International Inter-institutional Partnerships in Higher Tourism Education: The Case of Moi University, Kenya

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Though internationalization of higher education is now well documented in the developed nations, there is a dearth of literature in this area in Africa. In Kenya, the few studies available focus on inter-institutional partnerships between higher institutions of learning offering tourism education and so little is known about these partnerships. And yet Kenya being a leading tourist destination in Africa, it has increased engagements with other parts of the world including academic partnerships motivated by its position in tourism. Consequently, Kenyan universities have introduced academic programs in tourism and hospitality which are now attracting more inter-institutional partnerships. Using the case of Moi University, this study seeks to establish the extent to which staff and student exchanges resulting from these partnerships serve the interest of the collaborating departments in Kenyan universities.

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International Inter-institutional Partnerships in Higher Tourism Education: The Case of Moi University, Kenya

  1. 1. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION Journal of Tourism Management AUGUST 2013 VOL.1, No,6 International Inter-institutional Partnerships in Higher Tourism Education: The Case of Moi University, Kenya Beatrice H. Ohutso Imbaya Department of Tourism Management, Moi University, P O Box 3900 – 30100 Eldoret, Kenya Accepted 6 August, 2013 Abstract Though internationalization of higher education is now well documented in the developed nations, there is a dearth of literature in this area in Africa. In Kenya, the few studies available focus on inter-institutional partnerships between higher institutions of learning offering tourism education and so little is known about these partnerships. And yet Kenya being a leading tourist destination in Africa, it has increased engagements with other parts of the world including academic partnerships motivated by its position in tourism. Consequently, Kenyan universities have introduced academic programs in tourism and hospitality which are now attracting more inter-institutional partnerships. Using the case of Moi University, this study seeks to establish the extent to which staff and student exchanges resulting from these partnerships serve the interest of the collaborating departments in Kenyan universities. Key Words: Inter-institutional, Collaborations, Internationalization, Tourism education 1.Introduction Recently, there is an increasing focus on higher education collaboration and exchange within regions, but without withdrawing the attention given to inter-regional cooperation in higher education (Abebaw, n.d.). The underlying strategies are to promote international education programs and encourage staff and student exchange programs with foreign institutions. In the context of globalization and the rapid changes experienced in higher education (HE) in the last few decades world-wide, internationalization of HE is now well documented, especially in the developed nations. Various partnerships and international research networks linking Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the global North and South have emerged, as an expression of higher education’s contribution to international development and of the need to bridge the North/South knowledge divide. Such 155
  2. 2. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION partnerships have contributed to enhanced human and infrastructural capacity, as well as to a better integration of the Southern partners in international exchanges (Nakabugo et al., n.d.). Thus, inter-institutional alliances or partnerships are of increasing importance in higher education (Shaw & Holmes, 2005). The motives for the formation of these alliances include resource needs for assets or capabilities which the university does not possess, such as the need to cross organization boundaries to create interdisciplinary teams (Shaw & Holmes, 2005). This suggests that such linkages and inter-institutional collaborations constitute the future of higher education. However, despite the benefits of inter-institutional collaborations, myriad of problems have emerged including management and financial limitation, that this study using primary and secondary data purposes to discuss and through SWOT analysis make tangible recommendations for effective collaborations in view of the benefits (Cultural exchange, networking, academic advancement among others) that are associated with such collaborations. In addition, generally in Africa, and particularly in Kenya, there is a dearth of literature in this area, especially as it relates to internationalization of higher education in tourism. Yet Kenya is one of the leading tourist destinations in Africa. A position that has led to increased engagements with other parts of the world. Even academic partnerships have been motivated by this position of Kenya and thus Kenyan universities have introduced programs in tourism and hospitality which are now attracting more inter-institutional