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Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 4: Temperature Matters

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This module is intended for community educators to use to teach their clients about time temperature abuse. It is appropriate for anyone who cooks for groups including those with religous institutions. It is also beneficial for general consumers. It is meant for commercial food service.

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Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 4: Temperature Matters

  1. 1. Food Safety is for EveryoneModule Four<br />Written and developed by:<br />Lorraine Harley, Assistant Professor<br />University of Maryland Extension<br />Calvert/Charles/St Mary’s Counties<br />Equal Access Programs<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  2. 2. Module 4<br />Temperature Matters<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  3. 3. Temperature matters: <br />Proper:<br />Thermometer use<br />Cooking<br />Cooling<br />Thawing<br />Reheating <br />Hot holding<br />140°<br />40°<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  4. 4. Why use a food thermometer?<br />To confirm safe minimum internal food temperatures to prevent foodborne illness<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  5. 5. Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  6. 6. “It’s Safe to Bite When the Temperature is Right” <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  7. 7. Which burger is safe to eat?<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  8. 8. Which burger did you pick?<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  9. 9. Temperature matters!<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  10. 10. How to use a food thermometer<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  11. 11. Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  12. 12. Ground beef, veal & lamb<br />160 °F<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  13. 13. Temperature Matters!<br /> Fish<br />145 °F<br />Beef, Veal, Lamb Steaks and Roasts<br />145 °F<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  14. 14. Temperature Matters!<br />Turkey, Chicken & Duck Whole, (pieces & ground)<br />165 °F<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  15. 15. Fresh ham<br />Raw <br /> 160°F <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  16. 16. Fully cooked ham<br /> To reheat:<br /> 140°F <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  17. 17. Temperature Matters!<br />All egg dishes and leftovers:<br />165 °F<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  18. 18. Safety<br />Versus<br /> Doneness<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  19. 19. Refrigerator/freezer temperatures<br />Refrigerator 40° or slightly below<br />Freezer 0° F<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  20. 20. Myoglobin in meat<br />Is a protein found in the muscle fibers of meat, poultry and seafood.<br />Are color changes in meat normal?<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  21. 21. Thawing food safely<br />When was the last time you thawed food?<br />What method did you use <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  22. 22. Thawing food safely cxontinued…<br />There are 3safe ways to thaw food safely:<br />In the refrigerator<br />In the microwave or<br />In a tub or pot of cold water<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  23. 23. Thawing food safely Continued…<br />Gee, I think I changed my mind. I don’t want to eat the food I just thawed out.<br />Can I re-freeze the food??<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  24. 24. Keep cold foods cold<br />40°F or below<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  25. 25. Hot holding: keep hot foods hot<br />Remember the <br />2 hour rule<br />140° or above<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  26. 26. Reheating foods safely<br />Microwave<br />Stove top<br />Oven<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  27. 27. Microwave cooking<br />Microwave cooking does not always provide even heating.<br />After defrosting in a microwave, always cook foods immediately<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  28. 28. Cooling foods down<br />Do not overfill the refrigerator<br />Break large pots into shallow containers<br />Break down large pieces of meat and turkey<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  29. 29. Let’s go shopping…again<br />Always purchase non-perishable items first<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  30. 30. Frozen foods<br />Always purchase frozen items afternon-perishable items<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  31. 31. Dented cans<br />Never buy dented cans!<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  32. 32. Packaging<br />Never buy meat, poultry or other foods in torn packaging.<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  33. 33. What types of foods are dated?<br />Dates are found mostly on perishable foods such as:<br />Meat<br />Poultry<br />Eggs<br />Dairy products<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  34. 34. Federal law and dating requirements:<br />Only required on infant formula and some baby food.<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  35. 35. Types of food dating:<br />“Sell-By”<br />“Best if used By”<br />“Use-By” <br />“Closed or coded dates”<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  36. 36. “Sell-by”<br />Informs the store how long to display the product for sale<br />Always buy the item before the “Sell-By” date<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  37. 37. “Best if used by”<br />This date is recommended for the best flavor or quality of a product<br />It is not a purchase or safety date<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  38. 38. “Use-by”<br />This date is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality<br />The manufacturer determines this date<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  39. 39. “Closed or coded dates”<br />This date refers to packing numbers for use by the manufacturer<br />For example: cans and boxes of food<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  40. 40. Expiration dates<br />If the date expires during home storage, a product should be safe and of good quality if it is handled properly and stored at 40° F or below<br />Butalways adhere to the “Use-By” date<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  41. 41. Cleaning the refrigerator<br />Follow the manufacturer’s <br /> instructions<br />Wipe up spills<br />Chose cleaners carefully<br />Weekly toss out <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  42. 