Anbeshi 2012 : Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed


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Violence against women is widely prevalent in Nepal is well known. However, it is only in recent years that there has been an attempt to systematically document various forms of violence against women, from domestic violence and rape to social violence and trafficking. WOREC Nepal, through the ground-breaking publication of Anbeshi Reports since 2005, has taken on the onerous responsibility of systematically
documenting cases, analyzing the data and making recommendations to policy makers.
Tracing the journey of women’s rights being recognized as human rights, this report continues this vital task, focussing on the complex interactions of the multiple forms of violence that women are vulnerable to. The reports identifies that the age group most affected by violence is women between the ages of 16 and 35 years. This finding spotlights the fact that women in their most productive years are subjected to violence
– a situation that has implications not only for the women survivors, but also for the national economy and polity.
As rightly pointed out, oppression in Nepali society based on gender, caste, ethnicity, religion, class, sexual orientation, disability and region, cannot be understood separately. These multiple inequities meld together to forge a complex system of oppression. The report emphasizes the need to understand structurally entrenched violence, including that perpetrated by women. It is only when the systemic context of gender oppression is understood that steps can be taken to eliminate it through specific programs that address the unique needs of each of these groups.

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Anbeshi 2012 : Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed

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  2. 2. i "cGj]ifL" dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( cf]/]s g]kfn afns'df/L, nlntk'/ w w w .w
  3. 3. ii "cGj]ifL" dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( © cf]/]s g]kfn o; k|ltj]bgdf ;dfj]z ePsf ljifoj:t'x¿ dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu ul/g] s'g} klg cleofgsf] k|of]hgsf] lglDt ;|f]t v'nfO{ k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] 5 . n]vs M ;+lhtf ltlD;gf ;Nnfxsf/ M 8f= /]0f' /fhe08f/L ;Dkfbg M 8f= ljgfos /fhe08f/L tYofÍ k|zf]wg M k|ljgf t08'sf/ cfj/0f÷n]cfp6 M /d]z e08f/L÷ s[i0ff rf}w/L d'b|0f M Soflk6n sDKo'6/ Nof08 k|f=ln= cfly{s ;xof]u M ldh]l/o/, hd{gL k|sfzs M cf]/]s g]kfn kf]=a=g+= !#@##, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn Email: Website: ISBN: 9789937256728 w w w .w
  4. 4. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( ljifo;"rL cfef/ 12 b'O{ zAb 14 sfo{ut kl/efiff 17 sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z 21 kl/R5]b !M kl/ro 27 !=! k[i7e"ld 28 !=@ cWoogsf] ;Ldf 38 !=# cWoog ljlw 39 kl/R5]b @ M k|fKt kl/0ffdx¿ / ljZn]if0f 40 @ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf cj:yf / ljZn]if0f 41 @=! lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] If]qut l:ylt 41 @=@ dlxnf lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ 43 @=# dlxnf lx+;f / pd]/ 45 @=$ dlxnf lx+;f / lzIff 47 @=^ k|efljtsf] hflt 52 @=& k|efljt / kL8saLrdf /x]sf] ;DaGw 53 @=* k|efljtsf] k]zf 54 @=( lx+;fsf sf/0f dlxnfx¿dfly k/]sf] c;/ 56 kl/R5]b # M 3/]n' lx+;f 58 #=! dlxnf / 3/]n' lx+;f 59 #=@ 3/]n' lx+;fleqsf :j¿kx¿ 60 #=# 3/]n' lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ 62 w w w .w
  5. 5. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( #=$ 3/]n' lx+;fsf kL8ssf k|sf/ 62 #=% k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 63 #=^ k|efljtsf] pd]/ / 3/]n' lx+;f 64 #=& k|efljtsf] lzIffsf] :t/ / 3/]n' lx+;f 64 #=* k|efljtsf] hft / 3/]n' lx+;f 66 #=( k|efljtsf] k]zf / 3/]n' lx+;f 67 #=!) k|efljtnfO{ k/]sf] c;/ 67 kl/R5]b $ M ;fdflhs lx+;f 71 $=! dlxnf / ;fdflhs lx+;f 72 $=@ dlxnfdfly ;fdflhs ¿kdf ePsf lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿ 75 $=# ;fdflhs lx+;fsf kL8ssf k|sf/x¿ 75 $=$ k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 76 $=% k|efljtsf] pd]/ / ;fdflhs lx+;f 76 $=* k|efljtsf] k]zf / ;fdflhs lx+;f 79 $=( ;fdflhs lx+;fsf sf/0f k|efljtdf k/]sf] c;/ 80 kl/R5]b % M anfTsf/ 84 %=! anfTsf/ 85 %=@ anfTsf/sf kL8ssf k|sf/ 87 %=# k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 88 %=$ anfTsf/af6 k|efljtsf] pd]/ 88 %=% anfTsf/af6 k|efljtsf] z}lIfs cj:yf 89 %=^ k|efljtsf] hflt 89 %=& k|efljtsf] k]zf 91 %=* anfTsf/af6 k|efljtdf k/]sf] c;/ 91 w w w .w
  6. 6. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( kl/R5]b ^ M of}lgs lx+;f 95 ^=! of}lgs lx+;f 96 ^=@ k|efljtsf] pd]/ / of}lgs lx+;f 97 ^=# of}lgs lx+;fsf kL8ssf k|sf/ 97 ^=$ k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 98 ^=% k|efljtsf] z}lIfs of]Uotf 99 ^=^ k|efljtsf] hflt 100 ^=& k|efljtsf] k]zf 101 ^=* k|efljtnfO{ k/]sf c;/x¿ 101 kl/R5]b & M xTof 104 &=! xTof 105 &=@ k|efljtsf] pd]/ / xTof 106 &=$ k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 107 &=% k|efljtsf] z}lIfs :t/ / xTof 108 &=^ k|efljtsf] hftL / xTof 109 &=& k|efljtsf] k]zf / xTof 110 kl/R5]b * M dfgj a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/ 112 *=! dfgj a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/ 113 *=@ k|efljtsf] pd]/ / a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/ 115 *=# k|efljt / kL8ssf] ;DaGw 115 *=$ k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 117 *=% k|efljtsf] z}lIfs cj:yf 117 *=^ k|efljtsf] hflt 119 *=& k|efljtsf] k]zf 119 *=* k|efljtnfO{ k/]sf] c;/x¿ 120 w w w .w
  7. 7. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( kl/R5]b ( M kL8ssf] k[i7e"ld 123 (=! kL8ssf] k[i7e"ld 124 (=@ kL8ssf] pd]/ 124 (=# kL8ssf] n}lËs ljj/0f 126 (=$ kL8ssf] z}lIfs cj:yf 127 (=% kL8ssf] j}jflxs cj:yf 129 (=^ kL8ssf] k]zf 130 kl/R5]b !) M k|efljtnfO{ ul/Psf] ;xof]u 132 !)=! k|efljtsf] :jf:Yo kl/If0f 133 !)=@ k|efljtnfO{ ul/Psf] ;xof]usf] ljj/0f 134 kl/R5]b !! M ;~rf/ cg'udg 138 ;~rf/ cg'udgaf6 k|fKt dlxnf lx+;fsf] tYo 139 kl/R5]b !@ M lgisif{ / ;'emfjx¿ 144 w w w .w
  8. 8. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( lrqx¿sf] ;"rL rf6{ g+= ! dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx?sf] If]qut l:ylt 41 rf6{ g+= @ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf k|sf/x? 43 rf6{ g+= # dlxnfsf] pd]/ cg';f/ lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd 45 rf6{ g++=$ dlxnfsf] z}lIfs cj:yfsf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0fdx¿ 48 rf6{ g++=% dlxnfsf] ;fIf/tfsf] cj:yfsf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0fdx¿ 48 rf6{ g+= ^ dlxnfsf] j} jflxs l:ylt / lx+;fsf] kl/ 0ffd 50 rf6{ g+= & dlxnfsf] hftLo ljj/0f / lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd 52 rf6{ g+=* dlxnfsf] j}jflxs l:ylt / lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd 53 rf6{ g+= ( dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / k]zf 54 rf6{ g+= !) dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf sf/0f dlxnfdf k/]sf c;/x¿ 56 rf6{ g+= !! dlxnfdfly ePsf 3/]n' lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ k|ltztdf 63 rf6{ g+= !@ 3/ ] n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ / kL8ssf] ;DaGw 63 rf6{ g+= !# 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] j}jflxs cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 64 rf6{ g+= !$ 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] pd]/sf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 65 rf6{ g+= !% 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] z}lIfs cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 65 rf6{ g+= !^ 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] ;fIf/tfsf] cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 66 rf6{ g+= !& 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] hfltut cj:yf / lx+;fsf w w w .w
  9. 9. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( kl/0ffdx¿ 66 rf6{ g+= !* 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] k]zf / lx+;fsf] cj:yf 67 rf6{ g+= !( 3/]n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿df k/]sf] c;/x¿ k|ltztdf 68 rf6{ g+=@) dlxnfdfly x'g] ;fdflhs lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ 75 rf6{ g+= @! ;fdflhs lx+;fsf k|efljtx¿sf] kL8s;Fusf] ;DaGw 76 rf6{ g+= @@ ;fdflhs lx+;f k|efljtx¿sf] j}jflxs cj:yf 77 rf6{ g+= @# pd] / sf cfwf/ df dlxnfdfly ePsf] ;fdflhs lx+;fsf] cj:yf 77 rf6{ g+=@$ z}lIfs cj:yfsf cfwf/df dlxnfdfly ePsf] ;fdflhs lx+;f 78 rf6{ g+=@% lzIffsf] :t/sf cfwf/df dlxnfdfly ePsf] ;fdflhs lx+;f 78 rf6{ g+=@^ hfltut cfwf/df dlxnfdfly ePsf] ;fdflhs lx+;fsf] cj:yf 79 rf6{ g+=@& dlxnfsf] k]zf / ;fdflhs lx+;fsf] cj:yf 80 rf6{ g+=@* ;fdflhs lx+;fsf sf/ 0f k|efljtdf k/ ] sf c;/ x¿ 81 rf6{ g+= @( anfTsf/ k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] kL8s;Fusf] ;DaGw 87 rf6{ g+ #) anfTsf/ / k|efljtsf] j} jflxs cj:yf 88 rf6{ g+= #! anfTsf/ k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] pd]/sf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 89 rf6{ g+= #@ anfTsf/ k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] z}lIfs cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 90 rf6{ g+= ## anfTsf/ k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] ;fIf/tfsf] cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ 90 rf6{ g+= #$ hfltut cfwf/df dlxnfdfly ePsf] ;fdflhs lx+;fsf] cj:yf 91 rf6{ g+= #% k|efljtsf] k]zf / anfTsf/sf 36gfx?sf] cj:yf 92 w w w .w
  10. 10. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( rf6{ g+= #^ anfTsf/ af6 k|efljtdf k/ ] sf c;/ x? 92 rf6{ g+=#& pd] / sf cfwf/ df dlxnfdfly ePsf] of} lgs lx+;fsf] cj:yf 98 rf6{ g+= #* of} lgs lx+;faf6 k|efljtx¿sf]  kL8s;Fusf]  ;DaGw 98 rf6{ g+= #( k|efljtsf] j} jflxs cj:yf / of} lgs lx+;f 99 rf6{ g++=$) k|efljtsf] z} lIfs cj:yf / of} lgs lx+;fsf kl/ 0ffdx¿ 99 rf6{ g++=$! of} lgs lx+;faf6 k|efljtx¿ sf] ;fIf/ tfsf] cj:yf / of} lgs lx+;fsf kl/ 0ffdx¿ 100 rf6{ g+= $@ k|efljtsf] hflt / of} lgs lx+;fsf kl/ 0ffx¿ 100 rf6{ g+= $# k|efljtsf] k] zf / of} lgs lx+;fsf kl/ 0ffdx¿ 101 rf6{ g+= $$ of} lgs lx+;faf6 k|efljtnfO} k/ ] sf c;/ x¿ 102 rf6{ g+= $% dlxnfsf] pd]/cg';f/ xTof cj:yf 106 rf6{ g+= $^ k|efljt / kL8ssf] lardf /x]sf] ;DaGw 107 rf6{ g+=$& k|efljtsf] j}jflxs l:yltsf cfwf/df xTof 108 rf6{ g+= $* k|efljtsf] z}lIfs cj:yfsf cfwf/df xTof 108 rf6{ g+= $( k|efljtsf] ;fIf/ tfsf] cj:yf / xTof 109 rf6{ g+= %) k|efljtsf] hfltut cj:yfsf cfwf/df xTof 109 rf6{ g+= %! k|efljtsf] k] zf / xTof 110 rf6{ g+= %@ a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/af6 k|efljtsf] pd]/ 116 rf6{ g+=%# a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ af6 k|efljtx¿ sf]  kL8s;Fusf]  ;DaGw 116 rf6{ g+= %$ a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ af6 k|efljtx¿ sf] j} jflxs cj:yf 117 rf6{ g+= %% a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ af6 k|efljtx¿ sf] z} lIfs cj:yf 118 rf6{ g+= %^ a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ af6 k|efljtx¿ sf]  ;fIf/ tfsf]  :t/  118 rf6{ g+=%& a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ af6 k|efljtx¿ sf]  hfltut ljj/ 0f 119 w w w .w
  11. 11. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( rf6{ g+= %* k|efljtsf]  k] zf /  a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ sf]  cj:yf 120 rf6{ g+= %( dfgj a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ af6 k|efljtdf k/ ] sf]  c;/ x¿ 120 rf6{ g+ ^) kL8ssf] pd]/ ;d"x 124 rf6{ g+ ^! kL8ssf] n}lËs ljj/0f 126 rf6{ g+ ^@ kL8ssf] z}lIfs cj:yf 128 rf6{ g+= ^# kL8ssf] ;fIf/ tfsf] cj:yf 128 rf6{ g+ ^$ kL8ssf] j}jflxs cj:yf 129 rf6{ g+ ^% kL8ssf] k]zfsf] ljj/0f 130 rf6{ g+=^^ lx+;f kZrft :jf:Yo k/LIf0f l:ylt 133 rf6{ g+= ^& lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ sf nflu ;+:yfn] o; jif{ u/]sf ;xof]usf] ljj/0f k|ltztdf 137 rf6{ ^* kfFr ljsfz If]q / lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd 139 rf6{ g+ ^( dlxnf dfly ePsf lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ -k|ltztdf _ 140 rf6{ g+= &) kfFr ljsfz If]q / lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd 140 rf6{ g+ &! dlxnf dfly ePsf ;fdflhs lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ 141 rf6{ g+ &@ lx+;fsf] k|sf/ / kL8s;Fusf] ;DaGw 141 rf6{ g+ &# pd]/ ;d"x cg';f/ lx+;fsf] cj:yf 142 rf6{ g+ &$ kLl8tsf] hflt cg';f/ lx+;fsf] k|sf/ 142 rf6{ g+ &% k|efljtsf] a}jflxs cj:yf 143 w w w .w