partnerships. In Kenya, it is Moi University (MU) which spearheaded higher education in tourism and it is therefore arguable that a study of the MU case is representative of Kenya as a whole. Few studies available, in Kenya, (Munavu, 2004; Jowi, 2009; Ooro, 2009) have focused mainly on internationalization of higher education in general. Likewise, little is known regarding higher education inter-institutional partnerships in tourism education and hence this constitutes the gap that this paper endeavors to fill. 2.Literature Review 2.1Partnerships and Collaborations in Higher Education In HE, internationalization was for a long time mainly considered as the cross-border mobility of individual students (de Wit, 2002; Van der Wende, 2001). In the last three decades, however, the conceptual understanding of internationalization has broadened, and started to include many international activities. This includes collaboration in teaching, research, and other projects; mobility of students and scholars; inclusion of international dimensions into the curriculum; recruitment of foreign students, establishing campuses in foreign countries; and countries collaborative works toward common frame of reference (Oyewole, 2009; Teferra & Knight, 2008). Previously, development organizations worldwide have endeavored to facilitate North – South university collaborations, to help tackle issues that mainly affect the South, such as hunger, ill-health, illiteracy, conflict, human rights abuse, and environmental degradation (Samoff & Carrol, 2002; Bradley, 2007). However, as indicate by Nakabugo et al., ( n.d.), though previous North-South partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing research capacity in the South (Gaillard, 1994), a number of weaknesses have emerged. These include, among others, the fact that such partnerships’ impact on research capacity building has often related more to individual capacity building rather than at an institutional level (Velho, 2002). Katz and Martin (1997) distinguish between collaboration at different levels and show that inter-institutional and international collaboration need not necessarily involve inter-individual collaboration. Lariviere, Gingras and Archambault (2006), concur that there are two types of collaboration: international and inter-institutional. In addition, the rationale for most North-South partnerships has been narrowly focused on addressing capacity gaps in the South and less on the learning and building of capacity within Northern counterparts (King, 156
  3. 3. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION 2008); they have been largely managed from outside the developing countries, and their sustainability has been donor-dependent. While principles of good partnership practice have existed for decades (for example, United Nations, 1979), the actual nurturing of mutually-beneficial North-South partnerships still remains a challenge not least because the ‘…asymmetry between partners remains the principal obstacle to productive research collaboration’ (Bradley, 2007:2). Kritz (2006) states that, in the past, international research collaboration, mainly, involved individual faculty members from developed countries travelling to other developed countries or to a developing one for research collaboration. On those trips, the visiting foreign faculty member may have delivered lectures or participated in seminars at the host institution but the main purpose of the visit was to collaborate with research colleagues in another country. On the other hand, Khaemba, (2004) explains that the objective of student exchange is to enable the university students to gain a better understanding of the cultural, economic and social systems of the countries of the host institutions, while staff exchange is seen as a strategy in working towards international best practices in teaching. Presently, these Cross Boarder Higher Education (CBHE) initiatives are growing rapidly and they will allow students in different countries to do their tertiary studies in their homelands or neighboring countries in their regions (Kritz, 2006) or in other continents. Nevertheless, in the context of higher tourism education, exchange programmes for staff and students can act as excellent experiential learning engagement that accords the beneficiaries the kind of exposure needed to understand the intricate dynamics of tourism both at domestic and international level. 2.2History of Tourism Education in Kenya The history of tourism education dates back to 1969 when the first Hotel Management course in Kenya was introduced at the Kenya Polytechnic, Nairobi. Since the hotel management focus of this course was narrow, there was still need for broader training and education to cover other areas in tourism. This led to the establishment of Kenya Utalii College (KUC) as a joint project between the Swiss and Kenyan governments in 1975. Thereafter a number of private and public middle level training were established to provide tourism training in specific skill for operatives in various subsectors. Unfortunately, the private provision was so heavily commercialized that there were calls for regulation and a harmonization of both curricula and qualifications (Sindiga, 1994; Mayaka, 1999; Mayaka & King, 2002). It is in view of these limitations that the presidential committee on employment saw a need for training of tourism officers at university level (Kenya, 1991). 2.3Higher Education in Tourism in Kenya In Kenya, Tourism training and education at university level was initiated at MU’s Chepkoilel Campus in 1992 as a result of a presidential committee report. Later the Moi University Department of Tourism (MUDOT) was established to meet the industry demand for trained employees in the tourism sector and to undertake research to promote the sustainable development of tourism in Kenya. In an attempt to fill a gap in resource and staff training needs, MUDOT forged collaborations with international institutions of higher learning. For instance, a collaboration between MUDOT and the Institute for Service Management of the CHN University of Professional Education in Leeuwarden (the Netherlands) and Wageningen University and Research Centre (the Netherlands) provided financial investments, workshops, short term and long term strategic planning assistance as well as Master and Ph.D. training to Kenyan students. This collaboration also assisted in the founding of a research centre; the training of staff at Master and Ph.D. level; the development and implementation of a curriculum on problem Based Learning (PBL); the establishment of a documentation and computer centre; and the establishment of an African Chapter of the Association for Tourism 157
  4. 4. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION and Leisure Education (ATLAS). Other universities, both public and private, including Maseno, Kenyatta, Nairobi, Egerton, United States International University (USIU), among others, have followed and introduced either schools and departments in tourism and related areas (for instance. hospitality and institutional management) or tourism subjects within traditional discipline-based departments such as Geography, Business, History, and others. The African Virtual University based at Kenyatta University also offers some tourism subjects via distance education. However, MU is the foremost institution, having a School of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management which has three specialized departments namely Tourism Management, Travel and Tour Operations Management and Hospitality and Hotel Management and now offers degrees up to Ph.D. level. Therefore, this paper seeks to establish how Kenyan Universities, using the case of MU, have applied international inter-institutional collaborations in the links they forge with similar institutions from other countries and the implications of these collaborations for higher education in tourism in Kenya. Specifically, this paper attempts to establish the extent to which staff and student exchanges resulting from these inter-institutional collaborations serve the interest of the collaborating departments in Kenyan universities. 3.Research Questions • What are the international inter-institutional collaborations existing in Moi University? • To what extent have staff and student exchanges resulting from international inter-institutional collaborations served the interest of the collaborating university? 4.Methodology This paper was based on a document analysis and in-depth-interviews with staff and beneficiaries of these collaborations at MUDOT and International Office. The paper uses the SWOT analysis as its analytical model to expose the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats associated with international inter-institutional collaborations. The SWOT analysis informs the way forward regarding the implications of existing international inter-institutional collaborations on higher education in tourism in Kenya. It also explores the extent to which staff and student exchanges resulting from these collaborations serve the interest of the collaborating Institutions. 5.Limitations of the study The study is primarily based on Moi University, Kenyan experience, but it may be generalized in view of the fact that literature sources address related situations from other parts of the world. 6. Findings 6.1Memoranda of Understanding between Moi University and International HE institutions by region In order to assess the implications of the international inter-institutional collaborations existing in Moi University on higher education in tourism, this study sought to examine the number of Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) signed between MU and HE institutions from other countries by region (Table 1). The regions were grouped according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) classification of tourism regions. Further, the study examined the Objectives of the Signed MOU with MUDOT. The study found that, most (75%) institutions collaborating with MU were from outside the African region with United States of America having the highest (25%; N=5) number of institutions collaborating with MU. The rest of the countries had one (5%), except for France, South Africa and Egypt each of which had 2 (10%) institution collaborating with MU (Table 1). All collaborating institutions, except 1(5.3%), were universities. The nature of collaborations included: 158
  5. 5. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION Project funding, education, Academic cooperation and exchange, teaching, scientific cooperation, double degree agreement, strategic alliance, technological research collaboration (Table 1). 6.2International Inter-institutional Collaborations with MUDOT 6.2.1Objectives of the Signed MOU with MUDOT Available documents revealed 5 signed MOU between MUDOT and international HE institutions (Table 2). These MOUs were signed with Lyon II University, France; Indiana University, USA; University of Wales Institute, UK; Suez Canal University, Egypt; and University of Nordland, Norway (Table 2). Information obtained from document analysis indicates that the collaboration between MUDOT and Lyon II France (Lumiere), France with the objective of Exchange of students programmes; exchange of lecturers/joint researchers; upgrading of teaching resources; and developing article writing in French/English(peer review) (Table 2). The study revealed that this collaboration has resulted in: 4 teaching staff from MUDOT visiting Lyon II on exchange as visiting lecturers while 2 professors from Lyon have visited MUDOT to give lectures to undergraduate and Post-graduate students in MUDOT. Further, 4 students from MUDOT have been trained in Lyon II at Masters level and 6 at Ph.D. level. The objectives of the collaboration existing between MUDOT and Indiana University, USA were found to be: to establish a mechanism for economic development; facilitate continuing Education; Research; Service; and to provide international experience for IUPUI and MU faculty and students. The results of this collaboration are that 9 Students and 7 faculty members of IUPUI have visited MUDOT on summer study abroad program. The collaboration between MUDOT and University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK aimed to facilitate students exchange visits; staff exchange visits; networking; thematic workshops; and documentation. This collaboration has resulted in 6 students visiting Wales Institute on exchange to develop their research proposals for Ph.D. degree. 1 professor from Wales Institute has been involved in the supervision of Ph.D. students at MUDOT and examining of post graduate student projects. 6.3Staff and Student Exchange Programmes in MUDOT To determine the extent to which staff and student exchanges resulting from international inter-institutional collaborations served the interest of the collaborating department this study sought to establish the areas of exchange and the number of staff and students coming in and those going out of MUDOT on exchange between 2008 and 2012 (Table 3 and Table 4). 6.3.1Staff Exchange in MUDOT (2008 – 2012) The findings of this study indicate that between 2008 and 2012, the areas in which MUDOT had received staff from collaborating institutions on exchange were: research collaboration; and supervision of graduate students (Table 3). On the other hand, MUDOT members of staff have gone to collaborating institutions for international experience; as external examiners; to participate in seminars, workshops and conferences (Table 3). In terms of the number of staff participating in the exchange, it was found that between 2008- 2012, a total of 19 (100%) members of staff from collaborating institutions visited MUDOT on exchange, while 13 (100%) members of MUDOT went out to collaborating institutions on exchange (Table 3). Majority (42.1%; N = 8) of staff from collaborating institutions visited MUDOT to have an international experience. A significant number of those from collaborating institutions also visited as external examiners (21.1%; N=4) and to supervise graduate students (21.1%; N=4). Conversely, most (76.9%; N=10) staff from MUDOT visited collaborating institution to attend seminars, workshops and conferences (Table 3). 159
  6. 6. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION 6.3.2Student Exchange in MUDOT (2008 – 2012) The areas of exchange for students between 2008–2012 were internship; developing research skills; and study abroad program (Table 4). A total of 11 (100%) students visited MUDOT while 4 (100%) from MUDOT went out on exchange. Most (81.8%; N= 9) of those from collaborating institutions who visited MUDOT were on study abroad program while All (100%; N=4) those from MUDOT went to collaborating institutions to develop research skills (Table 4). A SWOT Analysis of the International Inter-institutional Collaborations in MU Strengths Weaknesses MOU between MU and Partners 1. Sustainability of MOU is donor dependent - Collaborates with 1. 2. Objectives set are similar for all the many institutions from all regions in the world good for partners(Duplication) benchmarking as MU can draw from the 3. strengths of each 2. augur well for tourism Objectives of Collaborations with MUDOT 4. - Center on empowerment and skills Both staff and student exchange not mutually beneficial to both partners development such as research, teaching 5. etc. 3. MUDOT partners not regionally balanced. Not Financial limitations - Administrative and Managerial Staff and Student Exchange - Gives Students and staff exposure and encourages scholarship Opportunities Threats 1. Foreign relations for tourism/trade 1. Loss of identity 2. Recruitment of foreign students 2. PR gimmick to gain international 3. Inclusion of foreign dimensions in the recognition/branding curriculum 3. Brain drain/turnover 4. Mobility of staff and students 4. Competition 5. Improvement of human resource 5. Commercialization of HE 6. Establishing campuses in foreign countries 6. Pursuing self-interest 7. Chances for education/conference tourism 7. Integrity issues (accreditation) Source; (Authors, 2012) 7. Way Forward Proper collaborations are needed for balance in terms of participation and contribution from both parties. Therefore there should be: 160
