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1.   Integrity.
2.   Dedication.
3.   Magnanimity – Giving Credit where it is due.
4.   Openness.
5.   Creativity.
6.   Fairness.
7.   Assertiveness.
8.   Humility.



      Action is the mark of a leader.
A good leader understands everything better, is very good
at communication and treats everyone like he would like to
be treated.

A leader must be able to communicate his or her vision in
terms that cause followers to buy into it. He or she must
communicate clearly and passionately, as passion is
                       contagious.

A good leader must have the discipline to work toward his
or her vision single-mindedly, as well as to direct his or her
actions and those of the team toward the goal.
Management is an organizational process that includes
planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

• Planning : Predetermining a course of action
• Organizing : Placing people into a structure to
  accomplish objectives
• Leading : Influencing people to take effective action in the
  implementation of the plan
• Controlling : Assuring that performance conforms to plan
Leadership is a process by which a person influences
others to accomplish an objective and directs the
organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and
coherent.

Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a
group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
Leadership Skills
TECHNICAL SKILLS
 A technical skill is to have knowledge and be competent and proficient in a
  specific work or activity. For example, to use excel and know how to implement
  macros is an advanced technical skill. To drive a 300 Ton truck is also an
  advanced technical skill. Just like these there are thousands of examples of
  technical skills in every organization.
HUMAN SKILLS
 A human skill is one that enables you to develop the ability to work with people.
  These abilities are the ones that we recognize as the ones that helps us to get
  along with people, to communicate and work with your team, crew or associates.
  These are the fundamental abilities in every human activity, in order to get the
  most of the groups you work with.
CONCEPTUAL SKILLS
 A conceptual skill is one that enables us to understand and better decide the
  actions and measures that has to be taken in a particular field of work.
 Based on his observations Katz stated that the level of importance of each set of
  skills (technical, human and conceptual) was directly correlated with the level
  that the person has in the organization. The next figure displays this relationship.
"Management is doing things right…

Leadership is doing the right things."

                  - Peter Drucker
• Not all individuals in management are necessarily
  leaders.
• Leadership is not necessarily tied to a position of
  authority.
• All managers are expected to be effective leaders.
• All managers are not necessarily effective leaders.
• TRAIT THEORY
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
• CONTINGENCIES THEORIES
The trait theory of leadership is the view that people are
born with inherited traits - and that some traits are
particularly suited to leadership.
Early research on leadership - which was a development of
the Great man theory of leadership - was based on the
psychological focus of the day, which was of people having
inherited characteristics or traits.
Attention was thus put on identifying these traits, often by
studying successful leaders. The focus was not on finding
way of teaching these "skills" to people to "develop"
leaders, but was on finding other people with these traits
who could also become great leaders.
Trait theory of leadership identifies the following traits and skills
as critical to leaders [Stogdill 1974]:
Traits
• Adaptable to situations
• Alert to social environment
• Ambitious
• Assertive
• Cooperative
• Decisive
• Dependable
• Dominant (desire to influence others)
• Energetic (high activity level)
• Persistent
• Self-confident
• Tolerant of stress
• Willing to assume responsibility
Skills
• Clever (intelligent)
• Conceptually skilled
• Creative
• Diplomatic and tactful
• Fluent in speaking
• Knowledgeable about group task
• Organised (administrative ability)
• Persuasive
• Socially skilled
Four primary traits by which leaders could succeed or fail
were identified by McCall and Lombardo [1983]:
• Emotional stability - centered, confident, predictable -
  especially under stress.
• Admitting mistakes - rather than wasting energy evading
  discovery.
• Good interpersonal skills - ability to persuade others.
• Intellectual ability - to understand the wider holistic
  perspective.
Behavioral theories of leadership are classified as such because
they focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. For
behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his
leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of
his or her leadership success.
This behavior-focused approach provides real marketing
potential, as behaviors can be conditioned in a manner that one
can have a specific response to specific stimuli. As a result, we
have gone from the supposition that leaders are born (Great
Man Theory) through to the possibility that we can measure your
leadership potential (Trait Theory) via psychometrics
measurements and then to the point that anyone can be made a
leader (Behavioral Theories) by teaching them the most
appropriate behavioral response for any given situation. When a
few of those situations are combined; you have a program that
you can trademark and market
• Managerial/Leadership Grid.
• Role Theory.
Name: Managerial Grid Model, also known as Leadership Grid
Author: Dr. Robert R. Blake, Dr. Jane Srygley Mouton.
Classification: Behavioral Leadership Model
Year: 1964