  12. 12. 11 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 11 of] k':ts tof/ ug'{sf p2]Zox¿ cf] / ] s g] kfnn] ljut % jif{b] lv dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf]  clen] vLs/ 0fug{]  sfo{ ub{}  cfPsf]  5  . cf] / ] s g] kfnn]  ljleGg / fli6«o b} lgs kqklqsfx¿df k|sflzt ePsf dlxnf lx+;f ;DalGw 36gfx¿sf] cg'udg u/ L dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf]  cGTosf nflu ;Dk'0f{ ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿nfO{ hjfkmb] lx /  pQ/ bflo aGgsf nflu k} / jL ug{]  p2] Zon]  x/ ] s dlxgf dfl;s k|ltj] bg tof/ u/ L ;fj{hlgs ug{] sfo{ ub{} cfPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} cf] / ] s g] kfnn] dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] cg'udg tyf :ynut e|d0f u/ L dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] oyfy{tfnfO{ ;~rf/  dfWoddf / cGtlqmof sfo{qmd dfkm{t ;do ;dodf ;fj{hlgs ub{}  ;/ f] sf/ nfx¿sf]  Wofgfsif{0f u/ fpg]  sfo{ ;d] t ub{}  cfPsf]  5  . o;/ L dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf]  clen] vLs/ 0fu/ L To;sf] ljZn] if0ffTds cWoog ;lxtsf] jif{ k':ts tof/ ug'{sf p2] Zox¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g M • dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] l:yltsf] klxrfg u/ L dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;flj?å / fHonfO{ plrt sfg'g, lglt lgod, of] hgf lgdf{0f u/ L cfjZos ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug{ bafj lbg] tyf ;r] t u/ fpg]   . • lx+;faf6 k|efljtsf] Gofodf kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ug{ cfjZos kg{]  If] qx¿sf] klxrfg u/ L sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;/ sf/ nfO{ clkn ug{]   . • lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] Gofodf kx'Fr a[l4 ug{sf nflu pgLx¿sf] cfjZostf klxrfg u/ L ;xof] uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; / To;df k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ug{ k} / jL ug{]  . w w w .w
  13. 13. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 1212 cfef/ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGToljgf dlxnfclwsf/ sf] ;'lglZrttf x'g ;Qm} g . ;fdflhs Gofo, ;dfgtf / b] zdf lbuf] zflGtsf nflu dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTo cfjZos 5 . o;y{ o; cj:Yffsf] cGTo ;Dk"0f{ dlxnf clwsf/ tyf dfgj clwsf/ sf If] qdf lqmofzLn JolQm, gful/ s ;dfhsf cu'jfx¿, / fhgLltsdL{x¿, ;+:yf / ;d"x ;a} sf]  ;xsfo{af6 dfq} ;Dej 5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] jf:tljs oyfy{tf ha;Dd aflx/ cfpFb} g ta;Dd o;sf] ;dfwfgsf] af6f] klxNofpg ufx|f] x'G5 / o;sf] cGTosf nflu ul/Psf k|of;x¿ k|of;df dfq ;Lldt x'g k'Ub5g . o;y{ dlxnfdfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] cj:yfnfO{ lrq0f ug{] p2] Zon] dlxnflx+;f lj?åsf]  cleofgdf lg/ Gt/  nflu/ xg]  w] / }  ;ª3;+:yf, dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ sdL{x¿sf] ;+o'Qm k|of; xf] æcGj] ifLÆ sf] kfrf} + cªs . lkQ[;QfTds ;f] r xfaL / x] sf] ;dfhdf cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;flj?å af] Ng cem} klg dlxnfx¿nfO{ Tolt ;lhnf] 5} g . oBlk cfkm"dfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ cGo dlxnfx¿n] ef] Ug' gk/ f] ; eGg] cfsf+ªIffsf ;fy cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] ;fx; a6'Ng'x'g]  ;Dk"0f{ g] kfnL dlxnfx¿k|lt cf] / ] s g] kfn ljz] if s[t1tf JoQm ub{5 . dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ aflx/ NofpFbf dlxnfx¿n] ;'/ Iff / cGo hf] lvdx¿sf] ;d] t ;fdgf ug'{kg{] l:yltsf] l;h{gf x'g] ub{5 . oBlk ;d'bfo:t/ df lqmofzLn dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ / Ifsx¿n]  cfkm"dfly kg{] hf] lvd / r'gf} ltsf] k|jfxljgf cfˆgf 3/ , l5d] s /  lhNnfdf 36] sf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ aflx/ Nofpg ug'{ePsf] ;fx;, w} o{ / sfdsf] pRr ;Ddfg ub{} cfkm"n] clen] vg u/ ] sf 36gfx¿ cf] / ] s g] kfnsf]  tYofÍ zfvfdf k7fpg' x'g]  ;Dk'0f{ dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ / Ifsx¿k|lt xfdL ljz] if cfef/ k|s6 ug{ rfxG5f} +  . cf] / ] s g] kfnsf lhNnf sfof{nox¿df / x] /  ;d'bfo:t/ af6 k|fKt dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ b:tfj] hLs/ 0f ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg'x'g] df] / Ë zfvfsf zflGt bg'jf/ , pbok'/ zfvfsf / df du/ , l;/ xf zfvfsf x] df sfsL{, wg'iff zfvfsf k|d] z d08n, s} nfnL zfvfsf ljg' / f0ff, / w w w .w
  14. 14. 13 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 13 bfË zfvfsf lx/ fdl0f rf} w/ LnfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5f} + . o; k|ltj] bg tof/ ug{sf nflu tYofÍnfO{ ;dfof] hg, ljZn] if0f tyf lrqx¿sf] tof/ L / k|ltj] bg n] vg u/ L dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{]  cf] / ] s g] kfnsL sfo{qmd ;+of] hs ;+lhtf ltlD;gfnfO{ cf] / ] s g] kfn cfef/ k|s6 ub{5 . o;sf ;fy} o; sfo{df ;3fp k'¥ofpg' x'g] tYofÍ zfvfsf k|lagf t08'sf/ nfO{ klg cf] / ] s g] kfn ljz] if wGojfb JoQm ub{5 . 36gf ;+sngdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g] cf]/]s g]kfnsf snf /fO{, lglndf /fO{, lbkf l3ld/] tyf ljg' e'h]nnfO{ ;d]t wGojfb lbg rfxG5f}+ . ;xof]uo;} u/ L o; k':ts tof/ Lsf qmddf ;xof] u ug'{x'g]  cf] / ] s g] kfnsf sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ clwjQmf bnaxfb'/ wfdLnfO{ klg ljz] if wGojfb lbg rfxG5f} + . cf] / ] s g] kfnsf ;+:Yffks cWoIf 8f=/ ] 0f' / fhe08f/ LnfO{ o; k':tsnfO{ d"t{ ¿k lbgsf nflu pxfFn] k|bfg ug'{ePsf] ;'emfj, lgb{] zg tyf ;xof] uk|lt ;+:yf cfef/ k|s6 ub{5 . cf] / ] s g] kfnsf k|fljlws ;Nnfxsf/  8f= ljgfos / fhe08f/ LnfO{ cToGt} sd ;dodf klg ;Nnfx, ;'emfj / ;Dkfbg u/ L o; k':tssf]  k|sfzgsf nflu dxTjk'0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{ePsf] df ljz] if cfef/ k|s6 ub{5f} + . cfj/ 0f tyf ;fh;Hhf u/ L of] k|ltj] bgnfO{ cfsif{s agfpg ;xof] u ug'{ x'g] cf] / ]s g] kfnsf k|sfzg zfvfsf / d] z e08f/ L /  s[i0ff rf} w/ LnfO{ ljz] if wGojfb glbO / xg ;lsb} g . ;fy} cGj]ifL d'b|0f ug'{ x'g] ljsf; Jof~h' tyf Soflk6n sDKo'6/ Nof08 k|f=ln=, eQmk'/ k|lt xfdL cfef/L 5f}+ . dfly pNn] v ul/ Psf JolQmx¿afx] s klg cGo ljleGg JolQmx¿sf]  ;xof] un] dfq of] k|ltj] bg tof/ ePsf] xf]  . o; k':ts tof/ Lsf nflu k|ToIf / ck|ToIf ¿kn] ;3fpg' x'g] ;Dk"0f{ JolQmx¿nfO{ cf] / ] s g] kfn wGojfb lbb} xflb{s cfef/ k|s6 ug{ rfxG5 . afa'/ fd uf} td sfo{sf/ L lgb{] zs cf] / ] s g] kfn w w w .w
  15. 15. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 1414 b'O{ zAb dlxnfdfly ePsf]  lx+;fsf]  jf:tljstf af/ ] df hfgsf/ L lbg]  p2] Zn]  tof/ kfl/ Psf] of] jif{ k':ts ÆcGj] ifLædlxnf cfGbf] ngsf nflu Ps dxTjk"0f{ k|sfzg xf]  . dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;f ;dfhsf x/ ] s ;+/ rgfdf h/ f]  uf8] /  / x] sf]  lkQ[;QfTds d"NodfGotf / ;f] rsf] kl/ 0ffd xf]  . To;sf] kmn:j¿k jif{} lg xhf/ f} + g] kfnL dlxnfx¿ ljleGg lsl;dsf zf/ Ll/ s, dfgl;s, ;fdflhs / cfly{s ¿kdf lx+;f vKg afWo agfO{Psf 5g . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / ltgsf cfofd / kl/ df0fx¿n] clxn]  dlxnfx¿ cfqmfGt ePsf 5g . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fn] dlxnfsf]  afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ , ;dfgtfsf] clwsf/ , oftgfd'Qm eO{ hLjg hLpg kfpg] clwsf/ , :jtGq / ;'/ lIft ¿kdf hLjg ofkg ug{ kfpg] clwsf/ , :j:y jftfj/ 0fsf] clwsf/ h:tf cfwf/ e"t dfgj clwsf/ sf] xgg u/ ] sf] 5 . 3/ b] lv ;fj{hlgs :yn;Dd ljleGg lx+;fx¿ a9bf] s|ddf / x] sf] o; jif{ k':ts æcGj] ifLÆ n] b] vfPsf]  5 . o;n] dlxnfsf] zf/ Ll/ s / dfgl;s :Jff:Yodf, JolQmTjdf, cfTd;Ddfgdf, pTkfbgdf / kl/ jf/ df k|ToIf c;/ kf/ ] sf] 5 eg]  b] zsf] ljsf;, pTkfbg / eljiosf ;Gtltx¿df ;d] t k|efj kfb{5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTo lagf b] zdf ;fdflhs Gofo / lbuf]  zflGtsf] :yfkg x'g ;Qm} g . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTo lagf b] zdf g t lbuf] zflGtsf] sNkgf ug{ ;lsG5 g t nf] stflGqs u0ftGq g} lbuf] x'g ;Qm5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] x/ ] s k|sf/ sf lx+;fx¿ ck/ fw xf] / of] dfgj clwsf/ sf] xgg xf]  . JolQmut txb] lv gLltut tx;Dd / x] sf] lje] bk"0f{ Pjd lkQ[;QfTds d"NodfGotf, ;f] r / wf/ 0ff dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] sf/ s tTj xf]  . jt{dfg ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts d"No / dfGotfsf] cf8df dlxnfdfly x'g]  h:tf] ;'s}  cdfgjLo /  lje] bk"0f{ Jojxf/ nfO{ klg 9fs5f] k ug] { ul/ G5 . kmn:j¿k dlxnfsf] cfˆgf] z/ L/ dfly cfˆgf] lgoGq0f 5} g . of} g tyf k|hgg clwsf/ dlxnfnfO{ k|fKt x'g ;s] sf] 5} g . w w w .w
  16. 16. 15 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 15 ^$ k|ltzt dlxnfx¿ cfˆgf] 3/ leq cfkmGt} af6 kLl8t ePsf]  o; jif{sf] cWoogn] b] vfPsf] 5 . cGt/ f{li6«o:t/ df dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf af/ ] df rrf{ ug{ yflnPsf] nfdf] ;do ePsf] ePtf klg dlxnf lx+;f cGTo ug{sf nflu ;/ sf/ nfO{ lhDd] jf/ agfpg]  sfo{ eg] Tolt ;kmn b] lvGg . ;/ sf/ cGt/ f{li6«o:t/ df k|lta4 b] lvP klg b] zdf tL k|lta4tfx¿nfO{ Jojxf/ df ptfg{ c;kmn / x] sf] o; k':tsdf k|sflzt dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf]  ljZn] if0fn] b] vfpF5 . oBlk s] xL ;sf/ fTds sfdx¿ eg] gePsf xf] Ogg . 3/ ] n' lx+;f lj?4sf] P] g -@)^^_ / 3/ ] n' lx+;f lgodfjnL -@)^&_ tyf @)^& ;fnnfO{ æn} +lËs lx+;f lj?4sf] jif{Æ egL ul/ Psf] 3f] if0ffnfO{ log} pknlJwsf ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . g] kfnL dlxnfx¿sf] lg/ Gt/ bafj / k} / jL tyf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/  / Ifx¿sf]  @$ lbg]  ef] s x8tfn, æsfnf]  k] l6sf] 6Æ k|bz{gL u/ L ul/ Psf] bafjd'ns sfo{qmdsf] pknlAwsf ¿kdf / x] sf oL sfg'g tyf gLltx¿ 3f] if0ff ePtf klg kLl8t dlxnfx¿n] ;xof] u / Gofo kfpg' cem} æcfsfz sf] kmn cfFvf t/ L d/ Æ ePsf] 5 . 3/ ] n' lx+;f lj?4sf] sfg'g cfPtf klg To;df ePsf q'l6x¿sf sf/ 0f To;nfO{ k|of] u u/ L Gofok|fKt ug] { cfwf/ lkmtnf] 5 . 3/ ] n' lx+;f lj?4sf]  -ck'/ f] _ sfg'g tyf cGo sfg'gx¿sf] k|of] u u/ L ck/ fwLnfO{ s] xL xb;Dd ;hfo lbg ;lsg] cj:yf ePtf klg sfg'g sfof{Gjog ug] { lgsfoleq / x] sf] lkt[;QfTds d'No / dfGotfsf sf/ 0f w] / } dlxnfx¿n] o;sf] pkof] u ul/ Gofo kfPsf 5} gg . sfg'g sfof{Gjog ug] { txdf / x] sf JolQmx¿sf]  ;f] r /  Jojxf/ sf sf/ 0f w] / } dlxnfx¿ cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;f btf{ ug{ ;Sb} gg . btf{ u/ ] kl5 cfjZos kg] { ;xof] u -;'/ lIft jf;, ufF; / ;'/ Iff_ sf] cefjn]  btf{ ug] { sfo{ yk hl6n ag] sf] 5 . s] xL ;fx;L dlxnfx¿n] 36gf btf{ u/ L xfn] klg ax';+Vos d'2fx¿ cbfnt k'Ub} gg . k|foM h;f]  36gfdf dlxnfnfO{ g} bf] ifL b] vfpg] , dlxnf ePkl5 ;xg' kb{5 eGg]  l;sfpg] ul/ G5 . kmn:j¿k dlxnfx¿df ædf} gtfsf] ;+:s[ltsfÆ ljsf; x'g] qmd a9bf] 5 . PstGqLo Joj:yfaf6 nf] stflGqs u0ftGqfTds Joj:yfdf k|j] z w w w .w
  17. 17. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 1616 u/ ] sf] b] zdf dlxnf clwsf/ ;'lglZrttf cleofgdf ;+nUg b] zsf %! k|ltzt dlxnf gful/ sx¿ 3/ , kl/ jf/ / ;dfhaf6}  lx+;fsf] hf] lvddf / x] sf 5g . b] z nf] stflGqs u0ftGqfTds kl/ kfl6df ¿kfGtl/ t ePsf] % jif{ eO{;Sbf klg dlxnfx¿n]  nf] stGqsf] cg'e"lt ug{ kfPsf 5} gg . b] zdf zflGt lgdf{0f k|lqmof w] / } cufl8 uPsf] elgPtf klg zflGtsf] nfef+z kfpg' kg{] x¿ cfˆgf] clwsf/ af6 al~rt g} 5g . / fhgLlts kl/ jt{g kZrft cfˆgf] cj:yfdf kl/ jt{g cfpF5 / cfˆgf clwsf/ x¿ ;'lglZrt x'G5g eGg] df ljZjf; lnPsf dlxnfx¿ cem klg cfˆgf] clwsf/  ;'lglZrt x'g] kvf{O{df g} 5g . o;y{ o; k|ltj] bgn] Psk6s km] l/  kl/ jt{gk|lt k|lta4 ;+j] bgzLn / fhg} lts kf6L{x¿ /  ;/ sf/ nfO{ cfkm"n] u/ ] sf sfo{x¿sf] ;dLIff ug{ / dfgj clwsf/ nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{] k|lta4tf cg'¿ksf] Jojxf/ ug{ 3R3Rofpg] 5 . o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z ul/ Psf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf] ljZn] if0fn]  dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;fk|lt ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿nfO{ hjfkmb] xL /  pQ/ bfoL aGgsf nflu k|] l/ t ub{5 . o; cWoog k|ltj] bgn] xfn ;Dd g] kfn ;/ sf/ n]  dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;f /  n} lËs ;dfgtfsf nflu u/ ] sf sfo{x¿sf] ;dLIff ug{ / cfufdL lbgdf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f lj?4 plrt sfg'g, gLlt lgod, of] hgf lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu cfjZos kxnx¿sf af/ ] df uDeL/ eP/ ;f] Rgsf nflu ;d] t d2t ub{5 eGg] dnfO{ ljZjf; nfu] s] f 5 . cGTodf, o; cWoog k|ltj] bgdf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;faf/ ] hfgsf/ L lbO{ dlxnf cfGbf] ngnfO{ ;zQm kfg{ phf{ yKg'x'g] ;a} df d xflb{s awfO{ tyf s[t1tf 1fkg ug{ rfxG5' . 8f= / ] 0f' / fhe08f/ L ;+:yfks cWoIf, cf] / ] s g] kfn w w w .w
  18. 18. 17 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 17 sfo{ut kl/efiff dlxnfdfly x'g] u/ ] sf lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿ ljleGg 5g . lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿nfO{ & efudf juL{s/ 0f u/ L ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] 5 . s_ lx+;fsf k|sf/ 3/]n' lx+;f 3/ leq kl/ jf/ sf Ps ;b:oaf6 cGo ;b:odfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfnfO{ 3/ ] n' lx+;fleq ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . >Ldfg tyf kl/ jf/ sf cGo ;b:ox¿af6 ePsf zf/ Ll/ s, dfgl;s / cfly{s ¿kdf……. . o:tf] lx+;fleq s'6lk6, ax'ljjfx, 3/ lgsfnf, uflnunf} h, efjgfTds rf] 6 k'¥ofpg] sfo{ tyf ljleGg 8/ , qf; b] vfO{ ePsf dfgl;s lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . ;fdflhs lx+;f dlxnf a;] s] f ;dfhsf JolQmx¿af6 ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;fdflhs lx+;fleq ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . ;fdflhs lx+;fleq ljz] ifu/ L af] S;Lsf]  cf/ f] kdf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿, 5'jf5't, afnljjfx, bfO{hf] sf sf/ 0fn] ePsf lx+;fx¿, dlxnfdfly ;dfhsf JolQmx¿af6 ;fdflhs / dfgl;s c;/ kf/ ] sf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . of}lgs l+x;f dlxnfsf] O{R5f ljk/ Lt ha/ h:tL of} g cªux¿ tyf ;+j] bglzn cx¿df 5'g] , ;'D;'Dofpg] , cZnLn zAbx¿sf] k|of] u ug{] , lh:sfpg] , cZnLn lrq, b[Zo jf lkmNdx¿ b] vfpg] h:tf 36gfx¿nfO{o; k|ltj] bgdf of} lgs lx+;fleq / flvPsf 5g . w w w .w