  7. 7. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION  Pre-collaboration planning/needs analysis taking into account the needs of the tourism department, university and industry at large.  A Departmental policy on international collaborations/staff and student exchange outlining the selection criteria.  An Implementation plan/strategy at departmental level with clear time lines and a budget.  Enhanced financing/funding to departments to support staff and student exchange.  Department to pursue increased regional collaborations to enhance tourism. REFERENCES Abebaw Y. A. (n.d.). Internationalization of higher education and the need for introducing credit accumulation and transfer system (CATS) in Africa: Potential opportunities and challenges. Tampere University, School of Education, Tampere, Finland. http://www.nai.uu.se/ecas-4/panels/1-20/panel-6/Abebaw-Adamu-Full-paper.pdf Bradley, M. (2007). North-South Research Partnerships: Challenges, Responses and Trends—A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography, Working Paper 1, IDRC Canadian Partnerships Working Paper Series, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. De Wit, H. (2002). Internationalisation of Higher Education in the United States and Europe. Westport. CT: Greenwood Gaillard, J. F. (1994). ‘North-South research partnership: Is collaboration possible between unequal partners?’ in Knowledge and Policy, Vol. 7, 2, pp. 31-63. Jowi, James O. 2009. “Internationalization of Higher Education in Africa: Developments, Emerging Trends, Issues and Policy Implications.” Higher Education Policy 22:263-281. Katz, J. S. & Martin, R. B. (1997). What Is Research Collaboration? Research Policy, 26, p. 1-18. Kenya, Republic of (1991). Development and employment in Kenya: A strategy for the transformation of the economy - Report of the Presidential Committee on Employment. Nairobi: Government Printer Khaemba, B. M. (2004). “International Dimensions of Moi University.” In Internationalisationof Higher Education: The African Experiences and Perspective (Eds) D. K. Some and B. M. Khaemba. Eldoret Moi University Press. King, K. (2008). ‘The promise and peril of partnership (editorial)’ In King, K. (ed.) The politics of partnerships: Peril or promise, NORRAG NEWS, No. 41 (Special Issue): http://www.norrag.org/pdf/*NN41.THE%20POLITICS%20OF%20PARTNERSHIP.pdf Kritz, M. M. (2006). Globalisation and Internationalisation of Tertiary Education. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University. Larivière, V., Gingras, Y. and Archambault, E. (2006). Canadian Collaboration Networks: A Comparative Analysis of 161
  8. 8. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION The Natural Sciences, Social Sciences And The Humanities. Scientometrics, Vol. 68, No. 3 519–533. Munavu, R., (2004). “Internationalisation Perspectives in the Context of the African Continent.” In Internationalisation of Higher Education: The African Experiences and Perspective (Eds) D. K. Some and B. M. Khaemba. Eldoret Moi University Press. Mayaka, M. A. (1999). An Assessment of Tourism Training and Education Quality, The case of Kenya’s Tour Operators Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for Masters of Business in Tourism Management, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne. Mayaka, M. & King B. (2002). A Quality Assessment of Education For Kenya Tour Operations Sector. Curr. Iss. Tourism, 5(2): 112 – 133. Nakabugo, M. G., Barret, E., McEvoy, P. & Munck, R. (n.d.). Best practice in North-South research relationships in higher education: The Irish African partnership model. Policy and Practice - A Development Education Review. Retrieved from: http://www.developmenteducationreview.com Ooro, S., (2009). The Quest for Inclusive Higher Education in Kenya: A Vivisection of Concerns, Policies and Reform Initiatives. OCIDES, MAHE INCHER-Kassel, Germany. Oyewole, O. (2009). Internationalization and its implications for the quality of higher education In Africa. Higher Education Policy, 22(3), 319-329. Samoff, J & Carrol, B (2002) ‘The promise of partnership and continuities of dependence: External support to Higher Education in Africa’ In Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, 5-8 December 2002, Washington. Shaw, S. & Holmes, P. (2005). Collaboration processes in inter-institutional alliances in higher education: Higher education in a changing world. Proceedings of the 28th HERDSA Annual Conference, Sydney, 3-6 July 2005: p. 480. Australia: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia, Inc. Sindiga, I. (1994). Employment and training in tourism in Kenya. Journal of Tourism Studies, 5(2), 45-52. Teferra D. & Knight, J. (2008). Introduction. In D. Teferra & J. Knight (Eds.), Higher education in Africa: The international dimension (pp. xix–xxiv). Accra/Boston: Association of African Universities/Center for International Higher Education. United Nations, (1979) United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development, 20 August to 1 September 1979, Vienna. Van der Wende, M. (2001). Internationalisation Policies: About New Trends and Contrasting Paradigms, Higher Education Policy, 14 (3): pp. 249-259. Velho, L. (2002). ‘North-South collaboration and systems of innovation.’ In Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences North-South Research Cooperation, international conference, December 2001: http://www.knaw.nl/publicaties/pdf/20021020.pdf. 162
  9. 9. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION Appendix Tables Region Country Collaborating Institutions Nature of Collaboration Africa Morocco Moi University Chepkoilel Campus and Project Funding Institut Mondial Du Phosphate. (World Phosphate Institute) South Africa Moi University and the University of Funding of Projects and research Cape Town Ethiopia Moi University and Tshwane University Research, of Technology South Africa Technological Development Moi University and Jimma Education, Training and Training and Research Collaboration University-Ethiopia(JU-E) Namibia Moi University and University of Teaching, Research and Outreach Namibia(UNAM) Americas USA Moi University and Ball State University Educational Exchange Muncie, Indiana, USA USA Education and research especially in Moi University and Indiana University Health related areas USA Moi University Oklahoma State Strategic Alliance University Okmulgee, USA USA Moi University and the University of International Cooperative Agreement Georgia, USA USA Moi University and Michigan State Project Funding University, USA Canada Moi University and the University of International Research Collaboration Western Ontario-Canada Asia and China Pacific Moi University and Jiangxi Normal Friend University ties University, China Singapore Moi University and The Technische Academic Cooperation and Exchange Universität Mϋnchen, Singapore Europe France Moi University Chepkoilel Campus and Education Nancy University, France Netherlands Moi University and Hogeschool Utrecht University of Applied Double Degree Agreement Sciences, Netherlands Germany Moi University and University of Academic and Cultural exchange in Bayreuth, Germany France Education and Research. Moi University and The Universitè Academic Cooperation 163
  10. 10. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION Lumiére lyon 2, France Moi Norway University and University of Research Collaboration Nordland, Norway Middle Moi Egypt East Academic and Cultural exchange in and University and Alexandria Synergy on Academic Programmes University, Egypt Moi Egypt University and Suez Canal University Exchange of International Scientific and Educational Co-operation Table 1: Signed MOU between MU and International Institutions by Region (Source: Moi University International Office, 2012) Collaborating Institutions Expected Outputs/Objectives Moi university and Lyon II i. Exchange of students programmes France (Lumiere), France ii. Exchange of lecturers/joint researchers 2009 iii. Upgrading of teaching resources iv. Developing article writing in French/English(peer review) Moi University and Indiana i. Establish a mechanism for economic development University (IUPUI), USA ii. Facilitate continuing Education iii. Research iv. Service v. Provide international Experience for IUPUI and MU faculty and students and i. Students Exchange Visits University of Wales Institute, ii. Staff Exchange Visits iii. Networking iv. Thematic Workshops v. Documentation Moi University and Suez i. Staff training /exchange Canal University, Egypt ii. Visiting professors iii. Student exchange and i. Promoting educational opportunities Nordland, ii. Cross-cultural understanding iii. Staff exchanges iv. Student exchange v. Curriculum development vi. Comparative research Moi University Cardiff, UK Moi University University of Norway Table 2: Outputs/Objectives of MUDOT’s International Inter-institutional Collaborations 164
  11. 11. WORLD ACADEMIC JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & APPLIED SCIENCES-MARCH-SEPTEMBER 2013 EDITION Source (MUDOT, 2012) No. Areas of Exchange from Collaborating No. from MUDOT Institution Participation at Seminars, Workshops and Conferences 0 10 External Examiners 4 1 Research Collaboration 3 - International experience 8 2 Teaching and Graduate supervision 4 0 Total 19 13 Table 3: Staff Exchange in MUDOT (2008 – 2012) Source: (MUDOT, 2012) Areas of Exchange No. of Students Collaborating Institutions from No. of Students from MUDOT Teaching Internship 2 0 Developing contemporary research skills 0 4 Study abroad program 9 4 Total 11 4 Table 4: Student Exchange in MUDOT (2008 – 2012) Source (MUDOT, 2012) 165

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