Wetland Ecosystem


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Visit the Critical Habitat @ Philippines Region V. Cabusao, Camarines Sur.

Analysis of the location was the focus of the document.

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Wetland Ecosystem

  1. 1. CENTRAL BICOL STATE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE San Jose, Pili, Camarines Sur INSTITUTE OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCESName: Ronnie Z. Valenciano Jr. Course/Yr. & Sec: BSE 3B Date: February 16, 2012 WETLAND ECOSYSTEM Laboratory Exercise No. 4 Bird Watching Activity Cabusao, Camarines Sur I. INTRODUCTION Philippines in general has a vast of endangered natural resources and other animals thatshelter on it, one of this are trees where birds lay their eggs and brood it until it becomes a newspecies of birds. In Brgy. Pandan Cabusao Camarines Sur is one of the poorest municipality inthe Bicol region but unnoticeable the rich natural resources inside of the municipality. Thewetland of Cabusao consists of mangroves that live in partly fresh and salty water. It serves as ashelter for many other organisms that live on the trees (bacauan). Migratory birds rely on thefood (tabansak) one of the reasons why other European birds travels down to the Philippinesbecause of natural resources. The Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act define a critical habitat as apatch of land located outside a protected area and have the presence of threatened species. Underan administrative order recognizing Cabusao as a critical habitat, the DENR’s Region V office isrequired to define the boundaries of the critical area and manage it in cooperation with the localgovernment. The DENR regional office must preserve the existing ecosystems crucial to theduck’s survival. II. MATERIALS Field notebook Binoculars Digicam (for documentation) III. PROCEDURES: 1. Visit a critical habitat – Cabusao, Camarines Sur for bird watching. 2. Use your binoculars to view the different avian species present on the area.( (*Be patient and stand still.) 3. Make an identification and description on the birds species observe and write it on your field notebook. Document also the birds observed. You should at least identify and describe at least five endemic birds and five migratory birds (either residential or non – residential birds)
  2. 2. 4. Interview a resource person regarding the management of critical habitat at Cabusao. 5. Answer the guide questions given by your Ecology professor. IV. DATANATIVE SPECIES Naga- Maya/ Dignus Rugmo Punay Tugwak (* The above stated avian species were present on the site but not observe during the bird watching activity.) Crow – black all over the body. Distinguished by four-toed feet, with three toes pointing forward and one large toe pointing backward. Crows are black, with more or less of a glossy sheen. Kagang – it is white above and brown on the under parts of the body. Duck – the feathers are white, crown is red, webbed feet is pale yellow. Ducks differ from geese and swans of the same family by their shorter necks and legs and other anatomical differences. It has spatulate bills lined with bony notches, or lamellae, for straining plant and animal matter from water. Rooster (Gallus gallus) - The feet, usually four-toed. The head is decorated with wattles and a naked, fleshy crest, called the comb, Plumage ranges from the color black red orange and red. Hen – wattles are smaller compared to rooster, Plumage ranges from the color of brown black and red. Gallus gallus Domestic duck
  3. 3. MIGRATORY BIRDS Little egret- it has long black legs with yellow feet and a slim black bill. Little Egrets are mostly silent but make various croaking and bubbling calls at their breeding colonies and produce a harsh alarm call when Little egret disturbed. Intermediate egret-This species, as its scientific name implies, is intermediate in size between the Great Egret and smaller white egrets like the Little Egret and Cattle Egret, though nearer to Little than Great. It has all-white plumage, generally dark legs, with neck length a little less than body length, a slightly domed head, and a shorter, thicker yellow bill. Cattle egret- It has a relatively short thick neck, sturdy bill, and a hunched Intermediate egret posture. The non-breeding adult has mainly white plumage, a yellow bill and grayish-yellow legs. Chinese Egret- is a full-crested, white egret with yellow bill. Tufted duck- It has an obvious head tuft. It is brown with paler flanks. Collared kingfisher- It is blue above while the underparts is white. There is a white collar around the neck. Whimbrel-It is greyish brown, with a white back and rump and a long curved bill with a kink rather than a smooth curve. It is generally wary. The usual call is a rippling whistle, prolonged into a trill for the song. The Whimbrel is smaller, has a shorter, decurved bill and has a central crown stripe and strong supercilia. Striated Heron - They have a blue-grey back and wings, white underparts, a black cap and short yellow legs. Striated Heron Northern shoveler- not seen but present. Large distinctive spoon-shaped bill – black in the drake and brown in the hen. The drake has a green head and neck, a white breast, brown sides and pale blue shoulder patches. The hen is buff and light brown with grayish shoulder patches. Length: 19 1/2" Weight: 1 1/2 lbs. Pacific Golden plover- is spotted gold and black on the crown, back and wings. Its face and neck are black with a white border and it has a black breast and a dark rump. The legs are black. In