  19. 19. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 1818 anfTsf/ anfTsf/ , ;fd"lxs anfTsf/  /  anfTsf/ sf]  k|of;nfO{ anfTsf/ sf]  kl/ efiffleq ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . o;df dlxnfnfO{ nnfO{kmsfO{ jf ha/ h:tL zlQm k|of] u u/ L ePsf anfTsf/ sf 36gfx¿nfO{ o;df ;dfj] z ul/ Psf 5g . a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/ bf;tf, afWofTds >d -aFw'jf dhb'/ L jf C0fL agfOPsf JolQmx¿sf]  >dnufot_ / bf;tfk"0f{ Jojxf/ sf nflu s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ 8/ , wfs b] vfO{, hfnem] n u/ L jf zlQm/kbsf]  b'¿kof] u u/ L sfddf nufpg'÷cf] ;f/ k;f/  ug'{÷Ps 7fpFaf6 csf{] 7fpFdf n} hfg' jf n} hfgsf nflu ;xof] u ug'{ jf cf>o lbg' jf c?åf/ f To:tf] sfdsf]  lglDt ;xof] u k|fKt ug'{ a] rlavg xf]  . a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/  tyf a] rlavg÷cf] ;f/ k;f/ sf] nflu k|of; ePsf 36gfx¿nfO{ o;df ;dfj] z ul/ Psf]  5  . xTof xTofleq dlxnfnfO{ dg;fok"j{s ljleGg tj/ af6 dfl/ Psf tyf dfg{] k|of; ul/ Psf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;d] l6Psf] 5 . cGo ckx/ 0f, cnkq÷ j] kQf, cfTdxTofsf 36gfx¿nfO{ o;df / flvPsf]  5 . v_ k|efljt÷kL8ssf] j}jflxs l:ylt o; cGtu{t ljjflxt, cljjflxt, Psn, 5'l§P/ a;] sf] , ;Fu} a;] s] f /  kf/ kfr's]  nfO{ ;d] l6Psf]  5  . u_ k|efljt÷kL8ssf ;d"xx¿ lognfO{ lgDglnlvt ;d"xx¿df afFl8Psf] 5 . w w w .w
  20. 20. 19 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 19 kxf8] hghflt M hghflt u'?Ë, du/ , / fO{, lnDa', ls/ fFt, yfdL, 5gTofn, tfdfË, z] kf{, nfdf, ef] 6] , g] jf/ , lh/ ] n, ysfnL, / fp6] , r] kfª, s';'G8f, bg'jf/ , cflb . t/fO{ hghflt M yf?, / fhj+zL, tfhk'l/ of, u+ufO{, l;+x, wfg's, lwdfn, ;Gyfn, d'G8f, ;tf/ , emfFu8, bg'jf/ , ls;fg, sf] r]  cflb . t/fO{ blnt M rdf/ , xl/ hg, / fd, d';x/ , b';fw, kf;jfg, kf;L, tTdf, vTj] , wf] aL, ;/ bf/ , lrldbf/ , 8f] d, xNvf] / , s';jflbof, sn/ , vflts, sf] O/ L cflb . kxf8] blnt M bdfO{, sfdL, ;fsL{, 9f] nL, ufO{g] , jfbL cflb . t/fO{ u}/ blnt M ofbj, t] nL, u'Ktf, sfdt, dnfxf, dxtf] , ;fx, 7fs'/ , / fhe/ , dfnL, s'dL{, xnjfO{, s] jt, g'lgof, sx/ , w] l8of/ , wlgof, nf] wf, xhfd, cflb . a|fXd0f If]qL 3_ k|efljt÷kL8ssf] k]zfx¿ s[lif, 3/ fo;L sfd, dhb'/ L, Joj;fo, cgf} krfl/ s If] qdf sfo{/ t, u} / ;/ sf/ L hflu/ , ;/ sf/ L hflu/ , ;fdflhs ;] jf, j} b] lzs / f] huf/  ª_ k|efljtnfO{ k/]sf] c;/x¿ zf/ Ll/ s c;/ , dfgl;s c;/ , cfly{s c;/ , ;fdflhs c;/  w w w .w
  21. 21. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 2020 r_ k|efljt÷kL8ssf] pd]/ !^ jif{eGbf d'lg !^ b] lv @% jif{;Dd @^ b] lv #% jif{;Dd #^ b] lv $% jif{;Dd $^ b] lv %% jif{;Dd %^ jif{eGbf dfly w w w .w
  22. 22. 21 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 21 sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z kl/ro “cGj]ifL”sf]  of]  cÍ dlxnf k'gM:yf{kgf s] Gb| -cf] / ] s g] kfnn] _ @))* ;fnb] lv x/ ] s ;fn "dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] jif{ k':ts" k|sfzg ug{]  qmdsf]  lg/ Gt/ tf xf]   . dlxnfdfly eO{/ x] s] f lx+;fsf]  l:ylt;DaGwL oyf{ytfnfO{ k|:t't ug{] d'Vo p2] Zon] o; k':ts tof/ ul/ Psf] 5 . o; k':tsdf h'nfO{ @)!! b] lv h'g @)!@ ;Dd cf] / ] s g] kfndfclen] vLs/ 0f -;Íng_ ul/ Psf hDdf !%*! j6f dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] lj:t[t ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf]  5 . To;} u/ L / fli6«o kqklqsfx¿df k|sflzt ePsf hDdf #(* j6f1 dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] 5'§} ljZn] if0f klg o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . o; k':tsn] ;du| dlxnfdflyeO/ x] sf] lx+;fsf] :j¿kx¿, lx+;fn]  dlxnfsf] hLjgdf kf/ ] sf k|efjx¿sf] oyfy{tfnfO{ k|:t't ug] { hdsf] { u/ ] sf] 5 . o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z u/ LPsf dlxnf lj?4 eO/ x] sf lx+;fsf ljZn] if0fn]  ;/ f] sf/ jfnx¿ /  xfdL;a} nfO{ dlxnflj?4 x'g]  lx+;fsf] cGTosfnflu cfjZos kxnx¿ tyf sfo{x¿sf af/ ] df uDeL/ eP/ ;f] Rg / To;nfO{ Jojxf/ df nfu" ug{ k|] l/ t ug] {5 eGg]  cf] / ] s g] kfnsf]  ck] Iff 5  . 36gf ;Íng ul/Psf If]qx¿ o; k':tsdf h'nfO{ @)!! b] lv h'g @)!@ ;Dd dlxnf dfgj clwsf/  / Ifs -d=df=c=/ _ /  clen] vgstf{x¿af6 36gfsf]  clen] vLs/ 0f u/ L cf] / ] s g] kfnsf]  tYofÍ zfvfdf cfPsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . g] kfnsf % j6} ljsf; If] qdf 1 sflGtk'/ b}lgs, cGgk"0f{ kf]i6, uf]/vfkq, g]kfn ;dfrf/ kq, gful/s The Himalayan Times, The Kathmandu Post, Republica gf]6 M ;+:yfn] k|ToIf ¿df clen]vLs/0f u/]sf 36gfx?nfO{ ;+rf/ cg'udgdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5}g . w w w .w
  23. 23. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 2222 dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] clen] vLs/ 0f tyf ljZn] if0f u/ L o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . cWoogaf6 k|fKt glthfx¿ ;ªIf]kdf != ljsf; If]qdfdlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf] cj:yf ;+:yfn]  clen] vLs/ 0f u/ ] sf]  hDdf !%*! j6f 36gfx¿sf]  ljZn] if0f ubf{ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ ;a} eGbf a9L k"jf{~rnaf6 k|fKt ePsf] 5 . o; jif{ k"jf{~rnaf6 ^$Ü, dWodf~rnaf6 !*Ü, ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn / dWoklZrdf~rnaf6 (÷(Ü /  klZrdf~rnaf6 ! k|ltzt dlxndfly ePsf] lx+;fsf 36gfx¿;Íng ul/ Psf] 5 . To;} u/ L ;+rf/ dfWodsf cg';f/ o; jif{ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿df k"jf{~rnaf6 @*Ü, dWoklZrdf~rnaf6 !^Ü, klZrdf~rnaf6 !@Ü, ;'b"/ klZrdf~rnaf6 *Ü / k|efljtsf]  :yfg v'Ng g;s] sf] % k|ltzt 36gfx¿ ;+rf/ dfWodn] k|zf;g u/ ] s] f 5g  . @= lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ s_ 3/]n' lx+;f o; jif{ k|fKt hDdf !%*! j6f 36gfx¿nfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿ 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt ePsf] k|fKt ePsf] 5 . k|fKttYofÍsf cfwf/ df o; jif{ ^$ k|ltzt -!%*! hgf lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo] !)!( hgf_ dlxnfx¿dfly 3/ ] n' lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . xfd|f] ;fdflhs ;+/ rgf, ljBdfg c;dfg zlQm ;DaGw / sltko ?9LjfbL ;f] rsf sf/ 0f dlxnfx¿ lbgx'F cfkmgf elgg] JolQmx¿af6} lx+;fsf] rk] 6fdf kb} {5g . dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ug{] kL8sx¿dWo] ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f ug{]  kL8s cfkmg}  >Ldfg /  3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿ / x] sf 5g . &(Ü dlxnfx¿ cfkmg} >Ldfgaf6 / @!Ü dlxnfx¿ 3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿af6 lx+;fdf k/ ] sf o; jif{sf]  tYofÍn]  w w w .w
  24. 24. 23 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 23 b] vfPsf] 5 . o;/ L 3/ ] n' lx+;f vKg afWo dlxnfx¿dWo] @^–#% jif{pd] /  ;d"xsf#(Üdlxnfx¿ / x] sf 5g eg]  $)Ü;fIf/  dlxnfx¿3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 kLl8t / x] sf]  tYofÍn]  b] vfPsf]  5  . v_ ;fdflhs lx+;f 3/ ] n'lx+;f kZrft ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿dfly ;fdflhs ¿kdf lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . cyf{t dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fx¿dWo]  ;fdflhs lx+;f bf] ;|f] :yfgdf / x] sf] 5 . o; jif{ !^Ü -!%*! dWo] @%!hgf_ dlxnfx¿dfly ;fdflhs lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf]  5 . To;df *$% l5d] sLaf6, !)Ü ;fyLaf6 / ^Ü ;DaGw gePsf dflg;x¿af6 dlxnfx¿dfly ;fdflhs lx+;f ePsf]  5 .;fdflhs lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿ dWo] %!Ü dlxnfx¿ ;fIf/  / x] sf]  kfO{Psf]  5  . u_ anfTsf/ k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df o; jif{ ^Ü dlxnfx¿ anfTs[t -!!) hgf_ ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 eg] #Ü -#^ hgf_dlxnfx¿dfly anfTsf/ sf] k|of; ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . anfTsf/ sf 36gfdf %Ü dlxnfx¿ cfkmg} >Ldfgaf6, ^Ü ;fyLaf6, !^ Ü ;DaGw gePsf JolQmaf6 lx+;fdf k/ ] sf] , !^ Ü dlxnfx¿ cfkmg}  3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿af6 /  %&Ü dlxnfdfly l5d] sLaf6}  anfTsf/ ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . k|fylds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf @%Üdlxnfx¿dfly anfTsf/ sf 36gf ePsf] kfO{of] eg]  ;a} eGbf a9L -$@Ü_anfTsf/ sf 36gfx¿ !^ jif{ d'lgsf afnaflnsfx¿df x'g] u/ ] sf] tYofÍ kfO{Psf] 5 . k|fylds txdf cWoog/ t -#@Ü_ / !^ jif{ d'lgsf -$@Ü_ aflnsfx¿df anfTsf/ sf 36gf a9L ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . 3_ of}lgs lx+;f o; jif{ $Ü -^# hgf_ dlxnfx¿dfly of} lgs lx+;f ePsf]  kfO{Psf] 5 . h;dWo] ;a} eGbf a9L -$#Ü_of} lgs lx+;fsf w w w .w
  25. 25. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 2424 36gfx¿ dlxnfn] ;fyL 7fg] sf / k|] d ;DaGw ePsf JolQmx¿af6} ePsf 5g . To:f} u/ L@&Ü l5d] sLaf6, !&Ü s'g} klg ;DaGw gePsf JolQm / !# Ü dlxnfx¿ cfkmg}  3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿af6 lx+;fdf k/ ] sf]  kfO{Psf]  5  . ;fIf/  dlxnfx¿dfly -#)Ü_ / !^–@% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf -%(Ü_ dlxnfx¿dfly of} lgs lx+;fa9L ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . ª_ xTof k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df @% -@*hgf_dlxnfx¿sf] xTof ePsf]  5 eg]  !Ü -!*hgf_ dlxnfx¿dfly xTofsf] k|of; ePsf]  5 . %)%>Ldfgaf6, @^Ü, kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿af6, !%% l5d] sLaf6 /  $Ü ;DaGw gePsf] JolQmaf6 dlxnfx¿sf] xTof ul/ Psf] 5 . ;fIf/ #(Ü dlxnfx¿ / !^–#% jif{ pd] / sf]  dlxnfx¿sf] xTofa9L ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . r_ a]rlavg @%-@%hgf_ dlxnfx¿ o; jif{ a] rlavgdf k/ ] sf] kfO{Psf]  5 eg]  !Ü -*hgf_ dlxnfx¿dfly a] rlavgsf] k|of; ePsf]  kfOof]  . dlxnfn] ;fyL dfg] sf JolQmaf6 $#%, s'g}  klg ;DaGw gePsf] JolQmaf6 @$ Ü, l5d] sLaf6 @!Ü, kl/ jf/ sf]  ;b:oaf6 (Ü, / >Ldfgaf6 #Ü dlxnfx¿ o:tf] lx+;fdf k/ ] sf]  kfOof]  . ;fIf/ dlxnfx¿ $%Ü / !^–@% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf $( Ü dlxnfx¿ a] rlavgdf a9L kg{] u/ ] sf] kfO{Psf] 5 . 5_ cGo dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;f t/ yf] / } ;+Vofdf clen] vLs/ 0f ePsf 36gfx¿nfO{ cGo ;d"xdf / fvLljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] xf]  . o; ;d"xsf 36gfx¿df cfTdxTof, dlxnfnfO{ j] kQf agfO{Psf 36gf / kl/ jf/ s} ;b:oaf6 cnkq cj:yfdf 5f] l8Psf dlxnfx¿sf] 36gfnfO{ / flvPsf] 5 . o; jif{ !@ k|ltzt dlxnfx¿n] cfTdxTof u/ ] sf] , @ hgf dlxnfx¿ j] kQf agfO{Psf w w w .w
  26. 26. 25 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 25 / ( hgf dlxnfx¿ 3/ kl/ jf/ s} ;b:ox¿åf/ f cnkq cj:yfdf kl/ Psf]  kfOPsf] ]  5  . #= pd]/ ;d"x / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f k|fKt tYofÍsf] cfwf/ df o; jif{ ;a} eGbf a9L !^–@% jif{ pd] /  ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ lx+;fdf kfl/ Psf] ] kfO{Psf] 5 . o; ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿df #%Ü lx+;f ePsf] 5 . o:t} ul/ @^–#% jif{ pd] / ;d"xdf ##Ü, #^–$% jif{ pd] / ;d"xdf !^Ü, !^ jif{ d'lgsf aflnsfdf &Ü, $^–%% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfdf %Ü / %^ jif{ eGbfa9L pd] /  ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿df $Ü lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . $ lzIff / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / k|efljtsf] lzIffsf] :t/ nfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ &*Ü ;fIf/ dlxnfx¿dfly ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f ePsf] kfOof] ]  . lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo] @@Ülg/ If/  dlxnfx¿ / x] sf]  kfOof]   . dlxnfsf]  ;fIf/ tfsf]  cj:yfnfO{ ;d] t ljZn] if0f u/ L x] bf{ $&Ü k|f} 9 lzIff, !(Ü pRrdfWolds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf, !%Ü k|fylds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf, !$Ü dfWolds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf /  %Ü pRr dfWolds txeGbf a9L cWoog u/ ] sf dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] kfOof]  . %= j}jflxs cj:yf / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f dlxnfdfly ePsf] lx+;f / dlxnfsf] j} jflxs cj:yfnfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ lx+;fk|efljt dlxnfx¿df ;a} eGbf a9L -*)Ü_ ljjflxt dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . !$% cljjflxt dlxnfx¿df, $Ü Psn dlxnfx¿df / @Ü >Ldfg;Fu 5'l§P/  a;] sf dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] kfO{of]  . dlxnfx¿ a9L 3/ ] n'lx+;faf6 k|efljt 5g / ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿dfly ljjfx kZrft >Ldfg åf/ f lx+;f x'g] xF'bf+ klg ljjflxt dlxnfx¿dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] ;+Vof a9L ePsf] xf]  . w w w .w
