Data last updated: March, 2010. Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
Module 2- Personal Hygiene Most recently poor personal hygiene has been the cause of the spread of many foodborne diseases. Source : www.cdc.gov Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
Personal Hygiene. Clean hands prevent infections and prevent illnesses at home, school and in work settings. Hand hygiene practices are a major deterrence against the spread of infection and illness in daycare facilities, healthcare settings, schools and public institutions. Proper handwashing at home can prevent the spread of infection from one person to another and sometimes throughout the community. Source: www.cdc.gov/print.do?url=http%3A//www.cdc.gov/cleanhands www.cdc.gov/Features/HandWashing/
Critical handwashing steps. Now I know you are probably saying to yourself, why is this instructor trying to tell me how to wash my hands. This instructor is trying to tell you how to wash your hands because—too many people do not know how to wash their hands properly. Because too many of us do not know how. Adults can sing happy birthday to themselves twice. Children can recite their ABCs twice. If soap is not on hand, use an alcohol-based gel, that is at least 50% alcohol to clean your hands. When using alcohol-based sanitizers: Apply the product to the palm of one hand. Rub your hands together. Rub the product over the entire surface of your hands (do not forget your cuticles) until your hands are dry. Source : www.cdc.gov/Features/HandWashing www.fda.gov
When should we wash our hands in the home? The basic rules for handwashing in the home: Wash hands before preparing food and after handling uncooked meat and poultry, raw seafood and after cracking open a raw egg. Before eating; After changing diapers; After coughing or sneezing (cough or sneeze into your upper arm, not into your hand); Source: www.cdc.gov/print.do?url=http%3A//www.cdc.gov/cleanhands
When should we wash our hands in the home? The basic rules for handwashing in the home: After blowing your nose into a tissue After using the bathroom After taking out the garbage Source: www.cdc.gov/print.do?url=http%3A//www.cdc.gov/cleanhands
Pet Alert. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine put out an alert regarding turtles: Small turtles are a source of infection of the intestines caused by bacteria called Salmonella. Symptoms of headache, fever, diarrhea, stomach pain, nausea and/or vomiting, can begin in 6 to 72 hours (usually 12 to 36 hours) after exposure to the bacteria. Due to the turtle associated salmonella, the sale of turtles with a shell of four inches or less have been banned in the United States since 1975. In spite of the ban, turtles have recently increased in sales. “ Anyone can get the infection, but the risk is higher in infants and young children as well as the elderly and people with lowered resistance to disease due to pregnancy, cancer, chemotherapy, organ transplants, diabetes, liver problems, or other diseases.” Salmonella occurs naturally in turtles. Turtles with the bacteria do not appear sick at all. Turtles do not shed salmonella at all times. If a turtle tests negative for salmonella it does not mean it does not have the bacteria. It just may not be shedding salmonella at the time of the test. Source: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/ResourcesforYou/AnimalHealthLiteracy/UCM117790.pdf
Pet zoos. Our county fairs, zoos and other animal environments are fun places to visit and a wonderful experience for people of all ages. Animals can carry pathogens that may make us sick. Make sure everyone washes their hands before leaving the environment. Look out for hand-washing stations. Use hand sanitizer gel if soap and water are not available Do not share food or drinks with the animals. Do not allow children to put their hands in their mouths while handling animals. Do not allow your mouth near animals or their environment. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/spotlight_an_exhbts.htm
Cuts and abrasions. As stated earlier, 30% of all people have staph bacteria on their hands and in their nose. Hands that have cuts and other wounds can emit infection. ALWAYS Clean the wound Wash your hands Cover with a clean dry bandage Source: www.fda.gov Adobe Connect: “Antimcrobial Resistance, the Food Supply, and Our Health” 1 hour Guest speaker: Dr. Jianghong Meng. 2009. Webna:“Cold and Flu Season”, sponsored by The Soap and Detergent Asscociation. 1 hour Speaker: Mary Anne Linder. 2009.
Common foodborne diseases spread by poor hygiene.