Pro's
• Measures your performance
• Highly used in today's organizations
• Allows for self analysis of leadership style
Con's
• Minimal empirical data to support its effectiveness
• Doesn't take internal or external variables into consideration
• Doesn't take the work environment into consideration
• Flawed Self-assessment
At conception, the managerial grid model was composed of
five different leadership styles. These styles were a relation
between a manager's concern for people, concern for
production and his motivation. The motivation dimension
really provides the underlying motive of the leader behind a
successful leadership style. Thus the managerial grid
model categorizes leaders into one of 81 possible
categories. Later, two additional leadership styles were
added as well as the element of resilience.
•   The Indifferent or Impoverished
•   The Country Club or Accommodating
•   The Status Quo or Middle-of-the-Road
•   The Dictatorial or Produce, Perish or Control
•   The Sound or Team
•   The Opportunistic Style or OPP
•   The Paternalistic Style
Name: Role theory

Author: Various sociologists and anthropologists are
credited with being the founders, among them being
Margaret Mead, Talcott Parsons, and Robert K. Merton.

Classification: Behavioral Leadership Model

Year: Modern theory of role was formalized in the 1920s.
Role theory refers to the explanation of what happens
when people are acting out social processes and the
consequences of their doing so. Each person is an actor
representing a typical individual in a real life scenario
performing within a specific context and a set of functions
with             which             are           associated
norms,     expectations,    responsibilities, rights,   and
psychological states. A role is a place in a model and the
participant acts out a situation in the same manner that a
person in real life would respond in that same situation. A
modern rendition of the term is "avatar", used in gaming
theory and modeled realities, such as "Second Life". The
person in role modeling usually inserts their own
personality through a representative in accordance with the
way she or he interprets appropriate responses.
Pro's
• Role playing is a simulation of behavior as opposed to a being a mere description that
  might omit certain essential details.
• Acting out enables one to formulate specific behavior and test it in an audience to see
  how people respond.
• A social situation may be acted out in numerous ways and a composite can be
  constructed from this collection of scenarios.
• As with all modeling theory, one does not have to wait for a specific real-life situation
  to occur but simply may produce it.
• Role playing is quantifiable and reproducible and therefore can be documented for
  sharing and for future reference.
Con's
• Acting out is restrained in time, space, and specific situation and may not accurately
  portray real life.
• Actions of a role player representing an actual situation have not been validated.
• The acting may not represent the actions of a typical person in the same situation.
  Everyone has their own peculiar parameters which may include a difference in
  socioeconomic classes, psychological dispositions, and so forth which may result in a
  different ending to the scenario.
• There is no universal way of defining a role. There are always different
  perspectives, not the least of which is ideology and shape role descriptions.
• Role playing may not be complete and some vital aspect of a situation may be
It is a development of the situational theory - focusing on the
situational variables which will determine the most appropriate or
effective leadership style to fit the specific circumstances at that
time.
According to the contingency approach of leadership, a single
leadership style is not applicable to all situations.
Every leader is to carefully analyze the situation before adopting
a style that best suits the requirements of the situations. Below
are the 5 contingency models of leadership styles.