  27. 27. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 2626 ^= k]zf / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f s'g k] zfdf ;+nUg slt dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] 5 elg o; jif{ k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ s[lif k] zfdf ;+nUg dlxnfx¿dfly ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f ePsf] kfO{of]  . lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo]  $$Ü dlxnfx¿ s[lif k] zfdf ;+nUg / x] sf, @!Ü dlxnfx¿ 3/ fo;L sfddf, !@Ü dlxnfx¿ dhb'/ Ldf, !)Ü dlxnfx¿ Joj;fodf cfa4 / x] sf] kfO{Psf] 5 . To;} u/ L s'g} klg sfo{df ;+nUg gePsf ^Ü dlxnfx¿, cgf} rfl/ s If] qdf sfo{/ t @Ü dlxnfx¿, /  ;/ sf/ L If] qdf sfo{/ t, j} b] lzs / f] huf/ L, u} / ;/ sf/ L If] qdf sfo{/ t / ;fdflhs ;] jf ug{] dlxnfx¿df a/ fa/ -!-!Ü_ lx+;f ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . &= dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf c;/x¿ lx+;fsf sf/ 0f dlxnfx¿dfly k/ ] sf c;/ nfO{ o; k':tsdf$ ;d"xdf ljefhg u/ L ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] 5 . dlxnfx¿dfly s'g} klg k|sf/ sf]  lx+;f x'Fbf ;a} eGbf a9L -%@Ü_ dfgl;s c;/ k/ ] sf] kfOof]  . @)% dlxnfx¿nfO{ zf/ Ll/ s c;/  k/ ] sf] , !*Ü dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;fdflhs c;/  /  !)Ü dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfly{s c;/ k/ ] sf] kfOPsf] 5 . *= hftLotfsf cfwf/df dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf ljleGg k|sf/ x¿ / dlxnfsf] hftLotfsf cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ o; jif{ ;a} eGbf a9L kxf8] hghflt /  To;kl5 If] qL dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] kfOof]  . lx+;f k|efljt s"n dlxnfdWo]  @(Ü kxf8] hghflt, !%Ü If] qL, !%Ü t/ fO{ hghflt, , !#Ü a|fXd0f, !)Ü t/ fO{ u} /  blnt, (Ü kxf8] blnt, &Ü t/ fO{ blnt / @Ü d'l:nd dlxnfx¿ / x] sf 5g . !)= kL8s / k|efljtsf] ;DaGw dlxnfsf]  kL8s;Fu / x] sf]  ;DaGwsf]  cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ dlxnfdfly ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f ug{] -%#Ü_>Ldfg ePsf] kfOof]  . To:f} u/ L @)Ü dlxnfx¿cfkm" a;] s} ;dfhsf l5d] sLaf6 lx+;fdf k/ ] sf]  kfOof]   . !*Ükl/ jf/ sf;b:o ,%Ü ;fyLaf6 / $Ü ;DaGw gePsf JolQmx¿af6 dlxnfdfly lx+;f ePsf] kfOof]  . w w w .w
  28. 28. kl/R5]b ! w w w .w
  29. 29. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 28 !=! k[i7e"ld "dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f ;fj{hlgs jf lghL hLjgdf lnËsf cfwf/ df x'g] lx+;fhGo sfo{ xf] , h;n] dlxnfnfO{ zf/Ll/s, of}ghGo jf dfgl;s Iflt jf kL8f k'¥ofpF5 jf k'¥ofpg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . o;cGt/ut To:tf] sfo{ ug{] wDsL, bafj / :j]R5frf/L ¿kdf dlxnfsf] :jtGqtfdf aGb]h ug{] sfo{;d]t kb{5 ."2 "dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f dlxnf ePs} sf/ 0fn] dlxnfdfly ul/ g]  ;Dk"0f{lje] bk"0f{ Jojxf/ x¿nfO{ hgfpF5 . o; kl/ efiffn] dlxnf ePs}  sf/ 0fn]  dlxnfdfly x'g]  zf/ Ll/ s, dfgl;s /  of} ghGo lx+;f, tyf 8/ , qf;, wDsL b] vfOg'sf ;fy} cGo clwsf/ x¿af6 al~rt u/ fOg] lqmofsnfkx¿ ;d] t hgfpFb5 ."3 dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ljZjJofkL ;d:ofsf] ¿kdf / x] sf] 5 . g] kfndf klg of] ;d:of a9bf] 5 . of] jif{dfq !%*! hgf dlxnfx¿ ljleGg lx+;fx¿ vKg afWo ePsf] cf] / ] s g] kfndf cfPsf 36gfx¿n]  b] vfpFb5g . of] tYofÍ ;d:ofsf] cg'kftdf w] / } sd 5 .b] zdf w] / }  dlxnfx¿ ljleGg k|sf/ sf si6 / oftgfx¿vKb} vt/ fk"0f{ hLjg latfpg afWo 5g . t/ pgLx¿n] cfkm"dfly ePsf lx+;fx¿ aflx/  Nofpg ;s] sf 5} gg . g] kfn ljZj dfgjlrqdf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsfÍsf b[li6n] !%& cf} + :yfgdf / n} lÍs c;dfgtf ;"rsfÍdf (Gender Inequality Index_ !!# cf+} :yfgdf / x] sf] 5 .4 g] kfnL dlxnfx¿sf] of] cj:yfn] ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfgtfdf 2 dlxnflj?4sf] lx+;f pGd'ng ug{] ;DaGwL 3f]if0ffkq, ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª3 !((# 3 CEDAW General Recommendation No. 19, llth session, 1992 4 o" Pg 8L kL, dfgj ljsf; k|ltj]bg @)!! kl/R5]b !M kl/ro w w w .w
  30. 30. 29 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 29 ljZjf; / fVg] x/ ] s g] kfnLnfO{ lrlGtt agfPsf] 5 . b] z / fhgLlts ¿kn] nf] stflGqs k|0ffnLtkm{ ¿kfGtl/ t x'g] qmddf 5 t/ b] zdf;fdflhs, cfly{s ;+/ rgf; ;dfhdf h/ f]  uf8] /  / x] sf]  lkQ[;QfTds d"NodfGotf, ;f] r, wf/ 0ff; tyfcGwlaZjf;df cfwfl/ t ;+:s[ltnfO{ ;+qmd0fsfnLg ;/ sf/ åf/ f ;Daf] wg ug{ ;s] sf]  5} g  . of] l:yltn]  dlxnfx¿dfly yk lx+;f x'g]  cfwf/  t} of/  u/ ] sf]  5  . b] zdf a9b}  uPsf]  / fhgLltsf]  ck/ fwLs/ 0f /  ck/ fwssf]  / fhgLlts/ 0fn]  lx+;f ug{] nfO{ an k'u] s] f 5 . b] zdf a9b} uPsf] b08xLgtfsf]  l:yltn] lx+;f k|efljtn] Gofo kfpg] ;Defjgf lbg lbg} IfL0f xF'b}  uPsf] 5 . åGåsfndf ljleGg k|sf/ sf lx+;faf6 kLl8t dlxnfx¿ Gofo kfpg] ;Defjgf lbglbg} sd x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . / fhg} lts kl/ jt{g kl5 / fhgLltdf dlxnfx¿sf] ;xeflutf a9] sf] 5 . dlxnf clwsf/  ;'lglZrt ug{] egL ;/ sf/ åf/ f / fli6«o / cGt/ fli6«o txdf ljleGg k|lta4tfx¿hgfOPsf]  5  . t/  b] zdf h/ f]  uf8L/ x] sf]  dlxnf k'?ifsf] aLrdf / x] sf] c;dfg zlQm ;DaGw ;Daf] wg x'g ;s] sf]  5} g . cGtl/ d ;+ljwfgåf/ f dlxnfx¿sf] k|hgg / of} g clwsf/  ;'lglZrt ul/ Psf] ePtf klg Jojxf/ df dlxnfx¿n] oL clwsf/ x¿ k|fKt ug{ ;s] sf 5} gg . cfkmgf] z/ L/ dfly pgLx¿sf] cfkmgf]  lgoGq0f 5} g . x/ ] s If] qsf ;+/ rgfx¿df ljBdfg c;dfgtfn]  dlxnfdfly lje] b ePsf] 5 . hfltut; ;fdflhs / cfly{s ju{; of} lgs /  n} lËs klxrfg; tyf wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts / k/ Dk/ fsf cfwf/ df dlxnfdfly lx+;f x'g] ub{5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lje] bk"0f{ cGTo / ;dfgtfsf nflu lje] bsf ;+/ rgfut sf/ stTjx¿sf]  klxrfgnfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{ jt{dfg kl/ j] zdf cfjZos 5 . 5 dlxnflj?4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd"ng ug{] dxf;lGw cGtu{tsf] g]kfnsf] rf}yf] / kfFrf} ;+o'Qm cfjlws k|ltj]bgdfly 5 Report of the Special Rapporteur on violenceagainst women, its causes and consequences,Rashida Manjoo, 2011, UN Human Rights Council w w w .w
  31. 31. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 3030 dlxnflj?4 e]befj pGd"ng ;ldltn] lbPsf] lgisif{ / ;'emfjx¿ o; k|sf/ 5g M s_ 3/ ] n' lx+;f lgoGq0f P] g / cGo sfg'gx¿sf] k|efjsf/ L sfof{Gjog ;'lglZrt ug{] / To:tf lx+;fsf bf] ifLx¿nfO{ d'2f rnfpg] / ;hfo lbg]  . v_ dlxnflj?4 ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] / fi6«JofkL tYofÍ;Íng k|0ffnL lgdf{0f ug{]  . u_ ha{h:tL s/ 0fL / cGo of} ghGo s;"/ df d'2f ug{ cbfntdf dlxnfsf] k|efjsf/ L kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ug{ of} ghGo lx+;fsf d'2f btf{sf] nflu xbDofb ;DaGwL sfg'g vf/ ] h ug{ tTsfn sbd rfNg]   . 3_ 3/ ] n' lx+;f tyf of} g lx+;f;DaGwdf k|x/ L, ;/ sf/ L jlsn, cbfnt / cGo ;Da4 ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿sf cltl/ Qm :jf:YosdL{x¿nfO{ cfjZos tflnd lbg] / blnt ;d'bfo nufotsf ;a} ;d'bfodf vf;u/ L k'?if / afnsx¿nfO{ nlIft u/ L Jofks hgr] tgf clea[l4 sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{]  . ª_ j}jflxs anfTsf/df ;hfo a9fpg] u/L tof/ kfl/Psf] d:of}bf sfg'gnfO{ l9nfO{ gu/L kfl/t u/L nfu" ug{] / o; ;DaGwdf agfOPsf gofF sfg'gL Joj:yfsf ;DaGwdf r]tgf clea[l4 sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{] . b] zsf] / fhgLlts cl:y/ tfn] dlxnfdfly lx+;f ug{ an ldn] sf]  5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] x/ ] s k|sf/ sf] lx+;f ck/ fw xf] / of] dfgj clwsf/ sf] pNn3g xf]  . ;dfhdf ljBdfg c;dfg zlQm ;DaGw, JofKt ?l9jfbL ;f] r / ;fdflhs d"No dfGotfn] o:tf ck/ fw x'g k|f] T;fxg ub{5 . o:tf 36gfx¿df x'g] / fhgLlts x:tIf] k, kL8snfO{ ;+/ If0f ug{] k|rng, k|efljtnfO{ g} bf] lif b] vfpg]  w w w .w
  32. 32. 31 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 31 ;fdflhs ;f] r h:tf s'/ fx¿n] dlxnfdfly yk lx+;f ug{sf nflu an k|bfg ub{5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f lje] bk"0f{ ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfsf]  kl/ 0ffd xf]  . dlxnfnfO{ lje] b ug{] , kL8f lbg] tTjx¿ 3/ , kl/ jf/ , ;dfh b] lv ;/ sf/ sf ;a} ;+/ rgfx¿df h/ f] ufl8 a;] sf x'G5g . To;} n] dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cGTo x'g] jftfj/ 0fsf] l;h{gf/ o:tf ;+/ rgfx¿df kl/ jt{g lagf ;Dej 5} g . o;sf ;fy} ;dfhdf :yflkt cGwljZjf;, lje] bk"0f{ ?l9jfbL Jojxf/ x¿n] dlxnfdfly lx+;f x'g] jftfj/ 0fnfO{ yk an k'¥ofpF5 . dlxnfdfly x'g]  h:tf] ;'s}  cdfgjLo /  lje] bk"0f{ Jojxf/ nfO{ klg ;fF:s[lts d"NodfGotfsf gfddf 9fs5f] k ug] { ul/ G5 .6 ;f] xL sf/ 0f b] zdf dlxnfnfO{ af] S;Lsf]  cf/ f] k nufO{ xTof ug{] , cfFvf lgsfNg] h:tf ljleGg ck/ fwx¿ ul/ Psf 5g . dfly eg] em} + o:tf ck/ fwx¿sf] cGTo b] zdf cfd"n / fhg} lts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts gLlt Pj+ ;+/ rgfx¿sf kl/ jt{g lagf ;Dej 5} g . o:tf ;+/ rgfx¿df kl/ jt{gsf nflu / fHosf ;a} lgsfox¿df dlxnfsf] ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ul/ g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu / fhg} lts k|lta4tf af] nL / Jojxf/ b'j} df nfu" x'g' cfjZos 5 eg] Jojxf/ df k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf nflu cfjZos kg{] ;xof] uL ;+oGqx¿sf] lj:tf/ ug'{kb{5 . o;/ L t} of/ ul/ Psf ;+oGqx¿df dlxnfsf] ;xh kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ul/ g'kb{5 . To;f] ePdf dfq lx+;fsf ;DaGwdf dlxnfx¿leq / x] sf]  "df}gtfsf] ;+:s[lt" cGTo x'g ;Qm5 . lx+;f lgoGq0f ug{ gLlt / of] hgfx¿ agfpg d2t ldNb5 . cf] / ] s g] kfnåf/ f :yflkt ;xof] uL ;+oGqx¿åf/ f lbOg]  ;xof] u / ;] jfsf sf/ 0f dlxnfx¿df cfkm"dfly ePsf lx+;fx¿sf] lj?4 s] xL xb;Dd "df}gtfsf] ;+:s[lt" e+u ePsf] 5 . of] k':ts dlxnfx¿åf/ fcfkm"dfly ePsf lx+;fx¿sf]  ph'/ LnfO{ ljZn] if0f u/ L t} of/ ul/ Psf] xf]  . oL ;"rgfx¿n] dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu 6 The Special Rapporteur on violenceagainst women, Yakin Turkey,VAW causes and consequences, UN Human Rights Council w w w .w
  33. 33. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 3232 cfjZos kg{] Jofjxfl/ s gLlt / ;xof] uL ;+oGq ljsf; ug{] of] hgf agfpg d2t ug{] 5 eGg] ljZjf; ul/ Psf] 5 . dlxnf lj?4sf] x'g] /f]syfdsf nflu ePsf cGt/fli6«o k|of;x¿ dlxnf clwsf/sf] af/]sf] ;a} eGbf klxnf] ;fd'lxs k|of; ;]g]sf kmN; 3f]if0ffkq–!*$* nfO{ lng] ul/G5 . hxfF dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/ sf] af/]df ;f] 3f]if0ffkqn] a9L hf]8 lbPsf] kfOG5 tyfkL ;f] 3f] if0ffkqdf cfly{s ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/sf] af/]df s] lx dfqfdf cfjfh p7fPsf] kfOG5 . tTkZrft ljZjel/ lgs} w]/} dlxnf clwsf/sld{x¿n] dlxnf clwsf/sf] af/]df cfjfh p7fpb} cfPsf sf/0f ;fd'lxs ¿kdf dlxnf clwsf/sf] cfjfh a'nGb x'b} cfof] . dlxnf clwsf/ eGg] ljlQs} dlxnf lx+;f /f]syfd ePsf]n] dlxnf lx+;fnfO{ /f]syfd ug{sf nflu cGt/fli6«o :t/df 7"nf] k|of; ePsf] 5 . h;df vfzul/ ;+o'Qm /fi6«sf] :yfkgf kZrft o;n] b:tfj]hLs/0fdf al9 dfGotf kfPsf] Oltxf;n] b]vfp5 . vfzul/ dlxnfsf] ;jfn ;DaGwL /fi6« ;+l3o cfof]u -Commission on the Status of Women_, !($% n] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3 leq dlxnf clwsf/sf af/]df lgs} 7"nf] of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 . o;n] dfgj clwsf/ ;DaGwL ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ffkq !($* sf] d:of}bf agfpg] b]lv lnP/ dlxnf lj?4sf ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd'ng ;DaGwL dxf;GwL !(&( b] lv a]OlhË hf]8 kfrf}+ ;Dd]ng ;DdnfO{ of]ubfg lbPsf] kfOG5 . dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;fsf ;jfndf ;a}eGbf ljz]if cGt/fli6«o b:tfj] h eg]sf] dlxnf lj?4sf ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd'ng ;DaGwL dxf;GwL !(&*-CEDAW_ xf], h;n] dlxnf clwsf/sf] ;jfndf ;Ddfg, ;+/If0f / kl/k"0f{ ug{sf ;a}eGbf a9L hf]8 lbG5 . o;n] dlxnf clwsf/sf ;jfndf s]an dlxnf lx+;f tyf lje]bsf af/]df dfq s'/f ub}{g ls o;n] ;a} k|sf/sf dlxnf dfly x'g] e]befjnfO{ pGd'ng ug{sf nflu cGt/fli6«o ¿kdf jsfnt ub{5 ;fy} ;a} kIf w w w .w
  34. 34. 33 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 33 /fi6«x¿nfO{ sfof{Gjogsf nflu afWosf/L ub{5 . o; dxf;GwLn] dlxnf / k'?if ljrsf] lje]bnfO{ jf:tljs ;dfgtfdf hf]8 lbG5 . sfg"gL ¿kdf dfq lje]bsf] cGteGbf klg sfg"gsf ;fy;fy} jf:tljs ;dfgtfdf jsfnt o; dxf;GwLn] ub{5 . wf/f $ n] dlxnf / k'?if ljrsf] jf:tljs ;dfgtfnfO{ a9fpg kIf / fi6«x¿4f/f rflnPsf c:yfoL ljz]if pkfox¿nfO{ of] dxf;GwLdf kl/eflift ul/Psf] e]befj dflgg] 5}g t/ o;sf] kl/0ffd :j¿k pTkGg ePsf c;dfgtf tyf km/s :t/x¿nfO{ s'g} xfntn] klg sfod /fVg' cfjZos x'g] 5}g, ;dfg cj;/ / ;dfg Jojxf/ k|fKt ug]{ p4]Zox¿ xfl;n e};s]kl5 lt pkfox¿nfO{ /f]lsg]5g elg JofVof u/]af6 jf:tjdf dlxnfx¿sf clwsf/ ;+/If0f ug{sf nflu k'?if ;/xsf] :t/df k'/ofpgsf nflu c;dfgtfsf cfwf/df k|s[of cufl8 a9fP/ eP klg dlxnf / k'?ifsf] :t/ ;dfg k'/ofOg] 5 eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf] kfOG5 . l;8f] sldl6n] klg ;a} kIf /fi6«x¿nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ qmddf xfn e}/x]sf ;a} k|sf/sf dlxnf lj?4sf lx+;f /f]syfd ug{sf nflu lglZrt /fli6«o of]hgf agfO{ ;f] nflu pko'Qm tl/sfn] sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu lglZrt ;+/rgfx¿ :yfkgf ug]{ / lt ;+/rgfx¿n] sfo{ u/]gu/]sf] plrt cg'udgsf] k|s[ofåf/f ;lx tl/sfn] sfof{Gjog ug{df hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f /f]syfdsf nflu tof/ kfl/g] of]hgfdf dlxnf lx+;fsf] ljleGg ¿kx¿df 3/] n' lx+;f, ha/h:tLs/0fL, a]rljvg nufPtsf ¿kx¿nfO{ /f]syfd ug{ cem k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{ l;kmfl/; u/]sf] 5 . l;8f] sldl6n] kfl/t u/]sf] ;fwf/0f l;kmfl/; g+ !( df dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;fnfO{ lnËdf cfwfl/t lje]b elg kl/efiff u/]sf] 5 h;df lnËdf cfwfl/t lx+;f eg]sf] Tof] lje]b xf] hxfF dlxnfn] cfkmgf] clwsf/nfO{ k'?if;/x :jtGq ¿kdf pkef]u ug{ gkfpg' w w w .w
