Science Forum Day 1 - Yumiko Kura - Mekong Basin Development Challenge

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  • Not sure it is what you want. Since we are talking urban water supply, I add urban popultion bu I think it should be removed. The pink arrow – which is changes of access right will have a great impact on the direct use value for local communities living next to reservoir and to downstream communities (water regime according to irrigation needs for example)… Grey arrow, meaning +/- impact on the value because in some case it can have + impact (development of irrigation, cage culture in reservoir etc…) and some case – impact less water, no irrigation etc…
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  • Science Forum Day 1 - Yumiko Kura - Mekong Basin Development Challenge

    1. 1. THE CGIAR CHALLENGE PROGRAM ON WATER AND FOOD - MEKONG BASIN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGE <ul><li>Started in mid 2010, continues to 2013 </li></ul><ul><li>Total program budget around US$5 million ++ </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to reduce poverty and foster development through management of water for multiple uses in large dams and reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Six coordinated research projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MK1 on Livelihoods (Site Level) led by IWMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MK2 on Water Valuation (Site/Provincial Level) led by WorldFish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MK3 on Cascade of Reservoir (Catchment Level) led by ICEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MK4 on Water Governance led by AIT/MPower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MK5 on Program Coordination and Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MK6 on Multi Stakeholder Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working in three countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia – Sesan/Srepok catchments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laos – Nam Theun Himboeun catchment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam – Sesan catchment </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Case Study Sites Lower Se San 2 Yali Falls Theun Himboeun Extention
    3. 3. <ul><li>Livelihood strategies based on fisheries and aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making support tools </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrology-fisheries interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands resource valuation and management </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of on-the-ground activities and stakeholder engagement in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals are simultaneously involved in multiple Projects, facilitating synergies </li></ul>Role of WorldFish in MK1,2, 3
    4. 4. Mekong Project 2: Water Valuation (MK2) <ul><li>Overall Project Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the value of water in its various uses and estimate costs and benefits associated with different water management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) What is the value of multiple uses of water compared to a sector focus on hydropower or irrigation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Can we balance the value of water being used for alternative purposes, while sustaining the value of water for hydropower? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Total value of water multi-uses estimated in the 3 case study areas </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated water valuation framework developed and field-tested </li></ul>Mekong Project 2 : Outputs Project Team: The WorldFish Center; International Center for Environmental Management (ICEM); International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); Culture and Environment Preservation Association (CEPA), Cambodia; Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF), Lao PDR; Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM), Vietnam
    6. 6. Water Services (Values) Human Impact Hydropower development Dam Reservoir Flow diversion <ul><li>Physical Characteristics of Surface Water </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in : </li></ul><ul><li>Where the water is </li></ul><ul><li>River </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>When water is available/accessible </li></ul><ul><li>- Flow regime </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal flooding patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Water Quality </li></ul><ul><li>- Sediment load </li></ul>Will determine the habitat <ul><li>Freshwater/Wetlands ecosystem goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Flood control </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and aquatic plants and animals quantity and diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability: when; where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non use value </li></ul><ul><li>Option value </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Who benefit from what water use/value gains? </li></ul><ul><li>Who bear the cost of what water use/value losses? </li></ul><ul><li>Relative importance of each water value to stakeholders - all year around, seasonal? </li></ul><ul><li>Level of dependency on livelihood derived from particular water value </li></ul><ul><li>What social/institutional structure affect the water access? </li></ul>Water Value Water and water services that contribute to local livelihood and its linkages to the physical status of water. Adapted from Springate-Baginski et al. 2009 <ul><li>Human Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Coping strategies and adaptation: over harvesting; change in land use etc.. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Values need be measured at appropriate scale - local, basin-wide, national, global <ul><li>Fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Other aquatic resources (plants, mollusk etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation/recession ag/river bank gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic use (drinking, washing) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Water for livestock </li></ul><ul><li>-Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization/sediment transport </li></ul><ul><li>Fish habitat /spawning ground / migration route </li></ul>- Spiritual and religious values Economic Values of Water Use Value Direct Use Value Indirect Use Value Non - Use Value Or existence values Values assessed in Cambodia Values assessed in Lao Values assessed in Vietnam
    8. 8. <ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Urban water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Other aquatic resources (plants, mollusk etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic use (drinking, washing) </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>(Grazing land) </li></ul><ul><li>-Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization/sediment transport </li></ul><ul><li>(Spawning ground) </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual and religious values </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational values </li></ul>Hydropower Development Changes in Access Right and water regulations Beneficiaries Economic Values of Water Use Value Direct Use Value Indirect Use Value Non Use Value Local Community Fishers/Farmers Man/women Developers Local, Provincial & National Authorities Urban Population Changes in water regime Strong benefit Medium benefit Little benefit Possible benefit
    9. 9. Proposed Approach for Case Study in Vietnam <ul><li>Geographic Scope: Upper Sesan river basin in Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide useful information on water uses for coordination of water management strategies in two provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate future water demand and identify key challenges for integrated water management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating future water demand of sectoral users in the provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household survey of upstream villages whose water use affect the reservoir </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Yali reservoir, cassava plantation in the drawdown area, Yali dam in the background, Kon Tum province
    11. 11. Proposed Approach for Case Study in Cambodia <ul><li>Geographic Scope: Lower Sesan 2 Impact Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess how upstream and downstream livelihoods will be variously affected by the change in access to water resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze water value trade offs with and without the presence of reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Household survey of upstream and downstream villages directly affected by the dam and reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing existing water use patterns and values derived from direct access to rivers </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Mekong River Sekong River Sesan River Srepok River Ban Bung Phluk Srepok? Sre Sranock Kabal Romeas/Chrab? Krabey Chrum Khsach Thmey Svay Rieng Roum Poth & Talat villages upstream Sre Kor 2 Sre Kor I
    13. 13. Proposed Approach for Case Study in Lao PDR <ul><li>Geographic Scope: Theun Hinboun Expansion Project Impact Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess how upstream and downstream households will be variously affected by the change in access to water resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze water value trade offs before and after resettlement/relocation of villages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Household survey of upstream and downstream villages directly affected by the dam and reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing existing water use patterns and values derived from direct access to rivers </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. View of resettlement site from the village
    15. 15. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES <ul><li>Hydropower politically sensitive issue in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction cost high for multi-disciplinary, multi-country project, e.g. economists vs livelihoods, + hydrologist </li></ul><ul><li>Usefulness of the research for key stakeholders including hydropower developers and local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of coordination and administration of institutionally complex project </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy competition among country teams </li></ul><ul><li>Economic valuation of water multi-use seen as providing critical piece of information that can make difference </li></ul>

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