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Measuring gender transformative change: case examples from bangladesh and zambia

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Evaluation 2017, Washington D.C.
Afrina Choudhury, Steven M. Cole and Cynthia McDougall

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Measuring gender transformative change: case examples from bangladesh and zambia

  1. 1. Measuring gender transformative change: case examples from Bangladesh and Zambia Evaluation 2017, Washington D.C. Afrina Choudhury, Steven M. Cole and Cynthia McDougall
  2. 2. Contents of the presentation • Bangladesh Case • Zambia Case • Project Evaluation Designs • Findings • Reflections on measuring gender transformative change
  3. 3. Case 1: Testing a gender transformative approach together with a fish harvesting technology for women Bangladesh
  4. 4. Project focus • Aquaculture for Income and Nutrition (AIN) project implemented in 18 villages in Southwest Bangladesh • Piloted fish harvesting technology designed for women to enable frequent harvesting of nutrient- rich mola from homestead ponds • Piloted gender consciousness raising exercise to reduce normative barriers to women at household level • Piloted community gender exercises to reduce normative barriers at community level
  5. 5. Research questions What is the impact of combining a multi- scale gender transformative approach together with a women-targeted technology (i.e. gill net) on women’s empowerment and on technology adoption?
  6. 6. Case 2: Testing a gender transformative approach together with improved post-harvest fish processing technologies Zambia
  7. 7. Project focus • 6 fishing camps in Barotse Floodplain, western Zambia (252 project participants) • Design/test improved fish processing technologies with people in fishing camps to help reduce post-harvest losses • Design/test a gender transformative communication (GTC) tool in 3 out of 6 fishing camps to help address gender constraints that prohibit especially women from participating in and benefiting from fishery value chain activities • Implement a practical gender approach (PGA) in all 6 camps to accommodate gender norms that often limit women’s participation in project-related activities
  8. 8. Research questions Left picture: a prototype solar tent dryer that the project introduced in the fishing camps. Through PAR, group members modified the technology (right pictures) to fit the local context and their needs. How does a gender accommodative approach compare to a gender transformative approach in terms of influence on women’s empowerment outcomes in a post-harvest fish loss reduction intervention?
  9. 9. Project evaluation designs and findings
  10. 10. Project evaluation designs Bangladesh • Gill net piloted with 155 women from 18 villages • HH GTA piloted in 86 households across 10 villages • Community GTA piloted in the same 10 villages with 251 community members • Control group of 50 women who did not participate in any of this research activities • Baseline (December 2015) and endline (December 2016) assessments carried out in all 18 villages • Longitudinal empowerment data on 193 HHs and attitude survey with 458 community members Zambia • Practical gender approach carried out in all 6 fishing camps • Drama skits piloted (mid-2016) in 3 out of the 6 fishing camps • Baseline (June 2015) and endline (December 2016) assessments carried out in all 6 fishing camps • Longitudinal data on 80 of the 250 project participants
  11. 11. Main evaluation tools Bangladesh Adapted WEAI and WEFI Empowerment Survey (ES) Gender Attitude Survey (AS) Zambia Adapted WEAI: Women’s Empowerment in Fisheries Index (WEFI) Dimensions Empowerment +Attitude Survey Resources: Critical consciousness Pa: Self-efficacy Pb: Self-confidence Resources: Assets C: Land & ponds L: Credit Hb: Time allocation Family I: Gendered perceptions K: Mobility Decision making Ja: Decision making Leadership Na: Leadership Collective action Nb: Group membership Women’s Empowerment in Fisheries Index (WEFI) Module Content 1 participation in value chain activities and inputs into decisions about the activities and income generated 2 ownership of key value chain assets 3 access to extension services 4 confidence speaking in public about fisheries-related issues 5 gender attitudes 6 time use
  12. 12. Preliminary findings: Bangladesh • GTA integration has helped explore and address the social and gender attitudes and beliefs that prescribe women’s roles • Technologies conducive for women +GTA strategies can prompt independent involvement and decision making • Women report the positive influence the involvement of their spouse, family and community members had on their adoption • Data show positive change in empowerment outcomes especially aquaculture-related decision making, consumption, gender attitudes and self-efficacy A man will be considered less of a man if his wife catches fish Either a man or a women could successfully operate or manage a fish pond 0 20 40 60 80 100 Baseline Endline Baseline Endline Intervention Control Percent Strongly agree Partially agree 0 20 40 60 80 Baseline Endline Baseline Endline Intervention Control Percent Strongly agree Partially agree Disagree
  13. 13. Changes in gender attitudes: Zambia *Women and men were asked to respond “agree” = 1, “partially agree” = 2, or “disagree” = 3 to eight statements that reflected current gender norms and practices such as “women should not get involved in fishing fulltime, this is a man’s responsibility” and “women should primarily be the ones who clean and process fish” and “men should primarily be the ones who control the earnings obtained from the sale of fish.” Responses to each statement (8 total) were summed to arrive at a total score. Higher scores indicate more gender equal attitudes. Gender attitude scores* Baseline Endline p-value Total 18.68 22.67 0.0000 PGA 18.97 21.18 0.0286 PGA+GTC 18.47 23.76 0.0000 Women 19.76 23.06 0.0000 PGA 20.07 22.17 0.1014 PGA+GTC 19.55 23.60 0.0000 Men 17.87 22.39 0.0000 PGA 18.20 20.62 0.0913 PGA+GTC 17.60 23.88 0.0000
  14. 14. Women’s empowerment: Zambia • More women who participated in PGA+GTC made larger contributions to decisions about income from fish processing and trading 45 65 94 94 0 20 40 60 80 100 Processing Trading baseline enline Women who made larger inputs into decisions about income from fish processing and trading (%) • More women who participated in PGA+GTC increased their involvement in fishing 5 75 0 20 40 60 80 baseline enline Women who fished over the past 12 months (%)
  15. 15. Changes in men’s asset ownership status: Zambia • Amongst men who participated in PGA+GTC, a significant shift was observed in their fishing gear ownership status from sole ownership to joint ownership with their spouse 50 40 19 76 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Outright Jointly with spouse baseline enline Men who own fishing gear (%)
  16. 16. Reflections on Measuring Gender Transformative (GT) Change
  17. 17. Reflections on measuring GT change • Required pretesting, piloting prior to implementing, day to day refining • Modules had to be dropped and/or modified for adaption of WEAI • The WEAI had to be contextualised to aquaculture in Bangladesh and fisheries in Zambia • Social change takes time to unfold and longitudinal designs as well as attitude surveys provided a glimpse of how changes in attitudes over time could result in changes in behaviours
  18. 18. • Adding the gender attitudes scale to the WEFI added a useful layer of casual information related to gender transformative change • Gender capacities of partners were low to begin with and it took time to develop their capacities using a blended learning hands on approach. Gender exercises had insightful realisation impacts on partners in Bangladesh. • The WEFI has been mentioned in the gender evaluation of the CG as a useful adaptation of the WEAI. WEFI overall has proven useful in understanding various domains of empowerment in a fisheries context. • The goal was not to develop an index but to get an understanding of the differences in the levels of empowerment indicators across the different nodes. Merging quantitative with qualitative helps substantiate the data. Reflections on measuring GT change
  19. 19. Thank You

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