has been tried? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be stopped / who will resist? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be supported? </li></ul></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  33. 33. Impact: Analysis and Approach (1) <ul><li>Basic Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More people strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key people strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual / personal level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio / political level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Effective Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting the Individual level and the Socio / Political level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting More People and Key People strategies at the Socio / Political level </li></ul></ul>WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW
  34. 34. Impact: Analysis and Approach (2) WHAT WHERE/ WHEN WHO HOW Socio/political Individual Key People More People Strategy Level
  35. 35. LUNCH?
  36. 36. Outline State of the Art Paper <ul><li>Chapter 1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2: Understanding Peacebuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3: Understanding Young people in violent conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4: Global Peacebuilding overview </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 5: War Child Peacebuilding overview </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 6: Reflections and recommendations </li></ul>
  37. 37. Defining Young People <ul><li>Children, Adolescents, Youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological – Youth = age group: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age ranges 10-19, 15-24, 15-30 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociological – Youth = identity group: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexities of transition child - adult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lenses of own ‘agency’ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Young people <ul><li>Almost half of the world’s population is below 25 years old. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Young people aged 12-24 amount to 1,5 billion, of which approximately 85% live in so-called developing countries. [2] . </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa and South Asia in particular, children and youth make up more than 60% of the total population. [3] </li></ul><ul><li>[1] The World Bank, “Why invest in children and youth?” </li></ul><ul><li>[2]World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation </li></ul><ul><li>[3]United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) State of the World Population 2005: The promises of Equality. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Young People and Violent Conflict <ul><li>Demography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They fight because there are too many of them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coercion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They fight because they are forced to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Youth crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They fight because they are alienated and disenfranchised </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Engaging Youth <ul><li>Active agents during armed struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Primary producers of violence in the post-violent conflict period </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of post conflict violence </li></ul><ul><li>Actors in grassroots community development and peacebuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Holders of the right to participation </li></ul>
  41. 41. Peace Programming for Youth <ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-political engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-based approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth-led approaches </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Peacebuilding Areas <ul><li>Community Activities and Creative Youth Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including community development activities, sports and art activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including capacity building and training of ‘multipliers’, trainin for the workplace, teacher training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advocacy, awareness raising, Media, Policy and research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including campaigning, youth led advocacy and research </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Global Overview UNDP community based projects in different fields and war-affected areas Youth aActivities by the Catholic Relief Service: Trainings of Professionals Service Civil International Peace Camp near Bethlehem United Religions Initiative: Ugandan Youth Peace Building Workshop The Academy for Educational Development’s Young Leaders for Peace and Development Program (YLPD) Re'ut-Sadaka youth project in Tel Aviv Bi-communal Activities by the Youth Board of Cyprus Youth Action for Peace (YAP) Play for Peace Leadership programmes World Vision Waajid Grass Root Peacebuilding Project AED Community Action Investment Programme (CAIP) in Kazakhstan Search for Common Ground Jamaa Burundi &quot;The Best Choice&quot; Amani Peoples Theatre (APT) Kenya Recursos de Animación Intercultural - RAI Mostar Intercultural Festival Peace Links Young Generation Sierra Leone WANEP Youth and Peace Education Programme in West Africa Youth Education Pack by the Norwegian Refugee Council AED Young Leaders for Peace and Development (YLPD) Southern Caucasus PRONI / Forum SYD Balkans Programme for and with youth Grupa Hajde Da… Balkans YOTRACON – Youth Transforming Conflict Online training course, The Network University Center for Peace Non-Violence and Human Rights, Osijek, Croatia Life Skills for Young Adults Save the Children YouCan – Youth Canada Association YMCA Worldwide Scout Movement Worldwide School-to-career growth in Jordan Save the Children UNDP Youth Engagement and Job Opportunity Project in Sierra Leone Kosovar Youth Council UNDP Youth, Peace and Development Forum, Guinea UNDP ICNYP/UNDP Sub-Regional Training Seminar on National Youth Policy Community Youth Mapping (CYM) in Egypt UNESCO Education for Peace Programme In Somalia Save the Children Sesame Street in South Caucasus Catholic Relief Services „ Kosovo: Interweaving Lives“ AED Peace Media Sri Lanka „ Take This Road“ Liberia Community Peace Building and Development “Youth Peace Radio Corps “ Barefoot Journalism in Nepal, AED Young People Vote for Peace in Colombia South East European Youth Network UNOY Peacebuilders UNDP Pan-African Youth Leadership Summit UNESCO - Youth Network for Peacebuilding - Spain Youth Alliance for Peace and Development in Sierra Leone Mitrovica City-Wide Youth Council supported by Catholic Relief Services
