From Concept to Course
The target of any design is meeting needs when specific
situations, for users (human, animal and vegetable) and
products (space, component, contents…):
1. Among these needs, designing deals with the way it works internally
2. We refer to situations, related to context and means: places,
devices, clothes, paper, webs…
Creating Courses Is a Design Process
Goal: Assemble the Components into a Coherent Whole
1. Create a thematic structure for the course
2. Select or create an instructional strategy
3. Integrate the course structure and the
instructional strategy to create an overall scheme
of learning activities
The Nine Events of Instruction
1. Gain attention
2. Inform learners of objectives
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
4. Present the content
5. Provide "learning guidance"
6. Elicit performance (practice)
7. Provide feedback
8. Assess performance
9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job
The Principles of Instructional Design, Robert Gagne, 1985
The 4A’s of Learning Design
An attractive module draws the user in, engages them and leaves them satisfied.
Attraction will ensure the user wants to use this intervention instead of
This model shifts the focus to the content of the module. The first ‘A’ has already
attracted the user. Attention will narrowly focus the learning.
Albert Einstein said with great wisdom, “It’s not what you know, but knowing
where to find it”. Availability will ensure the content is up to date and always
The most important stage of the learning intervention design is to entice
the user to apply what they have gained in knowledge to a real life situation.
Application will drive the motivation to use the new information.
Neil Lasher, 2006
Developing Technical Training
Requires a Structured Approach
For Developing Classroom and
Online Instructional Materials to
Teach the 5 Basic Content Types:
Consist of unique, specific concrete items, precise data, or one-of-a-kind
association among concepts.
What is your
How to Teach Facts
When listing steps or guidelines for job tasks, look at each
step or guidelines to identify all related facts and
Facts can be processed only at the remember level. Recall
of information in isolation should be avoided. Learning
objectives should require applying facts to perform tasks.
Display facts using statements, diagrams with labels, lists
Use paper-based or online cues to organize facts and
Are classes of items that share common features and are known by a common name. All
concept groups include multiple specific examples. Most technical training involve many
concepts related to the procedures staff need to learn for effective job performance.
name is valid?
Define a valid
How to Teach Concepts
Focus on critical features that all concepts of a class share
in common, not irrelevant features on which specific
Concrete concepts have parts and boundaries. Abstract
concepts cannot be illustrated with a diagram.
Memorizing key features or definitions of concepts helps
in learning and recall. Use activities that help with recall.
Show definitions, examples, non-examples and analogies.
Rely on diagrams for concrete concepts and text or verbal
presentation of abstract concepts.
Are descriptions of how things work. There are two basic types of processes:
• Business – which describe workflows
• Technical – which describe how things work in equipment or natural systems
Manager asks if
an employee has
Where should you
How to Teach Processes
Write objectives that require knowing how things like
corporate functions, software applications, or clinical
operations work, not how to do things.
Identify essential processes and write objectives at the
If processes are extensive and detailed, treat them as a
single lesson or module.
Use processes as a course framework and embed lessons
that require tasks for each stage.
Include problem solving or inference creation for testing
at the application level of learning.
Are series of clearly defined steps that result in successful completion of a job task. Linear
procedures consist of a single stream of steps. Decision procedures contain two or more
linear procedures that are chosen based on clearly defined criteria.
Log on to the
List the steps to
log onto the
How to Teach Procedures
Procedures are taught most effectively at the application
level of learning by hands-on activity.
Action tables and decision trees in manuals, job aides and
wall charts enhance learning procedures.
Demonstrations and practices accelerate learning
Include scenarios and simulations in OLT along with
prompts that display details of required steps.
Assess learning of procedures through performance tests,
in-person or online.
Come to Life
Framing a Scenario
List a purpose for the
Imagine some user
Explore what is/could be
State how and what you
want the employee to
Concept to Scenario
A concept helps define an underlying or guiding
principle for the learner, one that will be employed
by the learner to discern appropriate behavior.
Concept or Principle
Drives What Behavior?
What should the nurse
What should the nurse
Is the consent valid at
A patient arrived for ambulatory surgery from a group home with group
home caregivers accompanying. The surgical consent was signed on
behalf of the patient by her grandmother.
There was no paperwork on the chart to indicate that the grandmother
had legal guardianship. The group home caregiver gave the nurse a
document with the group home logo that stated the grandmother had
The nurse asked the caregiver to contact the group home director to
obtain court documents to support the claim of the grandmother.
Anesthesiology starts to interview the patient, who is known to have
epilepsy, seizure within past 48 hours, brain tumor, mild MR, diabetes M,
and she was previously PEC’ed within 24 – 48 hours of this on Psych 1.
Her left wrist had a very thick bandage placed after excessive biting and
possible suicide attempt. Surgical residents were attentive to progress
being made but were not overbearing. Anesthesiology attending
contacted grandmother before any paperwork arrived and they obtained
Nurse raised issue up chain of command to her supervisors, in case any
legal paperwork was present from the recent admission. In the
meantime, the GH director repeatedly denied possessing any documents
proving guardianship. The nurse asked the GH director to contact probate
court to obtain legal documents and send them here. ANM noted
Anesthesiology attempting to leave preop area with patient prior to
paperwork on chart and intervened to stop transfer into OR. Scott called
Judy, who intervened with probate court to obtain the documents that
did prove the grandmother’s guardianship status.