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Supporting model-based reasoning usingdrawings and simulationWouter van JoolingenUniversity of Twente
•Science is both experimental andtheoretical.•For learning science one should DOscience•Science is in the process as much ...
Number of people in this roomTime from startPeople coming inPeople going outFame of speakerQuality of presentationQuality ...
Number of people in this roomTime of dayPeople coming inPeople going outFame of speakerQuality of presentationQuality of W...
• Modeling is a scientific activity• Learn about science and its nature• Models to make sense of the world• Modeling is le...
Model-based reasoning(Nersessian, Giere)• Inquiry and discovery rely on theconstruction of models• Visual and analogical m...
modelling takes many forms
KekuléBuilding structure forBenzeneProblem with the bonds &spatial structureIt came in a dream
Kekule• Using visual/spatial representations• With well defined constraints• Valence• External properties of benzene
Constructing models• Adding/changing/removing elements• Check interactions• Check internal consistency• Check corresponden...
Mental simulation
Mental simulation• Reason through the properties of themodel• Using time, structures and properties• Realise implications ...
Inquiry and modeling• Inquiry is model-based• Experiments are not the only source ofevidence• Construction• Mental simulat...
Drawing-basedmodellingDrawing with a plusand with constraintsDrawing modelelementsIdentify objectsSpecify behaviourSimulat...
Research program•What information can we extractfrom drawings?•Drawing software to model, howdoes that work?
Understanding drawingsWith Wout Kenbeek
How to interpret
Working method• Score• Objects• Processes• Annotations• Finding patterns• Factor analysis• Interpretation67 drawings onhea...
Scores
Result
Interpretation• Patterns?• Meaning?• => Factor Analysis• http://content.vanjoolingen.nl/drawings/drawings.html
Conclusion• Making sense of drawings is possible• Reveals internal models of students• Caution should be taken• Drawing as...
SupportingConstructionDrawelementsIdentifyAssociatebehavior
Supporting mentalsimulation• Use animation and computer simulation asaugmentation for mental simulation• Providing support...
Mars retrogrademovement
Explain like this or ..
Changing perspectiveQuickTime™ en eenH.264-decompressorzijn vereist om deze afbeelding weer te geven.
Emergence• Phenomena may become untraceable whenthere are many objects.• New phenomena may emerge from thecollective inter...
Traffic jamsQuickTime™ en een-decompressorzijn vereist om deze afbeelding weer te geven.
An experimental study among children in the SimSketch learning environmentwith Annika Aukes, & Hannie GijlersThe Use of a ...
Participants• 288 participants recruited in Science Center NEMO• 39 omitted from data analysis• total of 249 participants•...
The Use of a Drawing-based Simulation forModeling the Solar System31
• Domain knowledge test• Pre- and posttest design• Modeling assignment• First task: Draw Solar System (Sun, Earth, Moon, o...
Elements drawnn=235
N Max. score Mean (SD)Score Total Model 235 14 7.25 (3.317)Score Solar System 235 9 5.38 (2.303)Score Solar Eclipse 235 5 ...
Total Model:Differences between 7-9 years (M=6.72) and >12 years (M=8.21)Differences between 10-11 years (M= 6.93) and >12...
Pre-post differences
Knowledge acquisition• Pre- & posttest differed significantly• The knowledge concerning the solar system was higher inthe ...
•Motivation•Perceived competence:• Difference between 7-9 years (M= 3.05) and >12 years (M= 2.71)•Valuing:• No significant...
• Drawing static elements is easier than displaying dynamic processes• Older children (>12 years) are better in modeling• ...
Overall conclusion• Drawing-based modeling• Accessible to young kids• Based on interpretation of drawings• Work to do!• In...
Open Questions• How to measure modelling performance?• Result and/or process• Lasting results of modelling with SimSketch?...
Thank youw.r.vanjoolingen@utwente.nl@woutervjmodeldrawing.eu
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Southampton, seminar june 2013

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Research seminar about drawing-based modeling, given at Southampton

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Southampton, seminar june 2013