  4. 4. winter, the black is lost and the plover then has a yellowish face and breast, and white underparts. Purple heron- The Purple Heron is a large bird, but it is slender for its size. It has a narrower yellow bill, which is brighter in breeding adults. Purple Heron (Andrea Purpurea) Whiskered treeswift- They have long wings, with most of the length coming from the length of the primaries; their arms are actually quite short. Whiskered treeswiftV. ANALYSIS1. Describe the local habitat, what are the physical and biological characteristics of wetland? The Cabusao – Critical Habitat has a coordinates of 13°43’ 0” N, 123°5’59”E,situated at Camarines Sur. The coastal wetland of 27 hectares was located at Brgy. Pandan,Cabusao, Camarines Sur. It is considered as a wetland because it is an extending inland from theestuary. The area was enriched with different flora and fauna. The mangroves were theflora dominantly present in the area and the only plants that separates the two sides of the area:the open field area and the open sea area connecting to the san Miguel Bay. The different speciesof mangroves were inhabited by another organism called slugs. But mostly, the mud plots weresituated on the open sea area. Within the mud plots are the fruits of nipa, shoots of mangroves,logs and even garbages including the plastic wrappers and abandoned shoes. It is also observableon the muddy area the different fauna that serve as food to the domestic/endemic birds andmigratory birds. This includes bugitis, tabansak, mangkak, crabs and rarely shrimp. There is alsoa river or dam that outflows to the sea. The area was totally muddy. The anthropogenic disturbances within the wetland ecosystem are the workers ofthe area making an alternative pathway for the convenience of the visitors of the location and theresidents looking for timber on the mangrove trees area together with the fishermen using theirmotorboat. The sea was low tide when we had watched birds, together with gustiness of thewind. Migratory birds and domestic avian species were present on the area. Below is the mapsketch of the critical habitat.
  5. 5. 2. What are the reasons for the migratory birds to feed and breed in the wetland of Cabusao? Migratory birds came from the long trip of flying to flee on the winter season oftheir original home, therefore the birds are looking for a place where in the season is appropriatefor them to regain their energy and for them to find the source of food, because in their originalhome their source of food were frozen due to winter season. The Philippines maintain itsfavorable climate to the migratory birds. Birds need to boost their energy and store fat to theirbody in preparation to the next flight travelling miles away.3. Describe the flyway of the migratory bird in the wetlands to Cabusao. Forester Almazar said, there are 3 flyways of migratory birds to the Philippines. The major flyway is the East Australian (EA) flyway. The migratory birds fly from the Taimyr Peninsula in Russia to Alaska. It encompasses Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, Korea and South-East Asian countries including the Philippines. These migratory birds spend their breeding season in northern Asia and Alaska and spend the non- breeding season in South-East Asia and Australasia. The flyway passes through 22
  6. 6. countries with approximately 55 migratory species travelling along it, equating to about 5 million birds. The West Pacific Flyway is a bird migration route that enables the migratory birds to reach Philippines. It stretches from New Zealand and the east coast of Australia, northwards through the central Pacific Ocean including the Philippines, the east coast of northern Asia, including Japan and the Korea, and ending at the Bering and Chukchi Seas encompassing easternmost Siberia and the Alaskan Peninsula.4. What are the different stresses and shocks that the ecosystems have experienced? Discuss fullywhat LGU plan and DENR will costs the ecosystem. Stresses and Shocks that ecosystems have experienced were presented in thetable: STRESSES SHOCKS fishing on the area of wetland Modification of the natural area/habitat residents looking for timber Invasion of migratory birds workers that modifies the area Garbage on the area tourists climatic change high tide (because some of the flood on the area significant organism in the area are hunting of the native and migratory flowed down to the sea) birds competition on source of food (for if possible tsunami (tidal wavws in the endemic birds) area) According to Forester Rechilda Almazar, there is new unidentified swan – likemigratory bird and probably an additional species of bird visiting the area of Cabusao. At thesame time Mr. Enrico Maravilla had stated that they are making an alternative pathway inresponse to the convenience of the visitors in the area. This plan would sacrifice the natural habitat of the domestic birds such as ducks.There is a possibility that if this area were open to tourists, the avian species will be disturbed.Probably they cannot spawn properly because of the stresses from the visitors. Another is thecontinuous migration of the birds to Cabusao and some of them are now residential migratorybirds. There is a possibility that the endemic birds will just disappear because of the dominantresidential migratory birds.