  35. 35. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 3434 xf] . ;f]lx l;kmfl/; g+ !( df clwsf/ / :jtGqttf eg]sf hLjg, :jtGqtf / ;'/Iff, oftgfaf6 d'Qm, ;dfg ;+/If0f, sfdsf] clwsf/, kfl/jfl/s clwsf/ cflb x'g eg]sf] 5 . lo clwsf/x¿ :jtGq ¿kdf k|of]u ug{ kfpg' g} dlxnfsf] g};lu{s xs xf] / of] g} dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f pGd'ngsf] ;a}eGbf pQd k|of]u xf] . dlxnf ;DalGw rf}yf] a]OlhË ;Dd]ng !((% n] a]OlhË Kn]6kmfd{ ckm PS;g kfl/t ul/ dlxnf lj?4sf ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;fx¿nfO{ pGd'ng ug{sf nflu ;Dk"0f{ txdf e}/x]sf lje]bx¿sf ;jfndf lglZrt sfg"g lgdf{0f ug{ / ltgnfO{ nfu' ug{ l;kmfl/; u/]sf] 5 . o;n] kIf /fi6«x¿nfO{ dlxnf lj?4 e}/x]sf ;a} k|sf/sf e] befjx¿nfO{ pGd'ng ug{sf nflu bjfj k/]sf] 5 eg] cfh;Dd cfO{k'Ubf sfof{Gjogsf] ;jfndf geP klg sfg"g lgdf{0f aGg] txdf eg] lgs} k|ult ePsf] klg 5 . a]OlhË 3f]if0ffkqn] dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;fsf] af/]df eg]sf] 5 ls dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f ;du| ;dfgtf, zfGtL tyf ljsf;sf] afws ag]sf] 5 . dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;fn] dlxnfsf ;du| dfgj clwsf/ tyf df}lns :jtGqtfdfly g} wfjf af]ln/x]sf] 5 . dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f lgoGq0fsf nflu ePsf /fli6«o k|of;x¿ g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f !# / @) n] qmdzM ;dfgtfsf] xs / dlxnfsf] xsnfO{ df}lns xsdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 . dlxnfsf lj?4 ul/g] e]befj b08gLo x'g], 5f]/f5f]/Lsf ljr k} lqs ;DklQdf a/fa/ xs nfUg] clwsf/nfO{ df}lns xssf ¿kdf Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . To;}ul/ d'n'sL P]gsf ljleGg lzif{sx¿df dlxnf ;dfgtfsf af/]df sfg"gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . c+za08fsf] dxn, nf]Ug]:jf:gLsf] dxn, ljjfxjf/Lsf] dxn, ha/h:tLs/0fLsf] dxn nufPtdf dlxnf lj?4 x'g] lx+;f, dlxnf / k'?if ljr ul/g] lje]bxsf] cGt tyf dlxnfsf clwsf/nfO{ yk ;'/lIft ug{sf nflu w w w .w
  36. 36. 35 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 35 sfg"gL Joj:yf u/]sf] kfOG5 . dfgj a]rljvg tyf cf];f/k;f/ lgoGq0f P]g @)^$ tyf lgodfjnL, 3/]n' lx+;f -lgoGq0f / /f] syfd_ P]g @)^^ tyf lgodfjnL dlxnf lj?4 lx+;f /f]syfdsf nflu NofOPsf pbfx/0fLo sfo{ x'g . kl5Nnf] k6s g]kfn ;/sf/n] dlxnf lj?4 xg] lx+;f lgoGq0f ug{ s]lx ;sf/fTds sfo{ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] u7g b]lv cnUu} dlxnf dGqfno nufPtsf ;+u7gfTds sfo{x¿sf cnfjf sfg"g, gLlt lgdf{0fx¿df klg ;sf/fTds sbd rfn]sf] kfOG5 . lnËdf cfwfl/t lx+;fsf af/]df /fli6«o sfo{of]hgf tof/ kfl/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] @)!) nfO{ n}lËs lx+;f lj?4sf] aif{ 3f]if0ff ul/ o;nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf] lyof] . To;} sfo{of]hgfnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ qmddf k|wfgdGqL sfof{no cGt/ut /xg] ul/ n}lËs lje]b ;DaGwL OsfO{ :yfkgf u/]sf] 5 o;n] /fli6«o :t/df gLlt lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u ug{sf ;fy} ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿;+Uf klg ;xsfo{ ul/ lnËsf cfwf/df ul/g] eb] efjnfO{ cGTo ug{ cufl8 al9 /x]sf] 5 . To;}ul/ dfgj a]rljvg ljzif ul/ dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfx¿sf] a]rljvg tyf cf];f/k;f/ lj?4sf] /fli6«o sfo{of]hgf @)^* cufl8 NofO{ sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f dWo]sf] Ps 7"nf] ;d:of dlxnf a]rljvgsf] ;jfn clxn] hNbf]aNbf] ¿kdf cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . ljZjsf] cfs8fn] klg ck/flws sf/f]af/ dWo]sf] dfgj a]rljvg ;a}eGbf al9 x'g] u/]sf] b]vfp5 eg] g]kfndf klg dlxnf a]rljvgsf] ;jfn hl6n ;d:ofsf] ¿kdf cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . clxn] ljleGg axfgfdf g] kfnL dlxnfx¿nfO{ ef/t nufPt t];|f] b]zdf n}hfg] k|a[lQ a9]sf] 5 . a}b]lzs /f]huf/sf] gfddf, ljleGg sfddf nufO{lbg] gfddf g]kfnL dlxnfx¿ clxn] a]rljvgsf] lzsf/ e}/x]sf 5g . o;} w w w .w
  37. 37. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 3636 ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfgsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] dfgj a]rljvg tyf cf];f/k;f/ lgoGq0f P]g @)^$ sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] 5 . o;n] cGo sfg"geGbf s8fO{ tyf leGg tl/sfn] sfo{ljlw klg lgwf{/0f u/]sf]n] ;s];Dd cleo'QmnfO{ xb};Ddsf] ;hfo xf]; eGg] cfzo o; P]gsf] /x]sf] 5 . dfgj a]rljvg / cf];f/k;f/sf]sf] kl/efiff leGgfleGg} ul/ s'g} klg p4]Zon] a]Rg] lsGg], s'g} klg kmfObflnO{ jf glnO{ a]Zofj[lQdf nufpg], k|rlnt sfg"gdf afx]s c+u lemSg] / a]Zofudg ug]{ ;d]tnfO{ a]rljvg eg]sf] 5 eg] lsGg] jf a]Rg] p2]Zon] dflg;nfO{ ljb]zdf n}hfg], j]Zofj[lQdf nufpg] jf zf]if0f ug]{ p2]Zon] s'g} k|sf/n] nnfO{ kmsfO{, k|nf]egdf kf/L, e'mSofO{, hfn;fh u/L, k|k~r ldnfO{, hah{:tL u/L, s/sfkdf kf/L, ckx/0f u/L, z/L/ aGws /fvL, gfh's l:yltsf] kmfObf lnO{, a]xf]; kf/L, kb jf zlQmsf] b'¿kof]u u/L, cleefjs jf ;+/IfsnfO{ k|nf] egdf kf/L, 8/, qf;, wfs, wDsL lbO{ jf s/sfkdf kf/L s;}nfO{ al;/x]sf] 3/, :yfg jf JolQmaf6 5'6fO{ nUg] jf cfk"m;Fu /fVg] jf cfˆgf] lgoGq0fdf lng] jf s'g} :yfgdf /fVg] jf g]kfnleqsf] Ps 7fpFaf6 csf]{ 7fpFdf jf ljb]zdf n}hfg] jf c? s;}nfO{ lbg] sfo{ cf];f/k;f/ x'g] eg]sf] 5 . dlxnf dfly x'g] lx+;f dWo]sf] ha/h:tL s/0fL klg Ps xf] . o;af/] df d'n'sL P]gsf] ha/h:tL s/0fLsf] dxndf s;}n] s'g} dlxnfnfO{ lghsf] d~h"/L glnO{ s/0fL u/]df jf ;f]x| jif{eGbf sd pd]/ sL aflnsfnfO{ lghsf] d~h"/L lnO{ jf glnO{ s/0fL u/]df lghn] hah{:tL s/0fL u/]sf] 7x5{ elg kl/efiff u/]sf] 5 . o;df 8/ wfs, wDsL qf; tyf cg'lrt k|efjdf kfl/ u/]sf] sfo{nfO{ klg ;d]6]sf] 5 . of] o:tf] of}ghGo ck/fw xf] ls h;af6 dlxnf :jo+ lkl8t t x'lG5g g} o;n] p;sf] kl/jf/ tyf ;dfhdf g} c;/ k5{ To;}n] o; ck/fwnfO{ h3Go ck/fwsf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . ha/h:tL s/0fLsf] ck/fw g]kfnsf] sfg"g cg';f/ s]an dlxnf dfly dfq x'g] ck/fw dflgG5 . ha/h:tL s/0fLsf] ck/fw s]an k'?ifn] dfq w w w .w
  38. 38. 37 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 37 ug]{ xf]Og ls dlxnfn] klg k'?ifdfly ha/h:tLs/0fLsf] ck/fw ug{ ;Sg] ePsf]n] e]befj eof] elg bfo/ u/]sf] Zofds[i0f df:s]sf] d'2fdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] g]kfnL ;dfh cg';f/ dlxnfn] k'?ifnfO{ ha/h:tLs/0fL ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf /xb}g elg vf/]h ul/lbPsf] 5 . To;}ul/ dL/f 9'+ufgfsf] Pp6f d'2fdf a}jflxs anfTsf/nfO{ dfGotf lbO{ kltn] klg kTgLsf] d~h'/L ljgf of}gsfo{ u/]df ha/h:tL s/0fL x'g] elg ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] km};nf u/]sf] 5 . ha/h:tL s/0fLsf] d2fdf cleo'Qmaf6 plrt cfly{s If]ltk"lt{ lbnfO{ lbg], o;sf nflu d'2f bfo/ ubf{ v]l/ g} cleo'Qmsf] c+z afktsf] ;DklQ /f]Ssf /fVg' kg]{ sfg"gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;kgf k|wfg dNnsf] Ps d'2fdf ha/h:tLs/0fL ;DaGwL #% lbg] xbDofbsf] ;DaGwdf ;/sf/sf gfddf lgb]{zgfTds cfb]z lbO{ pQm ;do pko'Qm gePsf]n] pQm xbDofbsf] ;do a9fpg' eg]sf] 5 . hLts'df/L k+u]gLn] a}jflxs anfTsf/sf] ck/flwnfO{ x'g] elgPsf] s}b ;hfo Go"g ePsf]n] cGo ck/fwLnfO{ eP ;/x x'g'kg]{ dfubflj ;lxt bfo/ u/]sf] Pp6f d'2fdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] ;f] af/]df klg af]n]sf] kfOG5 eg] Hof]lt nD;fn kf}8]nn] bfo/ u/]sf] Ps d'2fdf ;a} :jf:Yo ;+:yfx¿df anfTsf/ lkl8t dlxnfnfO{ lgMz'Ns pkrf/ tyf k/fdz{ lbO{g] Joj:yf ug'{ eGg] ;jf]{Rrn] cfb]z lbPsf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] dfgj a]rljvg tyf cf];f/k;f/ lgoGq0f tyf /f]syfd P]g / 3/]n' lx+;f /f]syfd tyf lgoGq0f P]g cGt/ut 5'66f5'66} ;'/lIft cfjf; s]Gb|x¿ ljleGg lhNnfdf :yfkgf ul/ lkl8t dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;]jf lbg] tyf k'g{:yfkgfsf nflu ljleGg sfg"gL k/fdz{ ;xof]u tyf cGo k/fdz{sf sfo{x¿ ub}{ cfPsf] kfOG5 . o;sf ;fy} ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] klg 3/]n' lx+;fdf k/]sf ;'/Iff cfjf; cfjZostf k/]sf dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ul//x]sf 5g . cf]/]s g]kfnn] g]kfn el/ ljleGg & lhNnfdf dlxnf ;'/Iff cfjf; s]Gb|x¿ ;+rfng ub}{ cfO{/x]sf] 5 . w w w .w
  39. 39. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 3838 dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f /f]syfdsf nflu ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L If] qaf6 lgs} k|of;x¿ ePsf eP klg cem sfof{Gjogsf] ;jfndf Tolt /fd|f] k|ult x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . cf/]s g]kfnn] dfl;s ¿kdf / fli6«o :t/sf kqklqsf 5flkPsf 36gfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ tof/ kfg]{ dlxnf lx+;f ;DaGwL k|ltj]bgdf s'g} dlxgf 36gf a9]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 eg] s'g} dlxgf yf]/} . ;+VofTds lx;fan] x]bf{ k|lt dlxgf 36gfsf] b/ a9b} uPsf] b]vfPsf] 5 . h:tf] pQm tYofÍdf x]bf{ @)^( ;fn a}zfvdf !)%, h]i7 @)^( df !$!, c;f/df !^) tyf efb|df (^ dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gf 36]sf 5g . o;n] klg s] b]vfp5 eg] dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gf lbg k|ltlbg a9b} u}/x]sf 5g . !=@ cWoogsf] ;Ldf o; k':tsdf ljleGg lhNnfx¿df ;d'bfo:t/ df lqmofzLn dlxnf dfgj clwsf/  / Ifsx¿n]  36gf clen] vLs/ 0f u/ L k7fPsf 36gfx¿, :ynut ¿kdf cg';Gwfg tyf clen] vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf 36gfx¿, ;+:yfn] ;'/ lIft cfjf;, sfg'gL k/ fdz{ tyf sfg'gL ;xof] u, :jf:Yo pkrf/ nufotsf ;xof] u k'¥ofPsf] 36gfx¿nfO{ ;dfj] z u/ L ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] 5 . / fli6«o kqklqsfx¿df k|sfzg ePsf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] cg'udg u/ L pQm cg'udgsf cfwf/ df ul/ Psf] ljZn] if0fnfO{ klg o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z ul/ Psf]  5 . o; k':ttsdf % j6} ljsf; If] qdf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;dfj] z ug{] k|of; ul/ Psf] 5 . tfklg ;dfhdf n's] /  / x] sf / cem klg aflx/ cfpg g;s] sf, dlxnf dfgj clwsf/  / Ifsx¿ / ;+:yfsf] kx'FreGbf aflx/ / x] sf 36gfx¿ o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z ug{ ;lsPsf] 5} g . o; k':tsn] g] kfnsf] ;du| dlxnfx¿sf] cj:yfnfO{ k|ltljlDjt ug{ g;s] klg g] kfnsf] dlxnf lx+;fsf] cj:yfsf] :j¿k eg] lrq0f w w w .w
  40. 40. 39 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 39 ub{5 eGg] ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 . !=# cWoog ljlw clen] vLs/ 0fsf]  ;Lk k|fKt tyf cf] / ] s g] kfnåf/ f clen] vLs/ 0fsf]  tflnd lbOPsf JolQmx¿af6 36gf clen] vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof]  . clen] vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf 36gfx¿sf]  uf] kgLotf sfod ug{ x/ ] s 36gfx¿df sf] 8 g+Da/ / fvL P;=lk=P;=P;= ;km6j] / eh{g !!=% tYofÍnfO{ Jojl:yt / ;+ul7t ug{] sfo{ ul/ Psf] lyof]  . / pQm ;km6j] / s} dfWodaf6 36gfx¿nfO{ ljZn] if0f u/ L k|fKt tYofÍx¿nfO{ o; k':tsdf ;dfj] z ul/ Psf] 5 . ;+rf/ dfWoddf k|sfzg ePsf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ klg df ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] lyof]  . w w w .w
  41. 41. kl/R5]b @ w w w .w
  42. 42. 41 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 41 @ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf cj:yf / ljZn]if0f @=! lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] If]qut l:ylt of] jif{ -@)!! h'nfO{ b] lv @)!@ h'g;Dd_ cf] / ] s g] kfnleqhDdf !%*! j6fdlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fx¿ clen] vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf lyP . tL 36gfx¿ b] zsf % j6} ljsf; If] qaf6 ;+slnt ul/ Psf x'g . If] qut¿kdf lx+;fsf] l:ylt lgDg / x] sf] 5 . rf6{ g+= ! dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx?sf] If]qut l:ylt o; jif{ k|fKt tYofÍsf cg';f/ ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfdfly ePsf]  lx+;fsf 36gf k"jf{~rn ljsf; If] qaf6 clen] vLs/ 0f ePsf] 5 . k"jf{~rn ljsf; If] qaf6 ^#Ü, dWodf~rn ljsf; If] qaf6 !*Ü, ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn / dWoklZrdf~rn ljsf; If] qaf6 a/ fa/ L (Ü / klZrdf~rnaf6 !Ü dlxnfx¿dfly ePsf ljleGg k|sf/ sf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf clen] vLs/ 0f ePsf 5g . -rf6{ !_ kl/R5]b @ M k|fKt kl/0ffdx¿ / ljZn]if0f w w w .w
  43. 43. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 4242 ljZn]if0f hxfF ;"rgf / lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf nflu ;xof] uL ;+oGq dlxnfsf] kx'Frdf 5 ToxfF lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ a9L dfqfdf aflx/  cfpg] u5{g / l/ kf] l6Ë a9L x'g] ub{5 eGg] tYonfO{ of] tYofÍn]  k'li6 ub{5 . k"jf{~rn ljsf; If] qdf dflg;sf] lzIffsf] :t/ , ;~rf/  ;~hfn, dfgj clwsf/ df sfd ug{] ;ª3;+:yfx¿sf] ;xeflutf cGo ljsf; If] qdfeGbf a9L / x] sf] kfO{G5 . ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/ x¿klg k"jf{~rnljsf; If] qdf cGo ljsf; If] qsf] t'ngfdf a9L ljsl;t 5g . g] kfn ;/ sf/ n] !% lhNnfdf ;+rfng u/ ] sf ;'/ lIft cfjf;sf]  ;] jf k"jf{~rn ljsf; If] qsf $ j6f lhNnfx¿df 5g . o;sf ;fy}  cf] / ] s g] kfn o; If] qdf ljut !* jif{b] lv sfo{/ t 5 . o; cjlwdf ;d'bfo:t/ b] lv g} dlxnf ;d"xx¿sf] ;~hfn lj:tf/ ul/ Psf] 5 . dlxnfx¿sf] dfgj clwsf/ , dlxnf clwsf/ , lx+;f h:tf s'/ fx¿sf]  a'emfO{df :ki6tf cfPsf] kfOG5 . !) jif{b] lv] la/ f6gu/ , pbok'/  /  wg'iffdf ;'/ lIft cfjf;sf]  cjwf/ 0ffdf ";'/ Iff cfjf;" x¿ ;+rflnt 5g . o;sf/ 0f of] If] qdf dlxnfx¿cfkm"dfly ePsf]  lx+;f aflx/ NofPdf ;xof] u k|fKt x'G5 eGg] s'/ sdf 9'Ss eO{ lx+;fsf]  ph'/ L lnP/  cf] / ] s g] kfn /  k|x/ LsxfF hfg]  ub{5g  . o; ljsf; If] qdf dlxnfx¿ ;d'bfo:t/ b] lv ;+ul7t eO{ ;lqmo¿kdf sfo{ ub{} 5g . o:t} u/ L k"j{sf lhNnfx¿df dlxnf dfgj clwsf/  / Ifsx¿sf]  ;d'bfo;Fusf]  ;dGjosf sf/ 0f klg ;d'bfo:t/ b] lvsf 36gfx¿ aflx/ cfpg] u/ ] sf 5g . To;} n] klg o; ljsf; If] qaf6 dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ x/ ] s jif{ cGo ljsf; If] qsf]  t'ngfdf a9L clen] lvs/ 0f xF'b} cfPsf] kfO{G5 . klZrdf~rn, dWo klZrdf~rn / ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn ljsf; If] qaf6 dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ k"jf{~rn / dWodf~rn ljsf; If] qsf t'ngfdf sd clen] vLs/ 0f ePsf] 5 . t/ o;sf] cy{ o; ljsf; If] qdf 36gf klg sd x'g] ub{5 eGg] x} g . ef} uf] lns ljs6tf, ;"rgfdf kx'Frsf] sdL, ;] jf s] Gb|x¿sf] k"jf{wf/ df sdL w w w .w
  44. 44. 43 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 43 / lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sfnflu ;xof] uL ;+oGqx¿sf] sdL h:tf sf/ 0fn] klg dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] ph'/ L jf l/ kf] l6ª o; If] qaf6 sd ePsf] x'g ;Sb5 . @=@ dlxnf lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿ ljleGg / x] sf 5g . o; k':tsdf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fnfO{ d'Votof & efudf juL{s/ 0f u/ L ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] 5 . k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf k|sf/ nfO{ rf6{ @ n] k|:t't ul/ Psf] 5 . rf6{ g+= @ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf k|sf/x? o; jif{ clen] vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf] hDdf !%*! j6f 36gfx¿ df ;a} eGbf a9L -!)!(_ hgf dlxnfx¿ 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|tfl8t x'g'k/ ] sf] tYo k|fKt ePsf] 5 . dlxnflj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf] ^$Ü efu 3/ ] n' lx+;fn]  cf] u6] sf]  5  . bf] ;|f]  :yfgdf ;fdflhs lx+;f / x] s] f 5 . s"n ;+Vofdf @%! -!^Ü_ hgf dlxnfx¿dfly ljleGg k|sf/ n]  ;fdflhs ¿kdf lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . s"n ;+Vofsf] $Ü -!!) j6f_ anfTsf/ sf 36gfx¿ / @Ü -#^j6f_ anfTsf/ sf k|of;sf w w w .w
  45. 45. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 4444 36gfx¿ ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . ^# hgf -#Ü_ dlxnfx¿dfly of} lgs lx+;f ePsf] 5 . @* hgf dlxnfx¿sf] xTof ePsf] 5 eg] !* hgf dlxnfx¿dfly xTofsf] k|of; ePsf] 5 . To;} u/ L @% hgf dlxnfx¿ a] rlavgdf k/ ] sf 5g eg] * hgf dlxnfx¿sf] a] rlavgsf] k|of; ePsf] 5 . cGo 36gfx¿df o; jif{ !@ hgf dlxnfx¿n] ljleGg lx+;fsf sf/ 0fn]  cfTdxTof u/ ] sf]  tYofÍ k|fKt ePsf] 5 eg] @ hgf dlxnfx¿ j] kQf agfO{Psf / ( hgf dlxnfx¿ cfkmg} kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿åf/ f cnkq cj:yfdf kfl/ Psf]  kfO{Psf]  5  . ljZn]if0f dlxnfdfly x'g]  u/ ] sf]  lx+;fsf k|sf/ x¿nfO{ x] bf{ ;a} eGbf a9L-^$Ü_ dlxnfx¿ 3/ ] n' lx+;fdf k/ ] sf] kfO{Psf] 5 . dlxnfdfly ;a} eGbf a9L cfkmg}  >Ldfgaf6 %#Ü /  3/kl/jf/sf ;b:oaf6 @)Ü lx+;f ePsf] kfO{G5 -rf6{ g+= *_ . o; tYofÍnfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ ';a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿ cfkmg} 3/df c;'/lIft 5g . dlxnfx¿ cfkm gf elgPsf JolQmx¿af6 g} a9L dfqfdf lx+;fdf kg{] u/]sf 5g / glhssf cfkmGtx¿af6} g} dlxnfx¿nfO{ vt/f 5' eGg]  ;+s] t o; tYofÍn] k|:t't u/ ] sf] 5 . lkQ[;Qfn] xfjL ePsf] jt{dfg ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfsf sf/ 0f g] kfndf dlxnfnfO{ cfh klg bf] ;|f]  bhf{sf]  gful/ ssf]  ¿kdf Jojxf/ ul/ G5 . kmn:j¿k dlxnfx¿sf]  cfkmgf]  z/ L/  /  of} lgstfdf ;d] t cfkmgf]  clwsf/  sfod x'g ;s] sf]  5} g . lkQ[;QfTds d"NodfGotf, k/ Dk/ f / ;+:sf/ sf cfwf/ df dlxnfsf] z/ L/ dfly c?sf] lgoGq0f sfod ul/ Psf] 5 . ljjfxk"j{ 5f] / L kl/ jf/ sf]  clwgdf /  ljjfxkZrft dlxnfdfly >Ldfgsf]  clwsf/  / xg]  lkQ[;QfTds ;f] r ;dfhdf h/ f]  uf8] /  / x] sf]  5  . oxL ;f] rcg'¿k dlxnfnfO{ 3/  kl/ jf/  /  >Ldfgsf]  ;DklQsf]  ¿kdf lnOG5 . 3/ sf] OHht wfGg] d"n cfwf/ sf] ¿kdf lrlqt ul/ G5 . kmn:j¿k dlxnfx¿ cfkmgf] 3/ kl/ jf/ / >Ldfgn] rfx] cg'¿ksf sfo{x¿ ug{ afWo kfl/ G5g . pgLx¿sf] gt ;DklQdf xs x'G5 gt cfkmg} :jcfh{gdf . o:tf] l:yltdf olb dlxnfn] cfkmgf] clwsf/  w w w .w
  46. 46. 45 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 45 vf] lhg, jsfnt ul/ g eg] pgLdfly lx+;f x'g hfG5 . dflg;sf nflu ;a} eGbf ;'/ lIft :yfg 3/ / ;xof] uL JolQm eg] sf cfkmgf]  kl/ jf/ sf ;b:o x'G5g ,t/ dlxnfsf nflu ltg} c;'/ lIft 5g . of] cToGt lrGtfsf] ljifo / x] sf] 5 . @=# dlxnf lx+;f / pd]/ o; k':tsdf dlxnfsf] pd] / nfO{ % efudf ljefhg u/ L s'g pd] /  ;d"xdf a9L dlxnfdfly lx+;f ePsf] 5 egL ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf]  5 . k|fKt tYofÍ cg';f/ !^–@% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿df ;a}eGbf a9L -#%Ü_lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . o;} u/ L @^–#% jif{ pd] /  ;d"xdf ##Ü, #^–$% jif{ pd] / ;d"xdf !^Ü, !^ jif{d'lgsf aflnsfdf &Ü, $^–%% jif{ pd] / ;d"xdf %Ü / %% jif{ dflysf dlxnfx¿df $Ü lx+;f ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 -rf6{ #_ . rf6{ g+= # dlxnfsf] pd]/ cg';f/ lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd ljZn]if0f “cfTd ;Ddfgsf ;fy hLjgofkg ug{ kfpg' x/]s JolQmsf] g};lu{s w w w .w
  47. 47. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 4646 clwsf/ xf]”(dfgj clwsf/ sf] ljZjJofkL 3f] if0ffkq, !($*_ . g] kfnL dlxnfx¿ ue{fj:yfb] lv lrtfdf ghn'~h] n ;Ddsf] cj:yfdf km/ s km/ s :j¿ksf lx+;fx¿ v] Kb} hLjgofkg ug{ afWo agfO{Psf 5g . o; jif{ k|fKt tYofÍnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / pd] / ;d"xnfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ # jif{b] lv *$ jif{ pd] / sf dlxnfxdfly ;d] t s'g} g s'g} k|sf/ sf] lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . o;n] s] b] vfpF5 eg] s'g} klg pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿n] :jtGq /  lx+;f/ lxt hLjg ofkg ug{ ;s] sf 5} gg . ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿ !^ b] lv @% jif{sf] pd] / ;d"xdf lx+;fdf / x] sf] ] ] kfOPsf] 5 . of]  pd] / ljz] ift JolQmut ljsf; ug{] , pRr lzIff xfl;Fn ug{] /  l;h{gzLn sfo{df ;+nUg x'g] pd] / xf]  . t/ ;dfhdf ljBdfg / x] sf]  5f] / Lk|ltsf]  lje] bsf/ L ;f] rsf sf/ 0f dlxnfn]  ljjfx ug{} kg{]  dfGotfsf sf/ 0f o; pd] / sf w] / } dlxnfx¿ ank"j{s ljjfx aGwgdf aflwG5g . k9fO{ aLrd} 5f] 8g afWo agfO{G5g . kmn:j¿k pgLx¿sf] cfTdan sdhf] / aGg k'Ub5 . pgLx¿dfly lx+;f x'g]  jftfj/ 0f aG5 . ;dfhdf ljBdfg dlxnfk|ltsf] unt b[li6sf] 0fn]  of] l:yltnfO{ yk dnhn ub{5 . o:tf] l:yltn] dlxnfsf] JolQmTj ljsf;, :jf:Yo, lzIff h:tf cfwf/ e"t s'/ fx¿df gsf/ fTds k|efj kfb{5 . oxL pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿dfly ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f klg x'g]  u/ ] sf]  5  . o;n]  s]  b] vfpF5 eg]  dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;dfhdf x/ ] s lx;fan] k'?ifsf t'ngfdf k5fl8 kfg{sf nflu dlxnfdfly lx+;f x'g]  jftfj/ 0f tof/  ul/ Psf]  xf]   . o; pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿dfly a9L lx+;f x'g'sf] csf{] sf/ 0f xfd|f]  ;dfhdf of] pd] / ;d"xsf ^)Ü dlxnfx¿sf] ljjfx eO{;s] sf]  x'G5 . 7 ;fgf] pd] / df 5f] / Lsf] ljjfx u¥of] eg] wd{ sdfOG5 /  :ju{ hfg kfO{G5, 5f] / Ln] ;Ifd eP/ cfkm} + ljjfx u/ L eg] OHht hfG5, 5f] / Ln]  w] / }  k9L eg]  ;f]  txsf]  s] 6f kfpg ufx|f]  x'G5 eGg]  ;f] r cem;Dd ;dfhdf xfaL 5 . 5f] / Ldf "s'df/ LTj" xF'b+} ljjfx ug'{k5{ eGg]  dfGotfn]  ubf{ ;fg}  pd] / df 5f] / Lsf]  ljjfx ug{]  ul/ G5  .8 7 The state of the Worlds's children, UNICEF, 2007 8 Premarital Socio-Economic Roles and the Timing of Family w w w .w
  48. 48. 47 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 47 o:tf ;f] rn] klg dlxnfdfly lx+;f ug{nfO{ k|z:t jftfj/ 0f tof/  ul/ Psf]  5  . @^–#% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ klg lx+;faf6 a9L k|efljt ePsf 5g . of] pd] / eg] sf] pTkfbgzLn pd] / xf]  . o; pd] / df dlxnfx¿ ;fdflhs / h} ljs k|hgg b'j} sfo{df ;+nUg x'G5g . of]  l:yltdf dlxnfn]  kl/ jf/ n]  eg]  cg';f/ sf]  lnËsf]  aRrf vf;u/ L 5f] / L hGdfPg, ;dfhsf]  dfGotfcg'¿k cfkm"nfO{ 9fNg ;s] g, kl/ jf/ sf]  ck] Iff cg'¿ksf] k9fO{, sfd ug{ ;s] g, cfkmgf] z/ L/ dfly cfkmgf] lg0f{o ug{] sf] lz; u¥of] eg] p;n] lx+;f vKg' kg{] l:ylt 5 . of] l:yltn] dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/ ;+ljwfgtM k|fKt df} lns clwsf/ x¿ xgg eO/ x] sf 5g . !% b] lv @% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf / @^ b] lv #% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ a9L dfqfdf 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 kLl8t 5g . o;/ L kLl8t x'g] dlxnfx¿dWo] ;aeGbf a9L dlxnfx¿ cfkmgf] >Ldfg /  3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿af6 k|tfl8t ePsf 5g . o;n] :ki6 ¿kdf "3/ leq / cfkmGtx¿dfem dlxnfx¿ ;'/ lIft 5g" eGg]  ;f] rnfO{ r'gf} tL lbPsf] 5 . @=$ dlxnf lx+;f / lzIff dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / lzIffsf] l:yltnfO{ ljZn] if0f u/ L tn rf6{df -rf6{ g+ $ / %_ k|:t't ul/ Psf] 5 . o; tYofÍsf cfwf/ df a9L lx+;f -&*Ü_ ;fIf/ dlxnfx¿dfly x'g] u/ ] sf] kfOPsf] 5 . ;fIf/  dlxnfdf klg $&Ü k|f} 9 lzIff, !(Ü pRr dfWolds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf, !%Ü k|fylds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf, !$Ü dfWolds tx;Dd cWoog u/ ] sf / %Ü pRr dfWolds txeGbf a9L cWoog u/ ] sf dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 eg] lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo]  @@Ü lg/ If/  dlxnfx¿ / x] sf]  kfO{of]   . formation: a comparative study of five Asian societies, Demography 22(1):35-59 w w w .w
  49. 49. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 4848 rf6{ g++=$ dlxnfsf] z}lIfs cj:yfsf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0fdx¿ rf6{ g++=% dlxnfsf] ;fIf/tfsf] cj:yfsf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0fdx¿ w w w .w
  50. 50. 49 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 49 ljZn]if0f dflysf] tYofÍnfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ s] kfO{G5 eg] hf] dlxnfx¿ ;fIf/ 5g, cfkm"dfly ePsf] cGofo÷lx+;fsf] klxrfg ug{ ;Ifd 5g / To;sf lj?4 af] N5g tL dlxnfx¿g} a9L dfqfdf lx+;fsf]  hf] lvddf / x] sf 5g . o;sf] ;fy} o:tf dlxnfx¿n] cfkm"dfly ePsf lx+;fx¿ aflx/ NofpF5g . Gofosf nflu ph'/ L ub{5g . To;} n] o:tf dlxnfx¿dfly x'g] lx+;fx¿sf] ph'/ L a9L x'G5 . ;fy}  k9] n] v] sf dlxnfx¿n]  hlxn]  klg ;dfgtfsf s'/ f hfgL ghflgbf] + ¿kdf kl/ jf/ / ;dfhdf p7fpF5g, cGofosf] lj?4 af] N5g / c?nfO{ klg af] Ng k|] l/ t ub{5g / ltg} dlxnfx¿nfO{ nlIft u/ L lx+;f ul/ G5 . tL dlxnfx¿ k'/ ftgjfbL / ?9LjfbL ;f] raf6 ;dfhnfO{ d'Qm u/ fpgtkm{ nfUb5g . pgLx¿ ;dfhdf ljBdfg ?l9jfbL k'/ ftgjfbL ;f] rfOsf] rqmJo"x tf] 8L aflx/ cfpg] k|of;df x'G5g . kmn:j¿k ;dfhdf / x] sf] k'/ ftgjfbL tyf lkQ[;QfTds ;f] rfOsf kIfkftLx¿n] o;/ L ;lqmo lzlIft dlxnfx¿nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu lx+;fsf] af6f] ckgfpg yfN5g . dflysf rf6{x¿df k|:t't tYofÍdf klxnf] lx+;fdf kg{] ;fIf/  dlxnfx¿ /  bf] ;|f] df lg/ If/  dlxnfx¿ / x] sf]  kfO{Psf]  5  . jt{dfg ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfn] ljjfxk"j{ dlxnfn] afa'n] eg] sf] h]  klg dfGg'k5{ . ljjfx kZrft >Ldfg g} dlxnfsf nflu ;j{] ;jf{ x'G5g, eGg] dlxnfsf] ;f] rfO{df kfl/ lbPsf] 5 . h;sf sf/ 0f w] / }  dlxnfx¿n] >Ldfgn] ug{] h:tf] ;'s} Jojxf/ ;d] tnfO{ klg olt t e}  xfN5, d] / f]  z/ L/ df cflv/  p;sf]  clwsf/  5 -d] / f]  z/ L/  d] / f]  clwsf/ _ eGg] unt ;f] r cfTd;ft u/ ] sf] ] kfOG5 . T;;sf sf/ 0f ck/ fwLs 36gfx¿nfO{ klg dlxnfn] ;'? ;'?df ;fdfGo ¿kdf lng] u5{g . dlxnfx¿n] cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] klxrfg ;d] t ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfsf] l;h{gf lkQ[;Qfn] ul/ lbPsf] 5 . >Ldfg /  3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:oaf6 x'g]  cfk/ flws ultljlwx¿nfO{ dlxnfn]  ;x] / } a:5g / dlxnfnfO{ To:tf 36gfx¿ ;x] / a:g'kb{5 eGg] tkm{ w w w .w
