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Nutrition-Sensitive Fish Agri-food Systems

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Development in Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture

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Nutrition-Sensitive Fish Agri-food Systems

  1. 1. Nutrition-sensitive fish agri-food systems Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted Research Program Leader, Value Chains and Nutrition
  2. 2. Outline • Development in Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture • Fish Species: Nutrient composition and contribution to diets • Fish Production Systems - Making them nutrition-sensitive • Key Elements to Integrate in Nutrition-sensitive Food Systems – e.g. diets in the first 1,000 days of life, women’s engagement; influencing policies and strategies and coordination with other sectors
  3. 3. Rapid Growth in Aquaculture Characterized by: •Smallholder farmers •Male-dominated •Few large fish species Driven by: •Increasing demand (population growth, increasing income, health benefits) •Increases household income Gross margin: Rice production: USD 150-460/ha; Fish: USD 2150 – 6010/ha (IFPRI 2013; WorldFish 2016)
  4. 4. Stagnation / Decrease in Capture Fisheries Characterised by: •Large species diversity •Abundance of small fish species Driven by: •Increased population •Increased infrastructure – embankments and drainage for growing plant crops; enclosures for aquaculture •Pollution – industrial and human •Little focus by governments – investments, policies and interventions
  5. 5. Nutrient Composition of Fish Species Characterised by: •Large variability in nutrient content in species •In general, small fish species from capture fisheries contain more micronutrients than large fish from aquaculture
  6. 6. Small Fish: Rich in Several Essential Micronutrients • Vitamin A (animal-source foods have the only preformed source, retinol; fish also has vitamin A2 – dehydroretinol, high bioefficacy) • Vitamin B12 (animal-source foods are the only dietary source) • Riboflavin • Vitamin D (animal-source foods are the only dietary source) • Vitamin E • Bioavailable iron (animal-source foods are the only dietary source of haem iron) • Bioavailable zinc, calcium, phosphorus, selenium, iodine …
  7. 7. Contribution (%) of Selected Fish Species to Recommended Nutrient Intake: Vitamin B12 Small indigenous fish species Common aquaculture species pregnant and lactating women infants and young children
  8. 8. Contribution (%) of selected fish species to recommended nutrient intake: Zinc pregnant and lactating women infants and young children Small indigenous fish species Common aquaculture species
  9. 9. Contribution (%) of Selected Fish Species to Recommended Nutrient Intake: Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) pregnant and lactating women infants and young children Indigenous fish species Common aquaculture species
  10. 10. Shifting Fish Production to Nutrition- sensitive Food Systems • Increased consumption, especially by the poor – amount and frequency – year-round, nutritional quality, safe, diverse • Increased consumption – first 1,000 days of life • Increased – production and productivity (quantity) as well as Increased nutritional quality of production • Diversity of production systems • Diversity of species – both small and large • More than fish production – food systems
  11. 11. Nutrition-sensitivity: Why Focus on the First 1,000 Days of Life? Pregnancy Breastfeeding Complementary feeding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 The period from the start of a woman’s pregnancy to her child’s second birthday offers a unique window of opportunity to shape heathier and more prosperous futures and help break the cycle of poverty.
  12. 12. Nutrition-sensitivity: Multiple and Lasting Benefits of Focus on the First 1,000 Days • Improved woman’s nutrition, health and well-being in pregnancy and lactation • Better to care for her infant • Sufficient and high quality breast milk • Safe delivery • Optimal birth weight • Brain development, cognition • Child growth and development • Avoid irreversible physical and mental damage • Later in life – better school and work performance • Leading to individual, community and national development
  13. 13. Ingredients: 37% dried small fish, 15% oil, 37% onion, 7% garlic and 4% red chili Fish Chutney for Pregnant and Lactating Women Fe, Zn, Ca, Animal protein Energy density, Essential fatty acids Texture and flavour Taste enhancer
  14. 14. Fish Powder for Young Children Preparation of Fish Powder Nutrient composition per 100 gm Fish powder Energy Protein Fat Iron Zinc Calcium 317 kcal 19 g 22 g 22 g 4.5 mg 1669 mg Fish powder added to different types of family foods
  15. 15. Nutrition-sensitive Aquaculture Technologies Polyculture of large and small fish: •Household pond: •Homestead isolated pond •Pond connected to rice field •Pond in rice field – dry season to extend fish production season
  16. 16. Nutrition-sensitive Community-based Fisheries Management •Enhanced stocking of wetlands with micronutrient-rich small fish •Nutrition-sensitive components at household level – engagement of women •Development of fish products for the first 1,0000 days of life Floodplain dry season Floodplain wet season
  17. 17. Nutrition-sensitive Rice Field Fisheries Community fish refuge Community governed and managed
  18. 18. Integrated Nutrition-sensitive Fish Agri-food Systems Vegetable production Micronutrient-rich seasonal •Homestead garden •Pond dyke •In rice field - seasonal
  19. 19. Women’s Engagement in Production Systems Training, access inputs and credit – more control over income and its use; Consideration of workload sharing among family members
  20. 20. Nutrition-sensitivity: Integration of Social Behaviour Change; Nutrition Education Promotion of: Increased Intake of Nutrient-rich small fish and vegetables Improved Knowledge and Practice: Essential nutrition and essential hygiene actions
  21. 21. Nutrition-sensitivity: Reduce Fish Waste and Loss • Reduce Fish Waste and loss • Reduce non-edible parts (most micronutrient-rich) • Improve Food Safety
  22. 22. Nutrition-sensitivity: Influence Investments, Policies and Programmes Influence government’s balance between between capture fisheries and aquaculture in: •Investments in capture fisheries and aquaculture •Policies, strategies and interventions Governments are very interested in aquaculture – trade, export, earnings, short-term contribution to GDP Needs support to understand the long-term benefits of investing in nutrition-sensitive approaches
  23. 23. Nutrition-sensitivity: Coordination with other sectors Other development sectors – e.g. health, climate change, education, rural / urban development For example, in Bangladesh, for the first time, pilots to introduce fish-based products to women and children in the first 1,000 days of life through the USAID large Development Food Assisted Programme (DFAP) projects = 60 g raw fish
  24. 24. Adopting / Adapting Integrated Nutrition- sensitive Fish Agri-food Systems Terai, Nepal Myanmar Odisha and Assam, India Africa: Zambia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo
  25. 25. Thank you

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