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Bochum augustus 2012

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Presentation during the EARLI SIG 20 conference .

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Bochum augustus 2012

  1. 1. Supporting inquiry and modelling with interactive drawings Wouter van Joolingen University of Twente
  2. 2. Inquiry at school !?Today at school the teacher had students start inquiry experiments. . .They first submitted three questions they could study using plants. Theteacher then pointed them towards the ideas that were the mostworkable. It was really cool to see some of the ideas they came upwith. Some students are feeding their plants Coke and others aretesting the difference between real and fluorescent light. They are alsousing dyes and various types of soil — even gravel and sand. Onegroup is testing the effects of music on plants. I was really surprisedby the sophistication of their ideas— A lot of questions similar to theones in our methods class. There was even a plant hanging upsidedown. It was very cool to see the inquiry method implemented.(Windschitl, 2004, p. 497)
  3. 3. Inquiry at school !?Today at school the teacher had students start inquiry experiments. . .They first submitted three questions they could study using plants. Theteacher then pointed them towards the ideas that were the mostworkable. It was really cool to see some of the ideas they came upwith. Some students are feeding their plants Coke and others aretesting the difference between real and fluorescent light. They are alsousing dyes and various types of soil — even gravel and sand. Onegroup is testing the effects of music on plants. I was really surprisedby the sophistication of their ideas— A lot of questions similar to theones in our methods class. There was even a plant hanging upsidedown. It was very cool to see the inquiry method implemented.(Windschitl, 2004, p. 497)
  4. 4. Inquiry at school !?Today at school the teacher had students start inquiry experiments. . .They first submitted three questions they could study using plants. Theteacher then pointed them towards the ideas that were the mostworkable. It was really cool to see some of the ideas they came upwith. Some students are feeding their plants Coke and others aretesting the difference between real and fluorescent light. They are alsousing dyes and various types of soil — even gravel and sand. Onegroup is testing the effects of music on plants. I was really surprisedby the sophistication of their ideas— A lot of questions similar to theones in our methods class. There was even a plant hanging upsidedown. It was very cool to see the inquiry method implemented.(Windschitl, 2004, p. 497)
  5. 5. Inquiry at school !?Today at school the teacher had students start inquiry experiments. . .They first submitted three questions they could study using plants. Theteacher then pointed them towards the ideas that were the mostworkable. It was really cool to see some of the ideas they came upwith. Some students are feeding their plants Coke and others aretesting the difference between real and fluorescent light. They are alsousing dyes and various types of soil — even gravel and sand. Onegroup is testing the effects of music on plants. I was really surprisedby the sophistication of their ideas— A lot of questions similar to theones in our methods class. There was even a plant hanging upsidedown. It was very cool to see the inquiry method implemented.(Windschitl, 2004, p. 497)
  6. 6. What is wrong with this?Lack of theory Cookbook approach “Experiments” are chosen Inquiry cycle as only without any theoretical method of generating motivation data“The inquiry method” Disconnected from real world science Inquiry is seen as something outside the curriculum.
  7. 7. History of inquiry researchPhilosophy of Science Psychological research Popper i. “Logic of discovery” Simon, Langley, ii. Falsification Qin Kuhn, Lakatos, ... Inquiry is problem solving Paradigms, research programs Generate, test and revise. Social aspects of Inquiry Inquiry Cycle
  8. 8. Inquiry and Modelling
  9. 9. Inquiry and Modelling
  10. 10. What is the core of inquiry? And why do we teach it?
  11. 11. So, what about this?Standard modelstructured collectionof fermions andbosonsMathematical systemto explain interactionsand creation/annihilation ofparticles
  12. 12. Really generate-test- revise?Matter of scale?Complexity?Or fundamentallydifferent.
  13. 13. Standard modelConstruct oftheoretical ideas(fields, operators,processes)Internally consistencyas driving force Symmetry CovarianceEmpirical validation
  14. 14. Model-based reasoning (Nersessian, Giere)Inquiry and discovery rely on the constructionof models Visual and analogical modelling Mental simulationsRequires creative and constructive activities
  15. 15. modelling takes many forms
  16. 16. Kekulé Building structure for Benzene Problem with the bonds & spatial structure It came in a dream
  17. 17. KekuléUsing visual/spatial representationsWith well defined constraints Valence External properties of benzene - isomers
  18. 18. Constructing modelsAdding/changing/removing elementsCheck interactionsCheck internal consistencyCheck correspondence Do we still predict what we already could?Validation Check by new experiments or earlier observation or ..
  19. 19. Mental simulation
  20. 20. Mental simulationReason through the properties of the modelUsing time, structures and propertiesRealise implications and limitations of themodel
  21. 21. Inquiry and modelingInquiry is model-basedExperiments are not the only source ofevidenceConstructionMental simulation
  22. 22. Drawing-based modellingDrawing with a plusand with constraintsDrawing modelelementsIdentify objectsSpecify behaviourSimulate and revise
  23. 23. Supporting Construction DrawelementsIdentifyAssociatebehavior
  24. 24. Layers of thinkingObjects and elementsBehavior
  25. 25. Supporting mental simulationUse animation and computer simulation asaugmentation for mental simulationProviding support for “untraceable” situations.
  26. 26. Mars retrograde movement
  27. 27. Explain like this or ..
  28. 28. Changing perspective
  29. 29. EmergencePhenomena may become untraceable whenthere are many objects.New phenomena may emerge from thecollective interactions
  30. 30. Traffic jams
  31. 31. SimSketchSupport for construction by drawing No learning time Intuitive specification of behaviourSupport for simulation Animated behaviour of drawing elements Multiplication, interaction, emergence
  32. 32. Behaviour dilemmaWhat should beon the behaviourlist?Elements oftheoryPhenomenologicalterms
  33. 33. PhenomenologyThe Earth is in a circular orbit around the Sunvs.The Earth and Sun attract each other due togravitation
  34. 34. Goal of modelingReproduce/reconstruct expert knowledgevsExpress and build models of self-chosen systems
  35. 35. SimSketch development and evaluation Basic system Trial in Masterclass Empirical studies
  36. 36. Masterclass (with Lars Bollen)Six participants Selected From different schoolsGoal: create a drawn model
  37. 37. Process Pretest: Purpose of models Scientific AttitudeIntroduction to Topic choice and Final model modelling initial model Exploring Adaptation to Posttest: Purpose of models SimSketch SimSketch Scientific Attitude Evaluation of SimSketch
  38. 38. Purpose of modeling Post:Pre: SimulationsScale models Improved view ofFashion models testingStrive for Focus on purposeexactness of model
  39. 39. Models! Included sixCrowd management new behavioursPredator prey systemSpreading of diseaseTraffic (2x)Influence of alcohol on brain
  40. 40. EvaluationScientific attitude was and remained highSimSketch evaluated positively: easy to learn,fun to use.
  41. 41. Crowd management
  42. 42. More models
  43. 43. NEMO study Annika AukesScience musuemsolar system, planetary movements, solar eclipse248 participants, aged 7-18 (90% between 8 – 12)pre-knowledge-test (domain: solar system)SimSketch tutorialmodelling task solar systemmodelling task solar eclipsePost-knowledge-test (and others)
  44. 44. Resultsyounger children (<= 11) have higherlearning gain than older children but: ceiling effectmodel score does weakly but significantly relate tolearning gainpositive correlation between age andperceived easynessnegative correlation between age andperceived value of SimSketch but remarks that it is nice for younger children
  45. 45. Retrograde motion study Hanna Schmalz Specific study into modeling retrograde movement 31 students (11-12) Tasks: draw the solar system as you know it. Try to explain the retrograde motion of Venus using your drawing and simulation Measures: knowledge, science attitude
  46. 46. ResultsGeneral increase in attitude towards science More with boys than girlsGeneral increase in knowledge aboutplanetary motion More with girls than boysMuch better expression of retrograde motionin drawings than in words.
  47. 47. SummarizingInquiry is a model building activityConstruction and Mental simulation as core activitiesSimSketch Drawing to support construction Animation to support mental simulationWay to go: range of models assessment of learning user interfaces for exploring building and exploring models ...
  48. 48. www.modeldrawing.eu

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