  51. 51. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 5050 ;dfhn] ;d] t clek|] l/ t ub{5 . h'g lbg Tof] lx+;fn] ;Ldf gf£5 To;kl5 dfq To:tf 36gfx¿ aflx/ cfpF5g . @=% k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf o; jif{ clen] vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ljjflxt dlxnfx¿ ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;fdf k/ ] sf] kfOPsf] 5 . k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo]  *)Ü ljjflxt dlxnfx¿ / x] sf 5g . o;} u/ L !$Ü dlxnfx¿ cljjflxt, $Ü dlxnfx¿ Psn / @Ü dlxnfx¿ 5'l§P/  a;] sf 5g . k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df kf/ kfr's] u/ ] sf # hgf dlxnfx¿dfly / ;Fu} a;] sf # hgf dlxnfx¿dfly klg lx+;f ePsf]  kfOPsf] 5 -rf6{ g+ ^_. rf6{ g+= ^ dlxnfsf] j} jflxs l:ylt / lx+;fsf] kl/ 0ffd ljjfx ;dfhdf dfGotf k|fKt ;+:yfsf ¿kdf :yflkt x'g'n] klg dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fnfO{ vf;u/ L dlxnfdfly 3/ ] n' lx+;f ug{nfO{ ;xh agfO{ lbPsf] 5 . ljjfxkZrft >Ldfgsf] 3/ df hfg'kg{]  ;+:sf/ n] dlxnfx¿ z} lIfs / cfly{s ¿kn] hlt ;Ifd ePklg w w w .w
  52. 52. 51 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 51 k'?ifeGbf sdhf] / 5g eGg] ;fljt ug{ vf] h] sf] 5 . lkQ[;QfTds ;+/ rgfn] dlxnfsf] :jtGqtf, pTkfbg / of} lgstfdf k'?ifs} lg0f{o / lgoGq0f ;b} j agfO{/ fVg klg ljjfxnfO{ ;+:Yffut ul/ Psf] 5 . k|rlnt k/ Dk/ f, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/ sf gfddf ;dfhdf / x] sf]  d"NodfGotfn] dlxnf / k'?ifaLr x'g] of} glqmofsnfknfO{ sfg'gL dfGotf k|bfg ub{} cfPsf] 5 . xfn g] kfnsf] sfg'ggn] @) jif{ k"/ f ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu ljjfx ug{] / of} glqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg x'gsf nflu sfg'gL / ;fdflhs dfGotf k|bfg u/ ] sf] 5 . ljjfx kZrft dlxnfn]  cfkmgf]  3/  5f] 8] /  s] 6fsf]  3/ df g}  uP/  a:g]  rngn] k'?ifx¿nfO{ zlQmzfnL / dlxnfdfly lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu an k|bfg u/ ] sf] 5 . o;nfO{ o; jif{ k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ;a} eGbf a9L >Ldfgaf6 -%#Ü_ePsf]  tYon]  klg :ki6 kf/ ] sf] 5 . ljjfxkZrft dlxnfx¿ kl/ jf/ sf] lgoGq0fdf / xg] u5{g / ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿ cfkmg} >Ldfgaf6 lgolGqt x'g] ub{5g . ljjfx kZrft dlxnfn] ug{] x/ ] s sfo{nfO{ 3/ kl/ jf/  / O{Hhtsf] ljifo agfO{G5 h;n] ubf{ dlxnfx¿sf] :jtGq eP/  afRg kfpg] clwsf/ sf] ;d] t xgg ePsf] cj:yf 5 . xfn g] kfndf ljjfxk"j{ ;Fu} a:g] hf] 8Lx¿sf] olsg tYofÍ gePtf klg of] k|rng a9bf] 5 . ljjfxk"j{ ;Fu} a:g] hf] l8x¿n] sfg'gL /  wfld{s dfGotf kfPsf] 5} gg . of] k|rng ljz] ifu/ L u|fdL0f If] qdf eGbf zx/ L If] qdf a9L / x] s] f kfO{G5 . of] k|rngn] dlxnfnfO{ s] xL xb;Dd ePklg ;fdflhs e"ldsf / ;f+:s[lts k/ Dk/ fsf cf8df dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fnfO{ r'gf} lt lbG5 . lx+;f hxfF klg / h:tf]  ;DaGw ePsf JolQmx¿af6 klg x'g ;S5 . o;/ L ;Fu} a;] sf hf] 8Lx¿df lx+;f ePdf sfg'gn] o;nfO{ dfGotf k|bfg gu/ ] s} sf/ 0f dlxnfx¿ sfg'gL Gofo kfpg] clwsf/ af6 ;d] t al~rt x'g' kg{]  cj:yf 5 . o;/ L ;Fu} a;] sf hf] l8x¿df ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ clen] vLs/ 0f sd x'g'n] sfg'g / ;dfhn] o;nfO{ dfGotf k|bfg w w w .w
  53. 53. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 5252 gu/ ] s} sf/ 0fn] 36gfx¿ aflx/ gcfPsf x'g ;S5g eGg] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . @=^ k|efljtsf] hflt tn k|:t't ul/ Psf] tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ;a} eGbf a9L kxf8]  hghflt -@(Ü_ dlxnfx¿ lx+;fdf / x] sf] kfO{G5 . To:f} u/ L If] qL / t/ fO{ hghflt dlxnfx¿ bf] ;|f] :t/ df a9L lx+;faf6 -a/ fa/ L !% Ü_ k|efljt / x] sf] tYofÍn] b] vfPsf] 5 . s"n lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo]  !#Ü a|fXd0f, !)Ü t/ fO{ u} /  blnt, (Ü kxf8]  blnt, &Ü t/ fO{ blnt / @Ü d'l:nd hftsf dlxnfx¿ / x] sf] kfO{of]  . rf6{ g+= & dlxnfsf] hftLo ljj/0f / lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd ljZn]if0f dflysf] tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ;a} hftLsf dlxnfx¿df x'g] u/ ] s] f kfO{of]  . ;+:s[lt / ;fdflhs d"NodfGotfdf hftLcg'¿k km/ s x'g'n] klg dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fnfO{ lgwf{/ 0f ug{] tYo dflysf] tYofÍn] k|:t't u/ ] sf] 5 . hgfhftL dlxnfx¿ c? hftLsf dlxnfx¿ eGbf cfkmgf s'/ fx¿ ;ZfQm 9Ën]  w w w .w
  54. 54. 53 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 53 k|:t't ug{ ;Sg] xF'bf+ klg oL hftsf dlxnfx¿dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ a9L dfqfdf aflx/ cfpg] ub{5g . @=& k|efljt / kL8saLrdf /x]sf] ;DaGw dlxnfx¿ dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] 36gfx¿sf] o; jif{ ul/ Psf]  clen] vLs/ 0fsf cfwf/ df dlxnfdfly ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f ug{] %#Ü >Ldfg / x] sf 5g . To:t} ul/ h'g ;dfhdf dlxnfx¿ x's{G5 ToxL ;dfhsf l5d] sL @)Ü JolQmx¿n]  dlxnfdfly lx+;f u/ ] sf]  kfO{Psf]  5 . cfkmg} kl/ jf/ sf !*Ü ;b:ox¿n] , %Ü ;fyLn]  /  $Ü ;DaGw gePsf JolQmx¿af6 dlxnfdfly lx+;f ePsf] 5 . rf6{ g+=* dlxnfsf] j}jflxs l:ylt / lx+;fsf] kl/0ffd dfly k|:t't tYofÍsf cfwf/ df s] ljZn] if0f ug{ ;lsG5 eg]  dlxnfx¿ a9L dfqfdf lrghfg gePsf jf ;DaGw gePsf JolQmx¿af6 lx+;fdf k5{g eGg] dfGotfnfO{ o;n] unt ;flat u/ ] sf] 5 . dlxnfx¿sf] hf] ;Fu glhssf] ;DaGw 5 jf h;n] a9L dfof u5{ eGg] dlxnfx¿n] ;f] Rb5g ToxL JolQmaf6 pgLx¿dfly a9L lx+;f ePsf] o; tYofÍn] k'li6 ub{5 . w w w .w
  55. 55. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 5454 gf]6 M dlxnfsf] k|] d ;DaGw ePsf / dlxnfn] ;fyL dfg] sf JolQmx¿nfO{ ;fyLsf] ju{df / fvL ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] 5 . @=* k|efljtsf] k]zf dlxnfx¿ ;+nUg / x] sf]  k] zf /  pgLx¿dfly x'g]  lx+;fsf]  k|sf/ nfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ lx+;f k|efljt s"n dlxnfx¿dWo] s[lif k] zfdf ;+nUg / x] sf $$Ü dlxnfx¿dfly ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . @!Ü dlxnfx¿ 3/ fo;L sfddf, !@Ü dlxnfx¿ dhb'/ Ldf, !)Ü dlxnfx¿ Joj;fodf cfa4 / x] sf] kfO{Psf] 5 . To;} u/ L s'g} klg sfo{df ;+nUg gePsf ^Ü dlxnfx¿, cgf} rfl/ s If] qdf sfo{/ t @Ü dlxnfx¿, To:t} ul/  ;/ sf/ L If] qdf sfo{/ t, j} b] lzs / f] huf/ L, u} / ;/ sf/ L If] qdf sfo{/ t /  ;fdflhs ;] jf ug{]  dlxnfx¿ a/ fa/  -!-!Ü_ lx+;f ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . rf6{ g+= ( dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / k]zf w w w .w
  56. 56. 55 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 55 ljZn]if0f dlxnfx¿n] cfkmgf] hLjgdf ljleGg lsl;dn] lx+;fsf] cg'ej ug{]  ub{5g h;df ljz] iful/ cflTdo ;DaGw ePsf JolQmx¿af6 x'g]  lx+;f dlxnfsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts :t/ ;Fu ;DalGwt / xG5 . h;n] dlxnfnfO{ ljZjJofkL dfgj clwsf/ sf] pkef] u ug{af6 al~rt ug{ afWo ub{5 . 9 dflysf] tYofÍsf cfwf/ df s] ljZn] if0f ug{ ;lsG5 eg] dlxnfx¿n]  ub{} cfPsf] sfdsf] klxrfg cem x'g ;s] s] f 5} g . g] kfnsf sl/ a ^*Ü dflg;x¿ s[lifdf lge{/ / x] sf 5g . o; k|lta] bgdf ;d] 6] sf dlxnfx¿ dWo] $$Ü dlxnfx¿ s[lif k] zfdf ;+nUg 5g . t/  pgLx¿n] u/ ] s] f sfdnfO{ dfGotf lbOPsf] 5} g . pgLx¿sf] s[lif k] zfdf ;+nUgtfnfO{ ;dfhdf dlxnfsf nflu egL lbOPsf] ;] jfd"ns sfds}  lg/ Gt/ tfsf]  ¿kdf lng]  u/ ] sf]  5  . dlxnfx¿n] 3/ df sfo{ ug{] , 3/ sf ;a} ;b:ox¿nfO{ aflx/ sfd ug{ hfgsf nflu jftfj/ 0f tof/ ug{] sfd s] an dlxnfn] u5{g t/ dlxnfsf] of] sfo{nfO{ ;] jfd"ns sfo{df l;ldt ul/ Psf] 5, o;sf] s'g} d"No 5} g . pTkfbgsf x/ ] s sfo{df dlxnfsf] k|d'v e"ldsf / xG5 t/ cufl8 b] lvg] a] nfdf k'?if b] lvG5g / pTkfbgsf]  d"Nosf]  l;+uf]  lx+:;] bf/  klg k'?if / xG5  . cfly{s sf/ f] jf/ df ;w} + k'?ifsf] cu|;/ tf dlxnfsf] t'ngfdf a9L x'g] ub{5 . h;sf sf/ 0f klg sltko dlxnfx¿n] cfkm"nfO{ c;Ifd dxz'; u5{g . cfkm"nfO{ g/ fd|f]  nfUg]  sfo{ -ck/ fw_ s;} n]  u/ ] df klg To;sf]  lj?4 k|ltsf/  ug{] ;fx; a6'Ng ;Qm} gg lsgsL cfkm"dfly k/ ] sf] lx+;fsf] lj?4 af] Nbf emg afls lhGbuLg} s;/ L sf6g] eGg] ;d:of dlxnfdf cfO{kb{5  . cfkm"dfly ePsf]  lx+;fsf]  lj?4 af] n] df 5f] / f5f] / Ldfly g/ fd|f]  c;/  kg{] , pgLx¿nfO{ ;d] t vt/ f x'g] , cfkm" a;] s] f 3/ af6 g} lgsflng] , 3/ af6 aflx/ cfPkZrft c;'/ lIft x'g] / cfly{s 9 Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo, A/HRC/11/6/Add.5 w w w .w
  57. 57. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 5656 pkfh{gsf nflu cGo ljsNk g/ xg] h:tf sf/ 0fn] dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] k|ltsf/ ug{af6 al~rt u/ fpFb510 / dlxnfdf Psk6s ;xG5' eGg] efjgf dlxnfdf knfpF5 / ;w} + dlxnfx¿ lx+;f vk] / g} a:g afWo agfO{{Psf 5g . t;y{ klg dlxnfdfly ePsf] w] / } lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ aflx/ cfpb} gg . @=( lx+;fsf sf/0f dlxnfx¿dfly k/]sf] c;/ lx+;fsf sf/ 0f dlxnfx¿dfly k/ ] sf c;/ nfO{ $ efudf ljefhg u/ L o; k':tsdf ljZn] if0f ul/ Psf] 5 . dlxnfx¿dfly s'g} klg k|sf/ sf] lx+;f x'Fbf ;a} eGbf a9L %@Ü dlxnfx¿df dfgl;s c;/  k/ ] sf]  kfO{of]   . @)% dlxnfx¿nfO{ zf/ Ll/ s c;/  k/ ] sf]  !*Ü dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;fdflhs c;/ / !)Ü dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfly{s c;/  k/ ] sf]  kfO{Psf]  5  . dlxnfx¿dfly w] / }  zf/ Ll/ s ¿kdf cfqmd0f x'g]  /  pgLx¿nfO{ zf/ Ll/ s c;/  kg{]  u/ ] sf]  ePtf klg o;n]  cGo lb3{sflng c;/ x¿ klg dlxnfsf] hLjgdf kfg{] u/ ] s] f 5 . rf6{ g+= !) dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf sf/0f dlxnfdf k/]sf c;/x¿ 10 Violence Agaist Women Online Resource, The facts about domestic violence, domesticviolence/domesticviolence.html w w w .w
  58. 58. 57 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 57 ljZn]if0f dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf sf/ 0f ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfsf] dfgl;s :jf:Yodf c;/ kg{] u/ ] sf] 5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] ;a} k|sf/ sf lx+;f kZrft "cfkmgf] afFlssf] eljio s:tf] x'G5" eGg] lrGtfn]  dlxnfnfO{ ;tfpFg] u/ ] sf] cWoogsf qmddf dlxnfx¿n] atfPsf 5g . ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gn] dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fnfO{ ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo ;d:ofsf]  ¿kdf klxrfg u/ L o;n] j[xt dfqfdf zf/ Ll/ s, dfgl;s, of} g tyf k|hgg :jf:Yo, dft[Tj :Jf:Yodf ;d:of pTkGg ug{]  u/ ] sf]  tYo ;fj{hlgs u/ ] sf]  5  .11 dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;fsf sf/ 0f ljz] if¿kdf dlxnfx¿df dgf] ;fdflhs c;/ kg{]  h;sf sf/ 0f dlxnfsf] JolQmut :jtGqtf ljlng x'g] , ;fj{hlgs hLjgdf ;xefuL x'g ;Sg] IfdtfnfO{ sdhf] / agfpg] ub{5 . 12 dlxnfx¿df lx+;f kZrft Pp6f ;d:of b] lvPtf klg To;sf]  ;DaGw cGo kIfx¿;Fu klg x'g] ub{5 . o;/ L lx+;fn] dlxnfsf]  k|ToIf hLjgdf ljleGg lsl;dsf c;/ x¿ k'¥ofpFg] u/ ] sf] o; jif{sf] tYofÍn] b] vfPsf] 5 . . 11 html 12 Allan Rosenfield, Caroline Min and Joshua Bardfield, pp. 3-4 “Global women’s health and human rights: an introduction”, in Women’s Global Health and Human Rights, edited by Padmini Murthy and Clyde Lanford Smith, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Mas- sachusetts (2010) w w w .w
  59. 59. kl/R5]b # w w w .w
  60. 60. 59 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 59 #=! dlxnf / 3/]n' lx+;f dlxnflj?4 eO{/ x] sf ljleGg k|sf/ sf lx+;fx¿dWo]  3/ ] n' lx+;f k|d'v ¿kdf / x] sf] 5 . 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿ ;dfh jf kl/ l:ylt cg'¿k km/ s ePtf klg ;+;f/ el/ g} 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ a9L x'g]  u/ ] sf]  5  .13 “x/]s $ hgf dlxnfx¿dWo] ! hgf dlxnf 3/]n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt x'g]] ub{5g .”14 3/ ] n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ P] g @)^^ cg';f/ "3/ ] n' lx+;f" eGgfn]  s'g} JolQmn] 3/ ] n' ;DaGw ePsf] csf{] s'g} JolQmnfO{ lbPsf]  zf/ Ll/ s, dfgl;s, of} ghGo jf cfly{s oftgf ;Demg' k5{ / zAbn]  ufnL ug{] tyf efjgfTds rf] 6 k'¥ofpg] cGo s'g} sfo{nfO{ ;d] t hgfpFb5 .15 3/ leq jf kl/ jf/ sf Ps ;b:oaf6 cGo ;b:odfly x'g] lx+;f 3/ ] n' lx+;f xf]  . g] kfndf 3/ ] n' lx+;fnfO{ JolQmut jf 3/ fo;L dfldnfsf]  ¿kdf lnO{ of] ;fdflhs / aflx/ L x:tIf] keGbf 6f9fsf] ljifo xf]  eGg] k/ Dk/ fut ;f] rfO{ cem} ljBdfg 5 . h;sf sf/ 0f 3/ ] n' lx+;f a9bf]  qmddf / x] sf]  kfO{G5  . Æ3/] n' lx+;fæ eg] sf] dlxnf lj?4sf]  lx+;fsf] Pp6f ;j} eGbf k'/ fgf] ¿k xf]  . 3/ ] n' lx+;f ;j} lsl;dsf]  ;dfhdf k|rlnt 5 . 3/ ] n' lx+;fn] dlxnfsf] :jf:Yodf / kfl/ jfl/ s tyf ;fj{hlgs hLjgdf ;dfgtfsf] cfwf/ df ;xefuL x'g] dlxnfsf]  Ifdtfdf ulx/ f]  k|efj kfl/ / x] sf]  5  .  .16 13 UNFPA, 1999, UNICEF, 2000; 2005 14 National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, fact sheet,Washington, DC 20009 15 3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ P]g, @)^^ tyf 3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ lgodfjnL, @)^& 16 dlxnf lj?4 e]befj pGd"ng ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/; g+=!(, llth session, 1992 kl/R5]b # M 3/]n' lx+;f w w w .w
  61. 61. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 6060 ;f] n'v'Da' 3/ ePsf lji0f' -kL8s_ / wgs'6f lgjf;L cr{gfsf]  -d[ts_ @)^@ ;fndf dfuL ljjfx ePsf] lyof]  . pgLx¿ @ jif{b] lv sf7df8f} +df a:b} cfPsf lyP . pgLx¿sf Ps & jif{sf]  5f] / f klg / x] sf 5g . kL8s c;O{sf ¿kdf / fli6«o cg';Gwfgdf sfo{/ t 5g . d[tssf kl/ jf/ sf cg';f/ pgLx¿sf] klxn] s'g}  klg lsl;dsf] emu8f, egfeg, dgd'6fj gePsf] kfO{of]  . d[tssf cfkmGtx¿n] kL8snfO{ Psbd} c;n HjfO{sf] ¿kdf dfGb} cfPsf lyP . r} q #, @)^( ut] sf] dWo / ftdf sl/ a ! ah] lt/ cr{gf /  lji0f'sf]  sf] 7faf6 89of8'9'Ë u/ ] sf]  cfjfh pgLx¿sf]  5] pdf a:g]  kL8ssf elthfn] ;'g] / emofnaf6 s] eof] sfsf eg] / ;f] w t/  leqaf6 s'g} cfjfh gcfPkl5 9f] sf 9S9sfpg yfn]  . Toltubf{ klg leqaf6 9f] sf gvf] n] kl5 pgn]  9f] sf hf] 8n]  9s9sfpFbf leqsf]  r's'n v'Nof]  . To; a] nf sf] 7fdf alQ lge] sf] lyof]  . elQhf sf] 7f leq k:gf ;fy lk8s “d} n]  >LdtL klg df/ ]  5f] / f klg df/ ]  eg] /  s/ fpFb} ” aflx/ lgl:sP/ uP . To;kl5 ;a} l5d] sLx¿ hDdf eP/  36gf:yndf x] bf{ cr{gfsf]  6fpFsf] df l;nf} 6f] n] n]  xflgPsf]  lyof /  pgsf]  6fpFsf] af6 cToflws / ut au] sf] sf/ 0f pgL cr] t cj:Yfdf lyOg eg] 5f] / f klg e'Odf nl8/ x] sf lyP . To;kl5 cr{gf / pgsf & jifL{o5f] / fnfO{ l6lrË c:ktfn dxf/ fhuGhdf nluof]   . cr{gfsf]  :jf:Yol:ylt uDeL/  / x] sf]  /  e] lN6n] 6/ df / fVg' kg{] cj:yf ePsf] n] pgnfO{ l6lrË c:ktfnn] lzjHof] tL c:ktfn, aNv'df l/ km/ u/ ] sf] lyof]  . c:ktfndf egf{ ePkl5 cr{gf xf] ;df gcfpFb} pgnfO{ 8fS6/ n] r} q !# ut] sl/ a * ah] lt/ -36gf ePsf] !) lbg kl5_ d[ts 3f] if0ff u¥of]  . #=@ 3/]n' lx+;fleqsf :j¿kx¿ 3/ ] n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ P] g, @)^^ tyf 3/ ] n' lx+;f -s;"/ /  ;hfo_ lgodfjnL, @)^& n] 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿nfO{ o;/ L kl/ eflift u/ ] sf]  5 M w w w .w
  62. 62. 61 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 61 zf/Ll/s oftgf McËeË 7xg] { afx] s s'6lk6, u} / sfg'gL y'gfdf / fVg] , zf/ Ll/ s rf] 6 k'¥ofpg]  jf To:t}  cGo s'g}  sfd ug] {÷u/ fpg]  sfo{x¿nfO{ zf/ Ll/ s oftgfleq kb{5g . dfgl;s oftgf M zf/ Ll/ s oftgfsf]  8/ wfs b] vfpg]  jf wDsL lbg] , qf;k"0f{ Jojxf/ ug] {, ufnL unf} h ug] {, em'7f aft nufpg] , 3/ af6 lgsfnf ug] {, dfgl;s rf] 6 k'Ug ;Sg] sfo{ ug] { u/ fpg]  ;fy} j} rfl/ s, wfld{s jf ;fF:s[lts tyf k|yf–k/ Dk/ fsf cfwf/ df ul/ g] e] befjhGo sfo{ dfgl;s oftgfleq kb{5g . of}ghGo oftgf M o;cGt{ut of} ghGo k|s[ltsf]  b'Jo{jxf/ , ckdfg, xtf] T;fx jf cfTd;Ddfgdf rf] 6 k'¥ofpg] , ;'/ lIft of} g :jf:Yodf cf3ft k'Ug] h:tf s'g} klg sfo{ kb{5 . cfly{s oftgf M o;cGt{ut ;uf] n jf lghL ;DklQsf] k|of] u ug{ jf / f] huf/ L jf cfly{s ;|f] t ;fwgsf] kx'Fr jf k|of] udf jl~rt ug] { h:tf sfo{ kb{5g .17 3/ ] n' lx+;fnfO{ ;+;f/ e/  dxfdf/ L /  b] zsf]  k|d'v ;d:ofsf]  ¿kdf lnO{Psf] 5 . g] kfndf klg of] k|d'v r'gf} tLsf ¿kdf / x] s] f 5 . o;sf] cGTosf nflu ;fdflhs If] q / dlxnf clwsf/ sf If] qdf sfo{/ t ljleGg ;ª3;+:yf / g] kfn ;/ sf/ af6} klg ljleGg k|of;x¿ ePsf 5g . 3/ ] n' lx+;f cGTo ug{s} nflu 3/ ] n' lx+;f P] g-@)^^_ / 3/ ] n' lx+;f lgodfjnL-@)^&_ nfu" ePsf] @ jif{ k"/ f ePsf] 5 . t/ dlxnfdfly x'g] 3/ ] n' lx+;f / f] syfksf nflu o; P] gn] Tolt k|efjsf/ L e"ldsf lgjf{x u/ ] sf] kfOFb} g . sfg'gdf / x] sf c:ki6tf /  sfg'gn]  3/ ] n' lx+;fsf ;a}  kIfx¿nfO{ g;d] 6] sf sf/ 0f 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿n] Gofo kfpg ;s] sf 5} gg . pbfx/ 0fsf ¿kdf ;Fu} a;] sf] hf] 8L, ;DaGw ljR5] bsf] xsdf o; P] gdf 17 3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ P]g, @)^^ tyf 3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ lgodfjnL, @)^& sf] kl/efiff w w w .w
  63. 63. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 6262 / x] sf] kl/ efiff df} g 5 . lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ jf ph'/ Lstf{sf]  uf] klgotfsf] ;+/ If0fdf c:ki6tf / x] sf] kfO{G5 . lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf nflu ;] jf s] Gb| / sf] ifsf] :yfkgf ;a} lhNnf / :yfgLo :t/ ;Dd k'Ug ;s] sf]  5} g, k|x/ L dlxnf;] n :yfgLo :t/ df 5} g h;n] ubf{ dlxnfx¿nfO{ ph'/ L ug{ hfg;Dd klg ufx|f] 5 . o;sf ;fy} o; P] gdf dfgl;s lx+;fnfO{ lx+;fsf] ¿kdf kl/ eflift u/ ] s] f ;sf/ fTds kIf 5 t/ pQm lx+;fnfO{ s;/ L k|dfl0ft ug{] eGg] af/ ]  pNn] v 5} g . pbfx/ 0fsf] nflu lx+;fsf] k|df0fsf nflu 3fp hfFr ug{] eGg] k|fjwfg 5 . dfgl;s lx+;fdf 3fp hfFrdf s] xL b] lvGg . o;sf nflu ljdz{stf{sf] k|ltj] bg lng ;lsG5 . t/ P] gdf pQm k|fjwfg 5} g . oyfy{tfdf dlxnfdfly dfgl;s lx+;fx¿ a9L x'g] t/  Jojxf/ df pQm lx+;fnfO{ k|dfl0ft ug{] cfwf/ g} P] gdf g/ fVg'n] of]  P] g ck"0f{ b] lvG5 . o;n] dlxnfx¿nfO{ Gofo lbg ;s] s] f 5} g .18 #=# 3/]n' lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ dlxnfdlfy x'g] 3/ ] n' lx+;fleq klg dlxnfx¿dfly s:tf s:tf k|sf/ sf lx+;fx¿ x'g] u/ ] sf 5g egL x] bf{ ;a} eGbf a9L zf/ Ll/ s lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . dlxnfx¿dfly s'6lk6sf 36gfx¿ w] / } ePsf kfO{Psf 5g . dlxnfdfly ePsf 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf 36gfx¿dWo] %%Ü dlxnfx¿dfly zf/ Ll/ s lx+;f ePsf] kfO{of]  . @$Ü dlxnfx¿dfly dfgl;s lx+;f, !^Ü dlxnfsf >Ldfgn] ax'ljjfx u/ L dlxnfdfly lx+;f u/ ] sf 5g . To;} u/ L $Ü dlxnfx¿ 3/ lgsfnf ePsf 5g eg]  !Ü dlxnfx¿dfly j} jflxs anfTsf/ ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 -rf6{ g++ !!_. #=$ 3/]n' lx+;fsf kL8ssf k|sf/ 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo] &(Ü dlxnfx¿ cfkmg} >Ldfg af6 / @! Ü dlxnfx¿ cfkmg}  3/ kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿af6 lx+;fdf kg{] u/ ] sf] tYofÍn] b] vfPsf] 5 -rf6{ g+ !@_ . 18 3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ P]g, @)^^ tyf 3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ / ;hfo_ lgodfjnL, @)^& sf] kl/efiff w w w .w
  64. 64. 63 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 63 rf6{ g+= !! dlxnfdfly ePsf 3/]n' lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ k|ltztdf rf6{ g+= !@ 3/ ] n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ / kL8ssf] ;DaGw #=% k|efljtsf] j}jflxs cj:yf 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljtx¿sf]  j} jflxs cj:yfsf af/ ] df ljZn] if0f ubf{ Psn, cljjflxt / 5'l§P/ a;] sf dlxnfx¿eGbf ljjflxt dlxnfx¿ 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf]  pRr hf] lvddf / x] sf]  tYofÍn]  b] vfPsf]  5 . o; jif{ (!Ü ljjflxt dlxnfx¿ / Psn, cljjflxt / 5'l§P/  w w w .w
  65. 65. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 6464 a;] sf dlxnfx¿ a/ fj/  #Ü 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt ePsf] kfO{of]  -rf6{ g+= !#_ . rf6{ g+= !# 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] j}jflxs cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ #=^ k|efljtsf] pd]/ / 3/]n' lx+;f k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljtx¿dWo]  ;a} eGbf a9L @^–#% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ k|efljt ePsf]  kfO{Psf] 5 . @^–#% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf #(Ü dlxnfx¿ o; jif{ 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf] lzsf/ ePsf 5g . To;} u/ L !^–@% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ #^Ü, #^–$% jif{ pd] / ;d"xsf !^Ü, $^–%% jif{ pd] /  ;d"xsf %Ü, %% jif{eGbf dflysf pd] / ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ #Ü /  !^ jif{ d'lgsf pd] / ;d"xsf !Ü dlxnfx¿dfly 3/ ] n' lx+;f ePsf]  kfO{{Psf] 5 -rf6{ g++ !$ _ . #=& k|efljtsf] lzIffsf] :t/ / 3/]n' lx+;f dlxnfx¿dfly ePsf] lx+;f / dlxnfsf] z} lIfs cj:yfnfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ lg/ If/ dlxnfx¿eGbf b'O{ u'0ff a9L -^&Ü_ ;fIf/ dlxnfx¿dfly w w w .w
  66. 66. 65 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 65 3/ ] n' lx+;f ePsf] kfO{of] -rf6{ g++ !%_ . rf6{ g+= !$ 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] pd]/sf cfwf/df lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ rf6{ g+= !% 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] z}lIfs cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ w w w .w
  67. 67. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 6666 rf6{ g+= !^ 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] ;fIf/tfsf] cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ #=* k|efljtsf] hft / 3/]n' lx+;f o; jif{ k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ 3/ ] n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿leq klg ;a} eGbf a9L kxf8] hghftL dlxnfx¿ -#) Ü_ lx+;fdf / x] sf] kfO{Psf] 5 . To;kl5 kxf8] blnt !(Ü, t/ fO{ hghftL !^Ü, If] qL !#Ü, a|fXd0f !)Ü, t/ fO{ u} /  blnt /  d'l:nd a/ fj/ L ^–^Ü 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt / x] s] f kfO{of] -rf6{ g++ !&_ . rf6{ g+= !& 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] hfltut cj:yf / lx+;fsf kl/0ffdx¿ w w w .w
  68. 68. 67 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 67 #=( k|efljtsf] k]zf / 3/]n' lx+;f s[lif k] zfdf ;+nUg / x] sf dlxnfx¿ a9L dfqfdf 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf k|efljt / x] sf] o; jif{sf] tYofÍn] b] vfPsf] 5 . k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df #!Ü s[lif, @(Ü s'g} klg sfo{df ;+nUg g/ x] sf, !#Ü 3/ fo;L sfd, (Ü Joj;fo, &Ü dhb'/ L, %Ü cgf} krfl/ s If] qdf sfo{/ t, u} / ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfdf hflu/  ug{]  /  ;fdflhs ;] jfdf ;+nUg dlxnfx¿ a/ fj/ L -@–@Ü_ lx+;fdf k/ ] sf 5g -rf6{ g++ !*_ . rf6{ g+= !* 3/]n' lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] k]zf / lx+;fsf] cj:yf #=!) k|efljtnfO{ k/]sf] c;/ 3/ ] n' lx+;fdf klg ;a} eGbf a9L dlxnfx¿ zf/ Ll/ s ¿kdf lx+;fdf kg{]  u/ ] sfn]  dlxnfx¿df a9L dfqfdf zf/ Ll/ s c;/  k/ ] sf]  kfO{G5  . oBlk dlxnfdfly s'g} klg k|sf/ sf] lx+;f x'Fbf dlxnfsf] hLjgdf km/ s km/ s lsl;dsf c;/ x¿ kg{] ub{5g . k|fKt tYofÍsf cfwf/ df ljZn] if0f ubf{ 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo] ;a} eGbf a9L #%Ü dlxnfx¿dfly zf/ Ll/ s c;/  k/ ] sf]  kfO{Psf]  5 eg]  #)Ü df cfly{s c;/ , !(Ü dfgl;s c;/ , !)Ü df ;fdflhs c;/ / ^Ü w w w .w
  69. 69. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 6868 dlxnfx¿df dfly pNn] lvt ;a}  k|sf/ sf c;/ x¿ k/ ] sf]  kfO{of]  -rf6{ g+=!(_ . ;a} k|sf/ sf lx+;fdf dfgl;s c;/ kb{5 . To;sf/ 0f ;a} k|sf/ sf lx+;f k|efljtx¿nfO{ dfgl;s c;/ k/ ] sf] 5 . rf6{ g+= !( 3/]n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿df k/]sf] c;/x¿ k|ltztdf ljZn]if0f • 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo] %%Ü dlxnfx¿dfly zf/ Ll/ s lx+;f ePsf] 5 eg] #%Ü dlxnfx¿df 3/ ] n' lx+;fsf sf/ 0f zf/ Ll/ s c;/  k/ ] sf]  5  . TTo;} u/ L (!Ü ljjflxt dlxnfx¿dfly 3/ ] n' lx+;f ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . o;n] s] b] vfpF5 eg]  æ3/ h;nfO{ a:gsf nflu ;'/lIft :yfg dflgG5 dlxnfx¿ ToxL 3/leq c;'/lIft 5g .Æ æcfkmg} kl/jf/af6 dlxnfx¿ a9L hf]lvddf 5g Æ eGg] tYonfO{ o;n] :ki6 kfb{5 . g] kfnL dlxnfx¿ ;a} eGbf a9L cfkmg} gftfuf] tfsf JolQmx¿af6 lx+;fdf kg{] u/ ] sf] tYofÍn] atfpF5 . o;/ L dlxnfx¿ lx+;fdf kg'{sf] d'Vo sf/ 0f jt{dfg ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfn] dlxnfsf nflu w w w .w
  70. 70. 69 dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 69 lgwf{/ 0f u/ ] s] f e"ldsf k|d'v / x] sf] 5 . ;fdflhs e"ldsfn]  dlxnf / k'?ifn] ug{] sfo{sf] ljefhg u/ ] sf] 5 . dlxnfn] of]  sfo{ ug'{x'G5, of] ug'{x'b} +g eg] / dlxnfnfO{ ;fdflhs lglt lgodn] lgb{] lzt u5{ . dlxnfx¿ ;xgzLn x'g'k5{, 7"nf]  :j/ n]  af] Ng' x'b} +g, xf:g' x'b} +g, cfkmgf]  kl/ jf/ nfO{ h:tf] ;'s}  b'Mvdf klg v';L kfg{] ;Lk x'g] dlxnf g} c;n dlxnf xf]  eGg] h:tf ;f] r cem klg ;dfhdf xfaL 5 . o:tf ;f] rx¿n]  dlxnfdfly lx+;f ug{sf nflu kL8snfO{ k|z:t ;xof] u ePsf]  kfO{G5  . afa'n]  5f] / Ldfly lx+;f ubf{ d] / }  5f] / L xf] , o;n]  s] xL ug{ ;lQmg eGg] olsgsf ;fy cfkmg} afa'af6 dlxnfdfly lx+;f ePsf] 5 . d} n] ljjfx u/ ] / NofPsf] t xf] lg o;nfO{, d] / f] lj?4 af] ln eg] ef] ln sxfF uP/ afRg ;S5] / sxfF hfG5]  / eGg] ;f] rsf sf/ 0f cfkmg} >Ldfgaf6 dlxnfx¿ lx+;fdf k/ ] sf 5g . 3/ leq ePsf 36gfx¿nfO{ aflx/ nfg' x'b} +g eGg]  e|d cem klg dlxnfx¿df / x] sf] 5 . h;sf sf/ 0f h:tf] ;'s}  oftgf cfkm"n] vKg' k/ ] klg dlxnfx¿ To;nfO{ ;xg] k|of; u5{g . h;n] kL8ssf] dgf] andf cem an yKg] sfo{ePsf]  5 / dlxnfx¿ emg hf] lvddf kg{] u/ ] sf 5g . • 3/ ] n' lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿dWo]  ^&Ü ;fIf/ dlxnfx¿ / xg'n] 36gfx¿ lg/ If/ jf gk9] sf dlxnfx¿dfly dfq x'G5 eGg] e|dnfO{ uNtL ;flat u/ ] sf] 5 . dlxnfsf] ;fIf/ tfsf]  cj:yfn] klg lx+;fnfO{ lgwf{/ 0f ub{5 . g] kfndf xfn klg k'?ifx¿sf] t'ngfdf dlxnfsf] ;fIf/ tf b/ sd g} 5 . o;n]  xfn klg kl/ jf/ df 5f] / LnfO{ w] / }  k9fpg' xF'b} +g eGg]  ;f] r xfaL / x] s] f b] vfpF5  . dlxnfx¿sf]  z} lIfs :t/  a9fpg ;lsof]  eg]  dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfx¿df s] xL xb;Dd ePklg sdL Nofpg ;lsg] tYofÍn] b] vfpF5 . w w w .w
  71. 71. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog k|ltj]bg @)^( 7070 • s[lif k] zf / 3/ fo;L sfddf ;+nUg / x] sf dlxnfx¿sf] t'ngfdf cGo If] qdf-aflx/ sf] sfddf_ ;+nUg dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f sd ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . o; tYonfO{ ljZn] if0f ubf{ g] kfnL dlxnfx¿ ;a} eGbf a9L 3/ leqsf] sfddf ;+nUg / x] sf] / o;nfO{ sfo{sf]  ¿kdf klxrfg u/ L "s'g} klg d"Nosf] lgwf{/ 0f x'g g;Sbf" oL If] qdf sfo{/ t dlxnfx¿dfly lje] b ul/ Psf] 5 . a9Ldfqfdf 3/ kl/ jf/ sf]  sfddf ;dlk{t dlxnfx¿dfly 3/ ] n' lx+;f ePsf]  5 . • dlxnfsf]  z/ L/ dflysf]  lgoGq0f gx'Fbf dlxnfdfly 3/ ] n' lx+;f x'g] ub{5 . h;sf] k|efj dlxnfsf] zf/ Ll/ s -#%Ü_, cfly{s -#) Ü_, dfgl;s -!(Ü_, / ;fdflhs hLjgdf -!)Ü_, kg{] ub{5 . !)Ü dlxnfx¿df ;a}  lsl;dsf]  c;/  kg{]  u/ ] sf]  kfOof]   . w w w .w
  72. 72. kl/R5]b $ w w w .w