42. Cleaning the refrigerator coontinued…<br />Cooked leftovers—4 days<br />Raw poultry; ground meats—2 days<br />Keep odors down-baking soda<br />Clean refrigerator coils <br />When in doubt toss it out!!<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  43. 43. Refrigerator odors<br />Equal vinegar and water<br />Solution of baking soda and water. Air dry<br />Paper towels—then vinegar and water<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  44. 44. Refrigerator odors Continued…<br />Coffee grounds—baking soda<br />Freezer—cotton swab—vanilla—24 hours<br />Commercial product<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  45. 45. Summer time<br />Does foodborne illness peak in the Summer?<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  46. 46. What can we do during summer months?<br />Clean<br />Separate<br />Cook<br />Chill<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  47. 47. Egg storage<br />Raw eggs in shell:<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate: 3 to 5 weeks
  48. 48. Freeze: after beating white and yolk together.</li></ul>Raw egg white:<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate: 2 to 4 days
  49. 49. Freeze: 12 months</li></ul>Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  50. 50. Egg storage<br />Raw egg yolks:<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate: 2 to 4 days
  51. 51. Freeze: Yolks do not freeze well.</li></ul>Raw egg frozen accidentally in shell:<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate: use immediately when thawed.
  52. 52. Freeze: when ready to use, refrigerate to thaw.</li></ul>Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  53. 53. Egg substitutes<br />Liquid egg substitutes (unopened):<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate: 10 days
  54. 54. Freeze: 12 months</li></ul>Liquid Egg Substitutes (opened)<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate 3 days
  55. 55. Never freeze</li></ul>Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  56. 56. Hard cooked eggs<br />Hard cooked eggs:<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate: 7 days
  57. 57. Never freeze</li></ul>Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension<br />
  58. 58. Freezer storage:<br />Once a perishable food item is frozen, before the date expires, it does not matter if the date expires while the food is frozen; foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  59. 59. Freezer facts: wrap-date-FIFO<br />Preventing freezer burn<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  60. 60. Special topics<br />Thunderstorms<br />Mercury and Methylmercury<br />Bisphenal A (BPA’s)<br />Keeping baby safe<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  61. 61. Thunderstorms<br />The refrigerator<br />The freezer<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  62. 62. Fish, Shellfish and…<br />Mercury<br />Methylmercury<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  63. 63. Do Not Eat:<br />Swordfish <br />Shark<br />Tilefish<br />King mackerel<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  64. 64. Fish lowerin methylmercury and…<br />Most commonly eaten are:<br />Shrimp<br />Canned light tuna<br />Salmon<br />Pollock<br />Catfish<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  65. 65. Bisphenal A (BPAs)<br />Bisphenal is a plastic chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic products:<br />Water bottles<br />Baby bottles<br />Canned foods (lining of metal food cans)<br />Food storage and heating containers<br />Some children’s toys<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  66. 66. Possible effects of BPA:(Found in animal studies only)<br />Miscarriage<br />Obesity <br />Altered brain development and behavior<br />Altered immune system<br />Prostate/breast cancer<br />Early onset of puberty<br />Lowered sperm count<br />Hyperactivity<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  67. 67. To minimize exposure to BPA’s<br />Limit your intake of canned foods<br />Avoid polycarbonate plastic (usually #7)<br />Use glass baby bottles or:<br />Polypropylene<br />Polyethylene<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  68. 68. To minimize exposure to BPA’s<br />Use powdered baby formulas (non-steel cans) <br />Heat foods in ceramic or glass containers.<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  69. 69. BPA’s…<br />Look for BPA free plastic containers<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  70. 70. FDA assessment of BPA<br />As of January 2010:<br /> The FDA supports the industry’s actions to stop producing BPA-containing bottles and infant feeding cups for the U. S. market. <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  71. 71. Keeping Baby Safe<br />Food Safety<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  72. 72. What can I do to keep my baby safe?<br />Follow the manufacture’s recommendations … <br />Observe the “use-by” dates<br />Check commercial baby food jar lids<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  73. 73. What can I do to keep my baby safe? Continued…<br />Transport bottles and food in an insulated cooler when traveling with the baby. <br />Place the ice chest in the passenger compartment of the car. It’s cooler than the trunk.<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  74. 74. DO Not<br />Make more formula than you need<br />Put a bottle back into the refrigerator if the baby does not finish it<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  75. 75. Do Not<br />Feed a baby from a jar of baby food and then put it back in the refrigerator. <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  76. 76. Do Not<br />serve raw or unpasteurized milk, fruit or vegetable juice to infants or young children. <br />leave formula out at room temperature for more than 1 hour.<br />place dirty diapers in the same bag with bottles or food <br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  77. 77. Two ways to heat breast milk or formula<br />In hot tap water (1 -2 minutes)<br />On the stove; heat water in a pan. Remove the pan from the heat and set the bottle in it until warm<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  78. 78. Food safety policy<br />House proposes new <br />food safety laws<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />
  79. 79. FIGHT BAC!<br /><ul><li>CLEAN</li></ul>Wash hands and surfaces often<br /><ul><li>SEPARATE</li></ul>Don’t cross contaminate<br /><ul><li>COOK</li></ul>Cook to proper temperatures<br /><ul><li>CHILL</li></ul>Refrigerate promptly<br />Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, <br />Assistant Professor, <br />University of Maryland Extension <br />

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