1.   Fiedler’s Contingency Model
2.   Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory
3.   Leader-member exchange theory
4.   Leadership-participation model
5.   Path Goal Theory
• The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial
  and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler
• Fiedler (1967), differentiated situation from contingency.          He
  emphasised the fact that differing roles, traits and behaviours of
  leaders did not just require an specific understanding of interactions
  with subordinate, it also required favourable conditions.
• Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on:
  Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and
  relationship motivation.
Situational    favourableness,       determined      by   three
  factors:
• 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is
  accepted and supported by the group members.
• 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and
  defined, with clear goals and procedures.
• 3. Position power or the leader’s position - The ability of a
  leader to control subordinates through reward and
  punishment.
• High levels of these three factors give the most favourable
  situation, low levels, the least favourable. Relationship-
  motivated leaders are most effective in moderately favourable
  situations. Task-motivated leaders are most effective at either
  end                  of              the                 scale.
  Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change
  their situation to achieve effectiveness, rather than change
  their leadership style.
• The situational leadership model focuses on the fit of leadership style
  and followers maturity .
• In contrast to Fiedler’s contingency leadership model and its underlying
  assumption that leadership style is hard to change, the Hersey-
  Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders
  do adjust their styles.
• The situational leadership model views leaders as varying their
  emphasis on task and relationship behaviors to best deal with different
  levels of follower maturity.
• The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership
  styles are possible.
    Telling Style — giving specific task directions and closely
  supervising                  work; this is a high-task, low-relationship
  style.
    Selling Style — explaining task directions in a supportive and
  persuasive                 way; this is a high-task, high-relationship
  style.
    Participating Style — emphasizing shared ideas and participative
  decisions                      on task directions; this is a low-task,
  high-relationship                        style.
    Delegating Style — allowing the group to take responsibility for
According to this theory, leaders often behave differently
with different subordinates. They establish close
relationships with a small group of subordinates early in
their interactions.
In – Group :Good relation with leaders and high frequency
  of         interactions.
Out-Group: Formal relation with leader and less frequency
  of interaction compared to in-group.
The theory suggests that the leaders give promotions to the
  in-group employees quickly and also that employee
  turnover rate in such groups is low.
• In 1973 Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton came up with the
  leadership-participation model that tried to establish relation
  between leadership behavior and the decision making style.
• As per them leaders are required to adapt their behavior to
  suit changes in the situations.
• The model proposed a sequential set of rules that could help
  the managers in taking decisions in different situations.
• The model had 12 contingencies also called as ‘problem
  attributes’ and 5 alternative leadership styles.
• The Problem Attributes were categorized into decision-
  quality and employee acceptance.
decision-quality       –    cost    considerations,     information
  availability, nature of                        problem structure.
employee acceptance – need for commitment, their prior
  approval,                            congruence of their goals
• This theory was developed by Robert House.
• Here the leader provides the necessary support and guidance to his
  followers and help them achieve organizational goals.
• Leader defines the individual(or groups) goals and help them
  achieve them.
• As per the theory – Leaders are accepted by the subordinates when
       They find that the satisfaction of their needs depend upon their
  effective             performance.
       They are provided with guidance ,support, and rewards needed
  for effective performance.
Robert House suggested 4 types of leadership by this model
1. Directive leadership
2. Supportive leadership
3. Participative leadership
4. Achievement-oriented leadership.
Leadership

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Leadership

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. 1. Integrity. 2. Dedication. 3. Magnanimity – Giving Credit where it is due. 4. Openness. 5. Creativity. 6. Fairness. 7. Assertiveness. 8. Humility. Action is the mark of a leader.
  • 6. A good leader understands everything better, is very good at communication and treats everyone like he would like to be treated. A leader must be able to communicate his or her vision in terms that cause followers to buy into it. He or she must communicate clearly and passionately, as passion is contagious. A good leader must have the discipline to work toward his or her vision single-mindedly, as well as to direct his or her actions and those of the team toward the goal.
  • 7.
  • 8. Management is an organizational process that includes planning, organizing, leading and controlling. • Planning : Predetermining a course of action • Organizing : Placing people into a structure to accomplish objectives • Leading : Influencing people to take effective action in the implementation of the plan • Controlling : Assuring that performance conforms to plan
  • 9. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
  • 10. Leadership Skills TECHNICAL SKILLS  A technical skill is to have knowledge and be competent and proficient in a specific work or activity. For example, to use excel and know how to implement macros is an advanced technical skill. To drive a 300 Ton truck is also an advanced technical skill. Just like these there are thousands of examples of technical skills in every organization. HUMAN SKILLS  A human skill is one that enables you to develop the ability to work with people. These abilities are the ones that we recognize as the ones that helps us to get along with people, to communicate and work with your team, crew or associates. These are the fundamental abilities in every human activity, in order to get the most of the groups you work with. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS  A conceptual skill is one that enables us to understand and better decide the actions and measures that has to be taken in a particular field of work.  Based on his observations Katz stated that the level of importance of each set of skills (technical, human and conceptual) was directly correlated with the level that the person has in the organization. The next figure displays this relationship.
  • 11.
  • 12. "Management is doing things right… Leadership is doing the right things." - Peter Drucker
  • 13.
  • 14. • Not all individuals in management are necessarily leaders. • Leadership is not necessarily tied to a position of authority. • All managers are expected to be effective leaders. • All managers are not necessarily effective leaders.
  • 15. • TRAIT THEORY • BEHAVIORAL THEORIES • CONTINGENCIES THEORIES
  • 16. The trait theory of leadership is the view that people are born with inherited traits - and that some traits are particularly suited to leadership. Early research on leadership - which was a development of the Great man theory of leadership - was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on identifying these traits, often by studying successful leaders. The focus was not on finding way of teaching these "skills" to people to "develop" leaders, but was on finding other people with these traits who could also become great leaders.
  • 17. Trait theory of leadership identifies the following traits and skills as critical to leaders [Stogdill 1974]: Traits • Adaptable to situations • Alert to social environment • Ambitious • Assertive • Cooperative • Decisive • Dependable • Dominant (desire to influence others) • Energetic (high activity level) • Persistent • Self-confident • Tolerant of stress • Willing to assume responsibility
  • 18. Skills • Clever (intelligent) • Conceptually skilled • Creative • Diplomatic and tactful • Fluent in speaking • Knowledgeable about group task • Organised (administrative ability) • Persuasive • Socially skilled
  • 19. Four primary traits by which leaders could succeed or fail were identified by McCall and Lombardo [1983]: • Emotional stability - centered, confident, predictable - especially under stress. • Admitting mistakes - rather than wasting energy evading discovery. • Good interpersonal skills - ability to persuade others. • Intellectual ability - to understand the wider holistic perspective.
  • 20. Behavioral theories of leadership are classified as such because they focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of his or her leadership success. This behavior-focused approach provides real marketing potential, as behaviors can be conditioned in a manner that one can have a specific response to specific stimuli. As a result, we have gone from the supposition that leaders are born (Great Man Theory) through to the possibility that we can measure your leadership potential (Trait Theory) via psychometrics measurements and then to the point that anyone can be made a leader (Behavioral Theories) by teaching them the most appropriate behavioral response for any given situation. When a few of those situations are combined; you have a program that you can trademark and market
  • 22. Name: Managerial Grid Model, also known as Leadership Grid Author: Dr. Robert R. Blake, Dr. Jane Srygley Mouton. Classification: Behavioral Leadership Model Year: 1964 Pro's • Measures your performance • Highly used in today's organizations • Allows for self analysis of leadership style Con's • Minimal empirical data to support its effectiveness • Doesn't take internal or external variables into consideration • Doesn't take the work environment into consideration • Flawed Self-assessment
  • 23. At conception, the managerial grid model was composed of five different leadership styles. These styles were a relation between a manager's concern for people, concern for production and his motivation. The motivation dimension really provides the underlying motive of the leader behind a successful leadership style. Thus the managerial grid model categorizes leaders into one of 81 possible categories. Later, two additional leadership styles were added as well as the element of resilience.
  • 24.
  • 25. The Indifferent or Impoverished • The Country Club or Accommodating • The Status Quo or Middle-of-the-Road • The Dictatorial or Produce, Perish or Control • The Sound or Team • The Opportunistic Style or OPP • The Paternalistic Style
  • 26.
  • 27. Name: Role theory Author: Various sociologists and anthropologists are credited with being the founders, among them being Margaret Mead, Talcott Parsons, and Robert K. Merton. Classification: Behavioral Leadership Model Year: Modern theory of role was formalized in the 1920s.
  • 28. Role theory refers to the explanation of what happens when people are acting out social processes and the consequences of their doing so. Each person is an actor representing a typical individual in a real life scenario performing within a specific context and a set of functions with which are associated norms, expectations, responsibilities, rights, and psychological states. A role is a place in a model and the participant acts out a situation in the same manner that a person in real life would respond in that same situation. A modern rendition of the term is "avatar", used in gaming theory and modeled realities, such as "Second Life". The person in role modeling usually inserts their own personality through a representative in accordance with the way she or he interprets appropriate responses.
  • 29. Pro's • Role playing is a simulation of behavior as opposed to a being a mere description that might omit certain essential details. • Acting out enables one to formulate specific behavior and test it in an audience to see how people respond. • A social situation may be acted out in numerous ways and a composite can be constructed from this collection of scenarios. • As with all modeling theory, one does not have to wait for a specific real-life situation to occur but simply may produce it. • Role playing is quantifiable and reproducible and therefore can be documented for sharing and for future reference. Con's • Acting out is restrained in time, space, and specific situation and may not accurately portray real life. • Actions of a role player representing an actual situation have not been validated. • The acting may not represent the actions of a typical person in the same situation. Everyone has their own peculiar parameters which may include a difference in socioeconomic classes, psychological dispositions, and so forth which may result in a different ending to the scenario. • There is no universal way of defining a role. There are always different perspectives, not the least of which is ideology and shape role descriptions. • Role playing may not be complete and some vital aspect of a situation may be
  • 30. It is a development of the situational theory - focusing on the situational variables which will determine the most appropriate or effective leadership style to fit the specific circumstances at that time. According to the contingency approach of leadership, a single leadership style is not applicable to all situations. Every leader is to carefully analyze the situation before adopting a style that best suits the requirements of the situations. Below are the 5 contingency models of leadership styles. 1. Fiedler’s Contingency Model 2. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory 3. Leader-member exchange theory 4. Leadership-participation model 5. Path Goal Theory
  • 31. • The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler • Fiedler (1967), differentiated situation from contingency. He emphasised the fact that differing roles, traits and behaviours of leaders did not just require an specific understanding of interactions with subordinate, it also required favourable conditions. • Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation.
  • 32. Situational favourableness, determined by three factors: • 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. • 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. • 3. Position power or the leader’s position - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment. • High levels of these three factors give the most favourable situation, low levels, the least favourable. Relationship- motivated leaders are most effective in moderately favourable situations. Task-motivated leaders are most effective at either end of the scale. Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change their situation to achieve effectiveness, rather than change their leadership style.
  • 33. • The situational leadership model focuses on the fit of leadership style and followers maturity . • In contrast to Fiedler’s contingency leadership model and its underlying assumption that leadership style is hard to change, the Hersey- Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles. • The situational leadership model views leaders as varying their emphasis on task and relationship behaviors to best deal with different levels of follower maturity. • The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership styles are possible. Telling Style — giving specific task directions and closely supervising work; this is a high-task, low-relationship style. Selling Style — explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way; this is a high-task, high-relationship style. Participating Style — emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions; this is a low-task, high-relationship style. Delegating Style — allowing the group to take responsibility for
  • 34.
  • 35. According to this theory, leaders often behave differently with different subordinates. They establish close relationships with a small group of subordinates early in their interactions. In – Group :Good relation with leaders and high frequency of interactions. Out-Group: Formal relation with leader and less frequency of interaction compared to in-group. The theory suggests that the leaders give promotions to the in-group employees quickly and also that employee turnover rate in such groups is low.
  • 36. • In 1973 Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton came up with the leadership-participation model that tried to establish relation between leadership behavior and the decision making style. • As per them leaders are required to adapt their behavior to suit changes in the situations. • The model proposed a sequential set of rules that could help the managers in taking decisions in different situations. • The model had 12 contingencies also called as ‘problem attributes’ and 5 alternative leadership styles. • The Problem Attributes were categorized into decision- quality and employee acceptance. decision-quality – cost considerations, information availability, nature of problem structure. employee acceptance – need for commitment, their prior approval, congruence of their goals
  • 37. • This theory was developed by Robert House. • Here the leader provides the necessary support and guidance to his followers and help them achieve organizational goals. • Leader defines the individual(or groups) goals and help them achieve them. • As per the theory – Leaders are accepted by the subordinates when They find that the satisfaction of their needs depend upon their effective performance. They are provided with guidance ,support, and rewards needed for effective performance. Robert House suggested 4 types of leadership by this model 1. Directive leadership 2. Supportive leadership 3. Participative leadership 4. Achievement-oriented leadership.