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General Steel Properties and Processes


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General Steel Properties and Processes

  1. 1. The basics
  2. 2. Properties in general:Ductility : ability to be drawn into wire without fracture.Malleability : ability to be rolled / beaten into sheets without fracture.Tensile strength : maximum load that it can support without yielding.Elastic deformation : deformation to an extent that the original shape can beregained when the applied load is removed.(pulling a rubber band)Plastic deformation: deformation that is permanent. Pressing clay.
  3. 3. Types of steel (Based on C content)  low carbon  medium carbon  high carbon
  4. 4. Low carbon steel Low carbon steels generally contain less than 0.25% Carbon : It is relatively soft and weak, Has good ductility and toughness It is machinable,(because it is soft and not brittle) Weldable Relatively inexpensive to produce.
  5. 5. Medium carbon steel Medium carbon steels have carbon concentrations between about 0.25 and 0.60 wt. These steels may be heat treated by heat to improve their mechanical properties. Good load carrying ability (Because it has the best blend of ductility and toughness)
  6. 6. High carbon steel High carbon steel have carbon content around 0.30–1.70 Cannot be welded. Cannot be machined (too hard and brittle) Production cost increases because of hardness.
  7. 7. What is an alloy steel :Carbon steel can be classified as an alloysteel when The manganese content exceeds 1.65%, Or, when silicon /copper exceeds 0.60%Change in composition results in change inductility and its reaction to heat treatment. Soby heat treatment we can increase thestrength to desired level and get differentblends of ductility and strength.
  8. 8. What is stainless steel: Stainless steel has at least 10.5% Chromium. That accounts for its corrosion resistance. Nickel or molybdenum are added to increase strength and heat resistance.
  9. 9. Crystal Grains• All steels are made of building blocks called grains.Mechanical properties depend upon the composition and grains shape and size.• Generally heat treatments don’t change composition unless we generatespecial environment for that {like for removal of carbon from steel}) Grain Grain boundary
  10. 10. Treatments :Heat treatment affects the grain size .Effects of annealing : (heating and then slowly cooling) Annealing is used to induce ductility. Soften the material( in case of low carbon steel) Increase hardness and strength(in case of high carbon steel)Cold rolling (below recrystallsation temperature) can be donefor : hardening or, for fabricating a shape out of a given sheet.