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A is a serious contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease can last anywhere from three weeks to several months. It is transmitted from person-to-person by putting something in the mouth that has been contaminated with the stool of an infected person. The virus is easily spread (transmitted) in places with poor sanitation or where people do not wash their hands. The virus lives in the environment for a long time so it can be transmitted by: Swallowing contaminated water or ice. Eating raw or undercooked shellfish harvested from sewage water. Eating raw fruits, vegetables, or other foods that were contaminated during growing, harvesting, processing or handling or; By eating cooked foods that were contaminated after cooking. Prevention: 1. Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for: All children (check with your doctor concerning the age); Travelers to certain countries and; High risk populations as discussed earlier in the course.” Good personal hygiene as well as proper sanitation practices are necessary to prevent person-to-person spread. Source: www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/index.htm www.dphpe.org/infect/hepa.html
E coli, are bacteria that naturally live in the intestines of humans and animals. There are many different strains of E. coli but most of them are harmless. One particularly nasty strain of E.coli, is E coli O157 H:7. This strain can cause very serious illness in people. Symptoms: Bloody diarrhea Painful stomach cramps Fever Symptoms can appear from 1 – 10 days after exposure, usually 2-4 days E coli 0157 H:7 can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome, or HUS, which can seriously damage the kidneys, especially in high risk groups. How it is spread: E coli O157 H:7 lives in the intestines of cattle and can spread to humans who eat raw or undercooked meat or other foods that have come in contact with raw beef products or water contaminated by sewage or animal manure. Drinking unpasteurized milk Contaminated water Contact with animals in petting zoos or farms if proper hand washing is not observed. E coli O157 H:7 can spread easily from one person to another, when a person who has not washed their hands well after a bowel movement contaminates food, water, or surfaces that other people touch. Source: www.cdc.gov Center for Agrosecurity, University of Maryland http://www.cheori.org/cpkdrc/what_is_hus.htm Photographs: www.cdc.gov/nczved/blog/2009/09/cookie-dough-gooey-sweet-seasoned-with-bacte...
How is it diagnosed: E coli 0157 H:7 is diagnosed by testing a stool sample using a specific test that is not available in all labs. Most common among young children Treatment: Presently there is no cure for E coli 0157 H:7. Antibiotics can make the disease worse. Most people get better in a few days with rest and plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration or fluid loss. Anti-diarrheal medicines are also not recommended. Source: www.cdc.gov Center for Agrosecurity, University of Maryland http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/food/food_safety/illnesses/hgic3620.html Photographs: www.cdc.gov/nczved/blog/2009/09/cookie-dough-gooey-sweet-seasoned-with-bacte...
Salmonella. What is it? Salmonella is the name of a group of bacteria that is common in the intestines of birds, reptiles, and mammals. It can also live in the intestine of humans. Salmonella accounts for forty-two percent of all foodborne illness reported in the United States making this disease the most reported cause of foodborne illness. Source: (The Surveillance Report from the Food Diseases Active Surveillance (foodNet) for 2004 identified Salmonella as the most common bacterial infection reported. (Salmonella 42%). How it is spread Salmonella is usually spread to humans by eating foods contaminated with animal feces. Salmonella exist on raw meat and poultry and can survive if the food is not cooked to a safe internal temperature measured with a thermometer. It is also spread through food handlers who do not wash their hands. Other foods include: milk and dairy products Eggs Seafood and Some fruits and vegetables Contact with frogs and reptiles Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Salmonella_Questions_&_Answers/index.asp
Salmonella. Symptoms include: fever, diarrhea, abdominal cramps and nausea. The illness can last several days. In high risk populations it can cause life threatening infections. Some high risk populations can experience long term consequences: Can take a while for bowel habits to become normal. Pains in the joints Irritation of the eyes Painful urination that can last for months or years and can lead to chronic arthritis that is difficult to treat. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Salmonella_Questions_&_Answers/index.asp
Shigella. Shigella is a disease caused by a family of bacteria called shigella. Symptoms: Diarrhea (often bloody) Fever Stomach cramps The symptoms occur within a day or two of exposure and last for 5 to 7 days. A rare and severe form of shigella can occur including high fever and seizures in children less than 2 years of age. Still, others may have no symptoms at all but can still pass the bacteria to others. How is it spread: The shigella bacteria passes from one infected person to another. Most infections occur when the bacteria passes from: Stools or soiled fingers of one person to the mouth of another person. Poor personal hygiene and handwashing habits. Toddlers who are not fully toilet trained. Certain types of sexual activity. Source: www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/shigellosis_gi.html
Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is often called “staph”. It is a bacteria commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. It can be found in the nostrils of at least 30% of the population. How it is spread-poor personal hygiene It is usually spread from person-to-person from contact with secretions from infected skin lesions, nasal discharge, or spread by infected hands. Occasionally staph can get into the body and cause infections. The infection can be minor such as boils, pimples and other skin conditions. However, it can produce serious infections such as blood infections or pneumonia. Foods associated with Staphylococcus aureus: Meat and meat products, poultry and egg products. Salads including—egg , chicken, tuna, potato and macaroni. Bakery products such as—cream pies, cream filled pastries and chocolate eclairs. Sandwich fillings and milk and dairy products. Source: www.cdc.gov?ncidod/aip/research/mrsa.html www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Foodborneillness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathp... Adobe Connect:“Antimcrobial Resistance, the Food Supply, and Our Health” 1 hour Guest speaker: Dr. Jianghong Meng
The Norwalk viruses are a group of viruses that cause “gastroenteritis” more commonly referred to as the ”stomach flu.” This “stomach flu is not related to the flu (or influenza). It is an extremely common and contagious virus and spreads easily from one person to the next. Noroviruses are rarely diagnosed due to the often, unavailability of the laboratory test. It got its name from Norwalk, Ohio, where the first outbreak occurred. Noroviruses are found in the vomit or feces of an infected person. In recent years, some ocean liners have been infected with the Norwalk virus and were forced to dock early due to passenger illness. Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and some stomach cramping. These symptoms are sometimes accompanied with headache, fever, chills, tiredness and muscle aches. There is no vaccine Cause: food or drink infected with the virus surfaces; utensils and other objects infected with the virus and placed in the mouth; direct contact with another infected person. Prevention: frequent hand washing; wash fruits and vegetables for at least 30 seconds with potable water, carefully clean and disinfect surfaces, flush, clean and get rid of feces and vomit and clean well around the toilet area. Be careful in child care facilities and nursing homes when caring for infected persons; wash your hands frequently. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/norovirus-qa.htm PHIL #10708 photo credit : Charles D. Humphrey, Centers for Disease control and Prevention (purple).
The pathogens of greatest concern today and the most commonly recognized foodborne infections are—camphylobacter, salmonella, E-coli O157:H7, and a virus group called calicivirus which is also known as Norwalk and Norwalk like viruses. What is camphylobactor? Campyhlobactor is a family of bacteria and are the second most commonly reported cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Camphylobactor can be found almost everywhere, such as the gut of some humans, rodents, cats, dogs, poultry, swine and untreated water. Campyhlobactor bacteria flow through the body and into the environment. If food and water come in contact with the stool of infected animals or humans, it becomes contaminated. Cause: Drinking untreated water, unpasteurized milk, raw or undercooked poultry and meat. Symptoms: Abdominal cramps, fever, often bloody diarrhea. This illness can last about a week. Complications can include urinary tract infections, reactive arthritis (most always rare and short lived) and even more rare Guillain-Barre syndrome an uncommon kind of paralysis. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm Photograph:http://www.nbafoodadvocate.com/the-four-foodborne-pathogens-responsible-for-most-foodborne-illnesses-2445
When should you consult a doctor? As stated earlier, the symptoms of foodborne illness often mimic those of so man y other illnesses, especially the flu. The CDC suggest you consult a doctor when the following symptoms occur: High fever (over 101.5 F) Blood in the stools Prolonged vomiting Diarrhea lasting more than 3 days Dehydration Decrease in urination Dry mouth and throat Dizzy upon standing Source: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm
Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 2: Personal Hygiene
Food Safety is for Everyone Module Two Lorraine Harley MS Family and Consumer Sciences Educator University of Maryland Extension Calvert/Charles/St Mary’s Counties Equal Access Programs Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
Personal Hygiene Module 2 Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
Personal Hygiene: <ul><li>Handwashing is the single most important means of avoiding sickness and preventing the spread of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Also teach your children how to wash their hands properly </li></ul>
Critical handswashing steps <ul><li>Wet your hands thoroughly with warm water and add soap </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughly scrub your hands, wrists, fingernails, and in between fingers – for at least: </li></ul><ul><li>20 SECONDS </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse, then dry hands with a clean cloth towel or use a paper towel </li></ul>
When should we wash our hands in the home? <ul><li>Before eating </li></ul><ul><li>After changing diapers </li></ul><ul><li>After coughing or sneezing </li></ul>
When should we wash our hands in the home ??? Continued… <ul><li>After blowing your nose </li></ul><ul><li>After taking out the garbage </li></ul><ul><li>After using the bathroom </li></ul>
Pet alert!!! <ul><li>Pets, such as dogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds and lizards </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul>
When should I consult a doctor? <ul><li>“ High fever (over 101.5 F) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood in stools </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea lasting more than 3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry mouth and throat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizzy upon standing </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
To Learn More: <ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm#learnmore </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/print.do?url=http%3A//www.cdc.gov/cleanhands </li></ul>Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension