1. Integrity.2. Dedication.3. Magnanimity – Giving Credit where it is due.4. Openness.5. Creativity.6. Fairness.7. Assertiveness.8. Humility. Action is the mark of a leader.
A good leader understands everything better, is very goodat communication and treats everyone like he would like tobe treated.A leader must be able to communicate his or her vision interms that cause followers to buy into it. He or she mustcommunicate clearly and passionately, as passion is contagious.A good leader must have the discipline to work toward hisor her vision single-mindedly, as well as to direct his or heractions and those of the team toward the goal.
Management is an organizational process that includesplanning, organizing, leading and controlling.• Planning : Predetermining a course of action• Organizing : Placing people into a structure to accomplish objectives• Leading : Influencing people to take effective action in the implementation of the plan• Controlling : Assuring that performance conforms to plan
Leadership is a process by which a person influencesothers to accomplish an objective and directs theorganization in a way that makes it more cohesive andcoherent.Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences agroup of individuals to achieve a common goal.
Leadership SkillsTECHNICAL SKILLS A technical skill is to have knowledge and be competent and proficient in a specific work or activity. For example, to use excel and know how to implement macros is an advanced technical skill. To drive a 300 Ton truck is also an advanced technical skill. Just like these there are thousands of examples of technical skills in every organization.HUMAN SKILLS A human skill is one that enables you to develop the ability to work with people. These abilities are the ones that we recognize as the ones that helps us to get along with people, to communicate and work with your team, crew or associates. These are the fundamental abilities in every human activity, in order to get the most of the groups you work with.CONCEPTUAL SKILLS A conceptual skill is one that enables us to understand and better decide the actions and measures that has to be taken in a particular field of work. Based on his observations Katz stated that the level of importance of each set of skills (technical, human and conceptual) was directly correlated with the level that the person has in the organization. The next figure displays this relationship.
"Management is doing things right…Leadership is doing the right things." - Peter Drucker
• Not all individuals in management are necessarily leaders.• Leadership is not necessarily tied to a position of authority.• All managers are expected to be effective leaders.• All managers are not necessarily effective leaders.
The trait theory of leadership is the view that people areborn with inherited traits - and that some traits areparticularly suited to leadership.Early research on leadership - which was a development ofthe Great man theory of leadership - was based on thepsychological focus of the day, which was of people havinginherited characteristics or traits.Attention was thus put on identifying these traits, often bystudying successful leaders. The focus was not on findingway of teaching these "skills" to people to "develop"leaders, but was on finding other people with these traitswho could also become great leaders.
Trait theory of leadership identifies the following traits and skillsas critical to leaders [Stogdill 1974]:Traits• Adaptable to situations• Alert to social environment• Ambitious• Assertive• Cooperative• Decisive• Dependable• Dominant (desire to influence others)• Energetic (high activity level)• Persistent• Self-confident• Tolerant of stress• Willing to assume responsibility
Skills• Clever (intelligent)• Conceptually skilled• Creative• Diplomatic and tactful• Fluent in speaking• Knowledgeable about group task• Organised (administrative ability)• Persuasive• Socially skilled
Four primary traits by which leaders could succeed or failwere identified by McCall and Lombardo :• Emotional stability - centered, confident, predictable - especially under stress.• Admitting mistakes - rather than wasting energy evading discovery.• Good interpersonal skills - ability to persuade others.• Intellectual ability - to understand the wider holistic perspective.
Behavioral theories of leadership are classified as such becausethey focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. Forbehavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of hisleadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant ofhis or her leadership success.This behavior-focused approach provides real marketingpotential, as behaviors can be conditioned in a manner that onecan have a specific response to specific stimuli. As a result, wehave gone from the supposition that leaders are born (GreatMan Theory) through to the possibility that we can measure yourleadership potential (Trait Theory) via psychometricsmeasurements and then to the point that anyone can be made aleader (Behavioral Theories) by teaching them the mostappropriate behavioral response for any given situation. When afew of those situations are combined; you have a program thatyou can trademark and market
Name: Managerial Grid Model, also known as Leadership GridAuthor: Dr. Robert R. Blake, Dr. Jane Srygley Mouton.Classification: Behavioral Leadership ModelYear: 1964Pros• Measures your performance• Highly used in todays organizations• Allows for self analysis of leadership styleCons• Minimal empirical data to support its effectiveness• Doesnt take internal or external variables into consideration• Doesnt take the work environment into consideration• Flawed Self-assessment
At conception, the managerial grid model was composed offive different leadership styles. These styles were a relationbetween a managers concern for people, concern forproduction and his motivation. The motivation dimensionreally provides the underlying motive of the leader behind asuccessful leadership style. Thus the managerial gridmodel categorizes leaders into one of 81 possiblecategories. Later, two additional leadership styles wereadded as well as the element of resilience.
