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Scrap Metal


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Scrap Metal

  1. 1. Scrap Metal By Ankur Bajaj
  2. 2. Scrap Metal • Recyclable material left over from product manufacturing and consumption • Parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials • Unlike waste, scrap can have significant monetary value • Constituent raw materials can be taken out and reused
  3. 3. Scrap categorization • No single system exists for scrap metal as there are for pure metals • Grades cannot be defined as the scrap metal does not have a specific given composition • General terms are defined by ISRI (Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries) to identify materials with loosely defined compositions • Some examples include Apple, Dream, Elias, Twist, Seal, Indian, Zurik
  4. 4. Scrap processing • Two main types of scrap processors • Wrecking yards and Scrap yards • Wrecking yards sell everything by item type • Charge price according to the usability of the item regardless of the weight
  5. 5. Scrap processing • Scrap yards sell metal by weight irrespective of type or usability of the metal item • Primary value of metal comes from smelters which is by metal weight • Items useless to wreakers are also sold to scrap yards by weight
  6. 6. Metal recycling industry • Metal recycling industry encompasses a wide range of metals • Frequently recycled metals are scrap Steel, Iron, Lead, Aluminium, Copper, Stainless Steel and Zinc • Precious metals like gold, silver and platinum group metals • Cobalt, mercury, titanium, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, bismuth and some other rare earth metals are also recycled
  7. 7. Role in the American economy • Valued at more than $90 billion in 2012 • Exports of $28 billion in scrap commodities to 160 countries • Supports around 5,00,000 workers • Generates revenue of more than $10 billion per year
  8. 8. Role in the American economy • Recycled scrap serves as raw material feedstock for many metal industries in US • 60% Steel • 50% Copper and copper alloys • 50% Aluminium
  9. 9. Ferrous metal recycling • Contain an appreciable percentage of iron • Steel one of the most recycled materials in the world • In USA, steel containers, cans, automobiles, appliances, and construction materials contribute the greatest weight of re-cycled materials • Contain anywhere between 50-80% iron and steel
  10. 10. Ferrous metal recycling • Cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore and manipulate it through the production process to form new steel • Steel does not lose any of its inherent physical properties during the recycling process • Has drastically reduced energy and material requirements compared with refinement from iron ore
  11. 11. Ferrous metal recycling • Different amount of recycled steel used for different steelmaking processes • Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) uses between 25 and 35% recycled steel as raw material • Electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking uses almost 100% recycled steel • Recycled steal contains some impurities which cannot be removed
  12. 12. Types of scrap used in steelmaking • Heavy melting steel - Industrial or commercial scrap steel greater than 6mm thick, such as plates, beams, columns, channels • Old car bodies - Vehicles with or without interiors and their original wheels • Cast iron - Cast iron baths, machinery, pipe and engine blocks • Pressing steel - Domestic scrap metal up to approx. 6mm thick. Examples - White goods (fridges, washing machines, etc.), roofing iron, water heaters, water tanks and sheet metal off-cuts
  13. 13. Types of scrap used in steelmaking • Reinforcing bars or mesh - Used in the construction industry within concrete • Turnings - Remains of drilling or shaping steels • Manganese steel - Non magnetic, hardened steel used in the mining industry, cement mixers, rock crushers, and other high impact and abrasive environments • Rails - Rail or tram tracks
  14. 14. Ferrous metal recycling process • Sorting - Ferrous metal can be easily separated from other recyclables like paper in a recycling facility with magnetic belts. Different kinds of steel do not need to be separated • Shredding - Shredders incorporate rotating magnetic drums to extract iron and steel from the mixture of metals and other materials
  15. 15. Ferrous metal recycling process • Media separation - Further separation is achieved using liquid floating systems • Shearing - Hydraulic machinery capable of exerting enormous pressure is used to cut thick heavy steel recovered from railways and ships • Baling - Iron and steel products are compacted into large blocks to facilitate handling and transportation
  16. 16. Applications Products made of recycled steel include - • Construction materials for roads, railways, infrastructure and buildings • Electrical appliances • Cans and containers • Automobiles and other vehicles • Office supplies • Hardware: bolts, nuts, screws, etc.
  17. 17. Major exporters of steel scrap
  18. 18. Major importers of steel scrap Countries increasing their scrap steel import Country Steel scrap imported in 2012 (Million Metric tonnes) Turkey 22.4 South Korea 10.1 India 8.2 Canada 2.3
  19. 19. Major importers of steel scrap Countries decreasing their scrap steel import Country Steel scrap imported in 2012 (Million Metric tonnes) China 4.97 Taiwan 4.95 USA 3.7 European Union (EU-27) 3.4
  20. 20. Major Multi-National Scrap Recyclers Company Country Volume in gross tons (2011) Sims Metal Management Inc USA 8.7 million OmniSource Corp. USA 5.9 million Schnitzer Steel Industries USA 5.3 million The David J. Joseph Co. USA 5 million Tube City IMS USA 5 million Commercial Metals Co. USA 3 million Ferrous Processing & Trading Co. USA 2.8 million Alter Trading Corp. USA 2.5 million Triple M Metal Inc. Canada 2.5 million Gerdau Ameristeel Recycling Canada 2.1 million
  21. 21. Benefits of recycling scrap metals Using recycled scrap metal to make steel in place of virgin iron ore can yield - • 75% savings in energy • 90% savings in raw materials used • 86% reduction in air pollution • 40% reduction in water use • 76% reduction in water pollution • 97% reduction in mining wastes
  22. 22. Benefits of recycling scrap metals Energy savings from other metals include - • Aluminium savings of 95% energy • Copper savings of 85% energy • Lead savings of 65% energy • Zinc savings of 60% energy
  23. 23. Risks • Hazardous materials present in scrap may cause death, injury or environmental damage • Radioactivity in scrap can contaminate chemical elements in metal smelters and can also called radiation poisoning • Specialized tools used in scrap yards can also be dangerous to untrained people
  24. 24. Metal theft • Usually increases when worldwide prices for scrap metal rise • Metals most commonly stolen are non-ferrous metals such as copper, aluminium, brass, and bronze • Even cast iron and steel are now being taken owing to prices as scrap • Items with metal are stolen for their intrinsic value as raw material or commodities
  25. 25. Countries where major scrap thefts have been reported • Canada • Czech Republic • Germany • Japan • Russia • South Africa • Ukraine • United Kingdom • USA
  26. 26. Thank you