  44. 44. State of the Art Peacebuilding: Key Findings (1/4) <ul><li>Peacebuilding is not only an activity or series of activities, it is an impact. This impact is twofold: 1) stopping violence and destructive conflict; and 2) building a just and sustainable peace. Interventions aiming at peacebuilding should increase positive and minimize negative effects. </li></ul>
  45. 45. State of the Art Peacebuilding: Key Findings (2/4) <ul><li>Not all conflicts become violent; they should be seen as potentially contributing to positive change. Conflicts are complex social, political, cultural, economic phenomena, which warrant in depth and continuous analysis and reflection. The most appropriate way of dealing with conflict is therefore not to prevent or resolve it, but to try to transform it. </li></ul>
  46. 46. State of the Art Peacebuilding: Key Findings (3/4) <ul><li>Separate, well-intended programmes aimed at contributing to peace, do not automatically add up to the BIG Peace. The main consideration to be given to peacebuilding from a programming perspective is whether the intervention is effective in contributing to the BIG Peace. </li></ul>
  47. 47. State of the Art Peacebuilding: Key Findings (4/4) <ul><li>Youth should not be seen as a homogenous group, but rather as a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs, interests and ambitions. Young people have great, largely untapped peacebuilding resources. They should be regarded as active agents in their own lives and capable participants in their communities. Increasing their resilience and socio-political engagement should be the main foci of peacebuilding interventions for young people. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Culture of Peace and Non-violence 8. Male domination 7. Exploitation of nature 6. Exploitation of people 5. Armament 4. Secrecy and propaganda 3. Authoritarian governance 2. Having an enemy 1. Belief in power based on force Culture of War and Violence 8. Equality of women and men 7. Sustainable development 6. Human rights 5. Disarmament 4. Free flow of information 3. Public participation 2. Tolerance, solidarity and international understanding 1. Education for a culture of peace Culture of Peace and Non-violence 8. Work for women’s equality 7. Share with others and preserve the planet 6. Respect all life 5. Reject violence 4. Listen to understand 3. Participate in public sphere 2. Rediscover solidarity 1. Developing attitudes and skills for living together Peace keys
  49. 49. Recommendations (1) <ul><li>War Child should be more conflict sensitive throughout its programme cycle </li></ul><ul><li>War Child should strive for a longer presence in countries that are “out of conflict”, but still in high need of peacebuilding support </li></ul><ul><li>War Child should explore potential of involvement (through partners, networks) in areas that are violent and involve youth, but are not on lists of “conflict countries” </li></ul>
  50. 50. Recommendations (2) <ul><li>War Child should explore themes related to peacebuilding, such as violence; truth and reconciliation; and the role of children and youth in these themes </li></ul><ul><li>War Child should focus more explicitly on youth in peacebuilding. Children are the future, but youth can act now </li></ul><ul><li>War Child should be willing to take innovative approaches to peacebuilding, while cherishing current practices </li></ul>
  51. 51. Recommendations (3) <ul><li>War Child should translate the Key Peace Competencies and Culture of Peace Principles into staff competencies and related processes and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>War Child should set 21 / 9 on the annual calendars for joint public events to increase its peacebuilding image </li></ul><ul><li>War Child should make the collection, documentation and dissemination of its peacebuilding best practices a priority </li></ul>
  52. 52. International Peace Day <ul><li>On the annual calendars for joint public events to increase War Childs peace building image? </li></ul><ul><li>Example last year DRC – Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning War Child as a peace building organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Deepening the image of War Child by communicating content about what we do in peace building </li></ul>
  53. 53. Results WPA <ul><li>Different objectives and results possible </li></ul><ul><li>International context can have assets </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness raising </li></ul><ul><li>International backgrounds > impact </li></ul>
  54. 54. Results Netherlands <ul><li>Inform our donors and broader public about the importance of peace building and War Child activities for peace building </li></ul><ul><li>Other organisations know War Child as a reliable expert on this subject </li></ul>
  55. 55. Activities <ul><li>2 Peace signs in DRC and Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Live satellite connection </li></ul><ul><li>Live broadcast on the internet with portraits of DRC children </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual peace sign in Habbo Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Demo </li></ul>
  56. 56. Outcome <ul><li>10.000 people watched film </li></ul><ul><li>1 million TV-spectators in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>2 national radio broadcasts + several local </li></ul><ul><li>Website special visited by 3500 people </li></ul><ul><li>Website traffic from 1650 > 2550 per day </li></ul><ul><li>Habbo Hotel: 23.000 children in peace sign </li></ul>
  57. 57. Brainstorm <ul><li>Do you have ideas for celebrating International Day of Peace in your country? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have ideas about how to link our activities internationally, to create a joint international event? </li></ul>
  58. 58. It’s a long and winding road… <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions? </li></ul><ul><li>Next steps? </li></ul>
  59. 59. Peace of Cake!