• The Indifferent or Impoverished• The Country Club or Accommodating• The Status Quo or Middle-of-the-Road• The Dictatorial or Produce, Perish or Control• The Sound or Team• The Opportunistic Style or OPP• The Paternalistic Style
Name: Role theoryAuthor: Various sociologists and anthropologists arecredited with being the founders, among them beingMargaret Mead, Talcott Parsons, and Robert K. Merton.Classification: Behavioral Leadership ModelYear: Modern theory of role was formalized in the 1920s.
Role theory refers to the explanation of what happenswhen people are acting out social processes and theconsequences of their doing so. Each person is an actorrepresenting a typical individual in a real life scenarioperforming within a specific context and a set of functionswith which are associatednorms, expectations, responsibilities, rights, andpsychological states. A role is a place in a model and theparticipant acts out a situation in the same manner that aperson in real life would respond in that same situation. Amodern rendition of the term is "avatar", used in gamingtheory and modeled realities, such as "Second Life". Theperson in role modeling usually inserts their ownpersonality through a representative in accordance with theway she or he interprets appropriate responses.
Pros• Role playing is a simulation of behavior as opposed to a being a mere description that might omit certain essential details.• Acting out enables one to formulate specific behavior and test it in an audience to see how people respond.• A social situation may be acted out in numerous ways and a composite can be constructed from this collection of scenarios.• As with all modeling theory, one does not have to wait for a specific real-life situation to occur but simply may produce it.• Role playing is quantifiable and reproducible and therefore can be documented for sharing and for future reference.Cons• Acting out is restrained in time, space, and specific situation and may not accurately portray real life.• Actions of a role player representing an actual situation have not been validated.• The acting may not represent the actions of a typical person in the same situation. Everyone has their own peculiar parameters which may include a difference in socioeconomic classes, psychological dispositions, and so forth which may result in a different ending to the scenario.• There is no universal way of defining a role. There are always different perspectives, not the least of which is ideology and shape role descriptions.• Role playing may not be complete and some vital aspect of a situation may be
It is a development of the situational theory - focusing on thesituational variables which will determine the most appropriate oreffective leadership style to fit the specific circumstances at thattime.According to the contingency approach of leadership, a singleleadership style is not applicable to all situations.Every leader is to carefully analyze the situation before adoptinga style that best suits the requirements of the situations. Beloware the 5 contingency models of leadership styles.1. Fiedler’s Contingency Model2. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory3. Leader-member exchange theory4. Leadership-participation model5. Path Goal Theory
• The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler• Fiedler (1967), differentiated situation from contingency. He emphasised the fact that differing roles, traits and behaviours of leaders did not just require an specific understanding of interactions with subordinate, it also required favourable conditions.• Fiedlers model assumes that group performance depends on: Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation.
Situational favourableness, determined by three factors:• 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members.• 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures.• 3. Position power or the leader’s position - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment.• High levels of these three factors give the most favourable situation, low levels, the least favourable. Relationship- motivated leaders are most effective in moderately favourable situations. Task-motivated leaders are most effective at either end of the scale. Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change their situation to achieve effectiveness, rather than change their leadership style.
• The situational leadership model focuses on the fit of leadership style and followers maturity .• In contrast to Fiedler’s contingency leadership model and its underlying assumption that leadership style is hard to change, the Hersey- Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles.• The situational leadership model views leaders as varying their emphasis on task and relationship behaviors to best deal with different levels of follower maturity.• The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership styles are possible. Telling Style — giving specific task directions and closely supervising work; this is a high-task, low-relationship style. Selling Style — explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way; this is a high-task, high-relationship style. Participating Style — emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions; this is a low-task, high-relationship style. Delegating Style — allowing the group to take responsibility for
According to this theory, leaders often behave differentlywith different subordinates. They establish closerelationships with a small group of subordinates early intheir interactions.In – Group :Good relation with leaders and high frequency of interactions.Out-Group: Formal relation with leader and less frequency of interaction compared to in-group.The theory suggests that the leaders give promotions to the in-group employees quickly and also that employee turnover rate in such groups is low.
• In 1973 Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton came up with the leadership-participation model that tried to establish relation between leadership behavior and the decision making style.• As per them leaders are required to adapt their behavior to suit changes in the situations.• The model proposed a sequential set of rules that could help the managers in taking decisions in different situations.• The model had 12 contingencies also called as ‘problem attributes’ and 5 alternative leadership styles.• The Problem Attributes were categorized into decision- quality and employee acceptance.decision-quality – cost considerations, information availability, nature of problem structure.employee acceptance – need for commitment, their prior approval, congruence of their goals
• This theory was developed by Robert House.• Here the leader provides the necessary support and guidance to his followers and help them achieve organizational goals.• Leader defines the individual(or groups) goals and help them achieve them.• As per the theory – Leaders are accepted by the subordinates when They find that the satisfaction of their needs depend upon their effective performance. They are provided with guidance ,support, and rewards needed for effective performance.Robert House suggested 4 types of leadership by this model1. Directive leadership2. Supportive leadership3. Participative leadership4. Achievement-oriented leadership.