  7. 7. 5. Describe the food chain/ food web in the wetlands. The schematic representation shows the flow of nutrients/energy of theorganisms in the wetland: man/residents wild duck heron egret crustaceans/crabs/ bugitis tabansak zooplankton mollusks phytoplankton algae detritus *The Producers are the algae, phytoplankton and detritus. *The Final consumers are the residents of the area. * The flow of energy is composed of the algae, tabansak, bugitis, heron, man * Algae – mollusks – crustaceans – egret – man 6. Describe and enumerate the ecological service that wetlands offer to the community. Ecological service provided to the residents: Filter toxic wastes, excess nutrients, sediments and other pollutants - Wetlands prevent high concentrations of nutrients and toxic substances from reaching groundwater supplies or other water sources that may be used for drinking water, thus reducing the costs for its preliminary treatment. Storehouse (sinks) of carbon - Wetlands play at least two critical roles in mitigating the effects of climate change: one in the management of greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide, CO2) and the other in physically buffering climate change impacts. Help prevent erosion due to the trees present on the area (wetland) – wetland vegetation stabilizes shorelines and protects from storms (by slowing down the wind speed, minimizing the effects of waves, water flow and runoff, and by trapping sediments).
  8. 8. Reduce flooding by storing storm water. The flood will be accumulated by the mangrovetress preventing the flood to flow on the residential areas.Protection for storm surgeAesthetic and educational value, support for tourism – the natural beauty of manywetlands makes them ideal locations for recreation, education and tourism.Biodiversity protection – support a great diversity of species, many of which are uniqueand rare. Other wetlands’ products are used as construction material (reeds for thatching,timber for construction); as a source of fuel (plant residues may be formed into briquettesand used in homes or they may be burnt directly); fibres for textile and paper-making;medicines from bark, leaves and fruits; dyes and tannins used to treat leather, etc. Ecological service provided to the fauna:Feeding, resting spot for migrating fowlProvide food, habitat for other aquatic speciesProvide nesting grounds for a number of species, including crabs, shrimps, oysters andclams.Breeding site of mosquitoes.Nursery habitatsSite to regain energy and store fats
  9. 9. VI. DOCUMENTATION The area seems flooded but it’s not. It is high tide, the sea water meets the fresh water. Flying with wings: Egrets with the same feathers flock together. Wild duck Leader: Wild ducks, are you ready! Let’s conquer the sea!
  10. 10. I will follow you… Boo – Get – Tea’s: Bird foodThe boat is sinking group yourselves into one!
  11. 11. Madam can you cite species of birds present here in the area? Kammi…Hammii…Waveeee…..! Ma’am Flor and my group members strike out at Cabusao – Critical Habitat.
  12. 12. VII. REFERENCES:Forester Rechilda AlmazarMr. Enrico Maravilla – CaretakerEnger and Smith, Environmental Science: A study Interrelationship. McGrawHill: Philippines, 1999.Kadlec and Knight, Treatment of Wetlands Lewis Publishing:USA, 1996.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collared_Kingfisherhttp://www.bicolmail.com/issue/2010/feb4/xbirds.htmlhttp://www.maweb.org/documents/document.358.aspx.pdfhttp://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-pubs-info-ecosystem-services/main/ramsar/1-30-103%5E24258_4000_0__http://www.whitehouse.gov/ceq/wetlands_200604.pdfwww.flyways.us/.../dabbling-ducks/northern-shoveler