Introduction to AI - First Lecture

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Introduction to AI - First Lecture

  1. 1. Introduction to AI - 1st Lecture - The Proto-history of AI Wouter Beek me@wouterbeek.com 6 October 2010
  2. 2. Part I ‘Artificial’ until 1950
  3. 3. -500 tot -300 0 Liezi, III, in which king Mu of Zhou meets engineer Yan Shi: “The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked with rapid strides, moving its head up and down, so that anyone would have taken it for a live human being. The artificer touched its chin, and it began singing, perfectly in tune. […] As the performance was drawing to an end, the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies in attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and would have had Yen Shih executed on the spot had not the latter, in mortal fear, instantly taken the robot to pieces to let him see what it really was. And, indeed, it turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood, glue and lacquer.” 0 The machine as imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine.
  4. 4. -150 0 Antikythera mechanism 0 150-100, mechanical computer for calculating astronomical configurations. 0 The machine as a scientific tool.
  5. 5. -150
  6. 6. -8 0 Ovid, 8 B.C., Metamorphoses X 0 Pygmalion, sculptor from Cyprus, married a the statue of a woman. Cupid, upon Venus’ instigation, brought the statue to life. 0 Man and the creation of man live together. 0 Transition between man and the creation of man fades. 0 The machine as sexual phantasy.
  7. 7. -10 tot +70 – Cybernetics 0 Hero of Alexandria (10-70), Automata, mechanical and pneumatic machines used in temples. 0 αὐτόματος, automaton, means “acting out of its own will” 0 Intentionality is attributed to machines.
  8. 8. 1206 0 Al-Jazarī (1136-1206), Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, 1206 0 Moving fountains 0 Mechanical serf offering a drink 0 Automated orchestra 0 Knowledge of automatons is maintained for the West via the Arab tradition. 0 The machine makes man’s life more convenient.
  9. 9. 1495 0 Leonardo da Vinci, 1495, robot making man- like movements. 0 Based on this study Vitruvian Man, 1487. 0 The machine as the human ideal.
  10. 10. 1921 – The word ‘robot’ 0 Karel Čapek, Czech playwright, 1921, R.U.R. 0 Rossumovi univerzální roboti, aka Rossum’s Universal Robots. 0 ‘robota’ means ‘forced labor’ in Czech. 0 Reminiscent of the Jewish tale of the Golem.
  11. 11. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man.
  12. 12. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine.
  13. 13. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool.
  14. 14. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool. 0 Man and machine live (and work) together.
  15. 15. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool. 0 Man and machine live (and work) together. 0 Boundary between man and machine fades.
  16. 16. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool. 0 Man and machine live (and work) together. 0 Boundary between man and machine fades. 0 The machine as sexual phantasy.
  17. 17. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool. 0 Man and machine live (and work) together. 0 Boundary between man and machine fades. 0 The machine as sexual phantasy. 0 Intentionality is attributed to the machine.
  18. 18. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool. 0 Man and machine live (and work) together. 0 Boundary between man and machine fades. 0 The machine as sexual phantasy. 0 Intentionality is attributed to the machine. 0 The machine makes man’s life more convenient.
  19. 19. Themes 0 The machine ass imitation of man. 0 The machine as competitor of man. 0 Man requires control over the machine. 0 The machine as a scientific tool. 0 Man and machine live (and work) together. 0 Boundary between man and machine fades. 0 The machine as sexual phantasy. 0 Intentionality is attributed to the machine. 0 The machine makes man’s life more convenient. 0 The machine as human ideal.
  20. 20. Part II ‘Intelligence’ until 1950
  21. 21. -300 0 Aristotele (384-322) 0 συλλογισμός, syllogism 0 Necessary deductions follow according to a limit number of stringently formulated reasoning principles. “A discourse in which certain things have been supposed, and from which something different than what has been supposed results of necessity.” [Analytica Priora 24B18-20] All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal.
  22. 22. 1672-1694 0 Leibnitz (1646-1716) 0 Stepped Reckoner, 1672- 1694, + - / * 0 Calculus ratiocinator, formal inference machine 0 Alphabet of thought, universal reasoning language
  23. 23. 1672-1694 0 Leibniz though of a lingua characteristica, a language in which all knowledge could be formally expressed. 0 The language would allow a calculus ratiocinator, i.e. a calculus of thought. 0 In the future, whenever two people disagree, the will say “calculemus” (= “let us calculate”). 0 They will formulate their dispute in the lingua characteristica and the calculus ratiocinator will decide who is right. 0 The calculus ratiocinator allows reason to be mechanized. 0 “cogitatio est computatio” [motto of Thomas Hobbes]
  24. 24. 1822-1837 0 Charles Babbage (1791- 1871) 0 Difference Engine, calculates polynomials. 0 1837, Analytical Engine, general-purpose computer
  25. 25. 1842-1843 0 Ada Lovelace, “The Enchantress of Numbers” (1815-1852) 0 Translated Luigi Menabrea’s description of Babbage’s Analytical Engine (1842-1843). 0 And… added footnotes in which she included the first piece of software ever (a calculation of the sequence of the Bernoulli numbers). 0 The first programmer.
  26. 26. Part III Alan Turing – 1950 – Computing machinery and Intelligence
  27. 27. Alan Turing (1912-1954) 0 Mathematician, logician, cryptographer, computer scientist. 0 Cracked the German Engima code in Worls War II, using the Bombe. 0 Formalized the concepts of ‘computability’: 1936, On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem (Turing Machine). 0 1952, sentenced to chemical castration in reaction to acts of homosexuality. 0 Died by cyanide poisoning.
  28. 28. “Can machines think?” 0 "I propose to consider the question 'Can machines think?‘” [Turing1950 – Computing Machinery and Intelligence] 0 According to Turing, the question is underspecified, requiring two preliminary definitions (what is a ‘machine’ and what is ‘thought’). 0 Once these definitions are provided, the question has already been answered. 0 Instead of providing these two definitions, Turing describes a game and asks: “What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?” 0 “Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman? These questions replace our original, ‘Can machines think?’” [Turing1950, emphasis added]
  29. 29. The Turing Test 0 Original: a man and a woman are separated. A third person guesses which converser is the man / woman. 0 The machine replaces the man or woman, and must mislead the third man in guessing the sex. 0 Standard interpretation: The role of the third man is to guess what is the machine and who is the person. 0 The machine must exhibit a broader notion of human intelligence (not only be misleading). 0 It is unclear whether the third man should know that one of his interlocutors is a machine.
  30. 30. Benefits of the Turing Test 0Gives a pragmatic solution to a difficult question. 0Broad applicability, covering all manifestations of human intelligence.
  31. 31. Problems of the Turing Test 0People are incapable of recognizing intelligence reliably: 0Anthopomorphic fallacy
  32. 32. Problems of the Turing Test 0 People are incapable of recognizing intelligence reliably: 0 Anthopomorphic fallacy 0 If the Turing Test would be applied to religious object, then statues, mountains, cats, pieces of wood and stones have passed the ‘test’ for being religious objects. [Michael Schermer] 0 Men as the measure of all forms of intelligence: 0 Not all human behavior is intelligent. 0 Not all intelligent behavior can be displayed by humans. 0 A behavioral or functional interpretation of ‘intelligence’. [Searle1980, Chinese Room experiment, see week 5] 0 A purely quantitative conception of intelligence. 0 “The criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage capacity.” [p449]
  33. 33. Other themes 0 Artificial Stupidity: 0 Turing 1950, p. 448 0 The winner of de bronze medal of de Loebner prize in 1992 won due to replicating human spelling errors. 0 Traditional themes (from part I) appear in Turing1950, e.g. man requiring control over the machine: 0 “We like to believe that Man is in some subtle way superior to the rest of creation. It is best if he can be shown to be necessarily superior, for then there is no danger of him losing his commanding position.” [Turing1950, p. 444]

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