  1. 1. Supporting model-based reasoning usingdrawings and simulationWouter van JoolingenUniversity of Twente
  2. 2. •Science is both experimental andtheoretical.•For learning science one should DOscience•Science is in the process as much as itis in the productView on sciencelearning
  3. 3. Number of people in this roomTime from startPeople coming inPeople going outFame of speakerQuality of presentationQuality of Weather+-+-+Models
  4. 4. Number of people in this roomTime of dayPeople coming inPeople going outFame of speakerQuality of presentationQuality of Weather+-+-• Creating a model of a system that is:• Explicit and external• A reasoning tool• Executable• How does this fit in the learning process of scientificinquiry?Modeling !?
  5. 5. • Modeling is a scientific activity• Learn about science and its nature• Models to make sense of the world• Modeling is learning activity• Understanding complex systems• Understand scientific content• Facilitate reasoning processesWhy?
  6. 6. Model-based reasoning(Nersessian, Giere)• Inquiry and discovery rely on theconstruction of models• Visual and analogical modelling• Mental simulations• Requires creative and constructive activities
  7. 7. modelling takes many forms
  8. 8. KekuléBuilding structure forBenzeneProblem with the bonds &spatial structureIt came in a dream
  9. 9. Kekule• Using visual/spatial representations• With well defined constraints• Valence• External properties of benzene
  10. 10. Constructing models• Adding/changing/removing elements• Check interactions• Check internal consistency• Check correspondence• Do we still predict what we already could?• Validation• Check by new experiments or observation• Mental simulation
  11. 11. Mental simulation
  12. 12. Mental simulation• Reason through the properties of themodel• Using time, structures and properties• Realise implications and limitations of themodel
  13. 13. Inquiry and modeling• Inquiry is model-based• Experiments are not the only source ofevidence• Construction• Mental simulation
  14. 14. Drawing-basedmodellingDrawing with a plusand with constraintsDrawing modelelementsIdentify objectsSpecify behaviourSimulate and revise
  15. 15. Research program•What information can we extractfrom drawings?•Drawing software to model, howdoes that work?
  16. 16. Understanding drawingsWith Wout Kenbeek
  17. 17. How to interpret
  18. 18. Working method• Score• Objects• Processes• Annotations• Finding patterns• Factor analysis• Interpretation67 drawings onheat and radiation9th grade studentsbased on given text
  19. 19. Scores
  20. 20. Result
  21. 21. Interpretation• Patterns?• Meaning?• => Factor Analysis• http://content.vanjoolingen.nl/drawings/drawings.html
  22. 22. Conclusion• Making sense of drawings is possible• Reveals internal models of students• Caution should be taken• Drawing as a first step to modeling
  23. 23. SupportingConstructionDrawelementsIdentifyAssociatebehavior
  24. 24. Supporting mentalsimulation• Use animation and computer simulation asaugmentation for mental simulation• Providing support for “untraceable”situations.
  25. 25. Mars retrogrademovement
  26. 26. Explain like this or ..
  27. 27. Changing perspectiveQuickTime™ en eenH.264-decompressorzijn vereist om deze afbeelding weer te geven.
  28. 28. Emergence• Phenomena may become untraceable whenthere are many objects.• New phenomena may emerge from thecollective interactions
  29. 29. Traffic jamsQuickTime™ en een-decompressorzijn vereist om deze afbeelding weer te geven.
  30. 30. An experimental study among children in the SimSketch learning environmentwith Annika Aukes, & Hannie GijlersThe Use of a Drawing-based Simulation for Modelingthe Solar System
  31. 31. Participants• 288 participants recruited in Science Center NEMO• 39 omitted from data analysis• total of 249 participants• 128 girls and 121 boys• 7 to 18 year old childrenMethod
  32. 32. The Use of a Drawing-based Simulation forModeling the Solar System31
  33. 33. • Domain knowledge test• Pre- and posttest design• Modeling assignment• First task: Draw Solar System (Sun, Earth, Moon, one otherplanet)• Second task: Draw Solar Eclipse• Feedback• Motivational items (Likert scale)• Software attitude (Semantic differential)Method
  34. 34. Elements drawnn=235
  35. 35. N Max. score Mean (SD)Score Total Model 235 14 7.25 (3.317)Score Solar System 235 9 5.38 (2.303)Score Solar Eclipse 235 5 1.87 (1.447)Results
  36. 36. Total Model:Differences between 7-9 years (M=6.72) and >12 years (M=8.21)Differences between 10-11 years (M= 6.93) and >12 years (M=8.21)Solar Eclipse:Differences between 7-9 years (M=1.67) and >12 years (M=2.31)Differences between 10-11 years (M=1.69) and >12 years (M=2.31) Children >12 years scored better on their solar eclipse and theirtotal modelResults
  37. 37. Pre-post differences
  38. 38. Knowledge acquisition• Pre- & posttest differed significantly• The knowledge concerning the solar system was higher inthe posttest.• Greatest differences in 7-9 years and girlsPartial correlation:• The score of modeling had a moderated correlation withthe posttest (r (222) = .286, p = .005) after correction forpretestResults
  39. 39. •Motivation•Perceived competence:• Difference between 7-9 years (M= 3.05) and >12 years (M= 2.71)•Valuing:• No significant differences•Attitude software:• Generally positive rates (M=3.23)• For 85% it was the first time working with SimSketch• For 72% rated SimSketch as a valuable programResults
  40. 40. • Drawing static elements is easier than displaying dynamic processes• Older children (>12 years) are better in modeling• Knowledge acquisition is higher in young children (7-9 years) and girls• However, ceiling effect in older children• Model score relates to knowledge acquisition• Young children have a higher perceived competence• Tendency that young children have higher valuingConclusion & discussion
  41. 41. Overall conclusion• Drawing-based modeling• Accessible to young kids• Based on interpretation of drawings• Work to do!• Integration• Extending the tools• Studies into processes and effects of modelling
  42. 42. Open Questions• How to measure modelling performance?• Result and/or process• Lasting results of modelling with SimSketch?• E.g. visual reasoning,• How to integrate inquiry/modelling in thescience curriculum?
  43. 43. Thank youw.r.vanjoolingen@utwente.nl@woutervjmodeldrawing.eu

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