Justice

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  • http://forums.sgclub.com/singapore/cabbie_fined_shoplifting_339138.html
    http://news.xin.msn.com/en/singapore/article.aspx?cp-documentid=4711851
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7708169.stm
  • http://rhrealitycheck.org/article/2013/10/22/a-pennsylvania-priest-who-allegedly-abused-children-may-go-free-while-statute-of-limitations-reformers-press-on/
    http://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/news/local/Father-Brennan-Alleged-Victim-Death-Trial-228962691.html
  • Justice

    1. 1. Justice Esther, Elizabeth, Wei Ching, Dione, Jean
    2. 2. CONCEPT OF JUSTICE What is your idea of justice? What are some rules/principles you will have when discussing justice?
    3. 3. Dione’s concept of justice • Justice is about amending the victim’s hurt done by the perpetrator through different ways like money, rights, conscience, name etc… • To me, justice is served only when all the victims who are affected by the wrongdoing willingly accepts the compensation given to them, and claims that it is reasonably enough. • There is no true justice
    4. 4. Esther’s concept of justice Justice is a concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, equity and fairness. The word comes from the Latin jus, meaning right or law. In a way, it is the act of making sure that each person receives his or hers equal share of consideration in a particular situation.
    5. 5. Elizabeth’s concept of justice jus·tice [juhs-tis] Noun 1. The quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness: to uphold the justice of a cause. 2. rightfulness or lawfulness, as of a claim or title; justness of ground or reason: to complain with justice. 3. the moral principle determining just conduct. 4. conformity to this principle, as manifested in conduct; just conduct, dealing, or treatment. 5. the administering of deserved punishment or reward.
    6. 6. Jean’s concept of justice • Resolution of conflicts: dealing with injustice (fault) • Procedures to resolve conflicts: trials based on the law • Are human rights/international laws involved? • Are these trials fair? • Equality (all receive equal treatment) vs. equity (output  outcome) • “Rational cost-benefit analysis” vs. “follows traditional procedures" • Justice vs. stability
    7. 7. CASE STUDIES: JUSTICE SERVED
    8. 8. #1: Martin MacNeill • Martin MacNeill was charged for the murder of his wife, Michele, and for the obstruction of justice in court • Sentenced 15 years to life imprisonment for murder • Sentenced 1 to 15 years of imprisonment for obstruction of justice • Case reported in November 2013 by Daily Herald
    9. 9. #1: Martin MacNeill • According to what justice in today’s world means to me [Dione], the MacNeill case is one where justice is served • Michele’s family felt relieved and happy that MacNeill was sentenced to prison • Since Michele’s family can never get Michele back to life, the least they can do for her is see MacNeill be punished for his act
    10. 10. #2: Ajmal Kasab • The Pakistani terrorist, Ajmal Kasab, was hanged for the Mumbai 26/11 incident • Relatives of the victims and survivors felt that justice has been served • Such a sentence will serve as a lesson to terrorists that India is determined to act firmly against them
    11. 11. #2: Ajmal Kasab • Justice  the lives of innocent people have been accounted for • Justice  the hanging shows how one cannot do harm to others without receiving punishment (an eye for an eye) • Is justice a form of retribution? • Is justice always ethically and morally right?
    12. 12. #3: Macdonald Hot Coffee Case - 1994 • In 1992, 79-year-old Stella Liebeck bought a cup of takeout coffee at a McDonald’s drive-thru in Albuquerque and spilled it on her lap. • She sued McDonald’s and a jury awarded her nearly $3 million in punitive damages for the burns she suffered. • Mrs. Liebeck was not driving when her coffee spilled, nor was the car she was in moving. She had the cup between her knees while removing the lid to add cream and sugar when the cup tipped over and spilled the entire contents on her lap. • The coffee was not just “hot,” but dangerously hot. McDonald’s corporate policy was to serve it at a temperature that could cause serious burns in seconds. (180 – 190 F)
    13. 13. #4: RebeccaSedwickbullyingtill death- 2013 • The attorney for a 14-year-old Florida girl charged with aggravated stalking that allegedly led to the suicide of a 12- year-old classmate told CNN that her client isn't responsible for a controversial Facebook post that led to the suspect's arrest. • Police on Monday arrested two girls, ages 14 and 12, in connection with the death of Rebecca Sedwick, who jumped from the top of an abandoned concrete plant last month. • Authorities said the 14-year-old girl was Rebecca's chief tormenter, and the girl posted a taunting message Saturday on the Internet about what had happened.
    14. 14. #5: Westbrook murder • 52 year old Anthony Westbrook found nude and shot to death in an illegal dumpsite • 24 year old Sadie Britt found guilty and arrested • Family said that they found relief that justice was done in his death; it helps them in their grief
    15. 15. #6: Laura Jean Shoulders • Filmed herself sexually abusing a one year old she was babysitting • She shared the video with pedophiles • She will spend 27 years in jail with no possibility of parole and will have to register as a sex offender even when she is released • Even though her punishment was milder than I [Elizabeth] feel it should have been, she will have to spend 3 decades behind bars for her crime and she will be marked for her crime for the rest of her life
    16. 16. #7: Reed vs. Reed • The Reeds were a married couple who had separated. While they were separated, their son died. • The two parents then came into conflict over who would be named as the administrator of the son’s estate. • At that time, Idaho (the state where the Reeds lived) law specified that men were to be preferred over women when there was conflict over who should serve in a role such as that of administrator of an estate. • This law, in effect, discriminated against women, making it clear that they were not equal to men when it came to being named to such positions.
    17. 17. #7: Reed vs. Reed • In Reed, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the Idaho law was unconstitutional. They ruled that there could be no arbitrary discrimination on the basis of sex. • This was a landmark case in that it was the first to ever hold such a discriminatory law to be unconstitutional. It has affected women’s rights positively in the US because it set the precedent that women could not be discriminated against arbitrarily. • However, it did not have as sweeping an impact as some might have hoped. It did not give laws that discriminate on the basis of sex the same kind of scrutiny that laws based on race get. Thus, this case had an important impact, but it was not as impactful as women’s rights activists might have hoped.
    18. 18. #8: Roe vs. Wade • Roe (P), a pregnant single woman, brought a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of the Texas abortion laws. These laws made it a crime to obtain or attempt an abortion except on medical advice to save the life of the mother. • Hallford, a doctor faced criminal prosecution for violating the state abortion laws
    19. 19. #8: Roe vs. Wade • Roe and Hallford won their lawsuits at trial. The district court held that the Texas abortion statutes were void as vague and for overbroadly infringing the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of the plaintiffs • This case legalized abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy, and started a debate on the morality of abortion
    20. 20. #9: Lam Kor-wan • Hong Kong serial killer who was a taxi driver at that time • Murdered 4 women, photographed corpses • Performed acts of necrophilia • Kept sexual organs of victims in Tupperware containers • Was sentenced to death by hanging, but sentence was commuted to life imprisonment after abolition of death penalty in 1993
    21. 21. #9: Lam Kor-wan • Even though his sentence was commuted, he is still currently serving his sentence at a maximum security prison • Is isolated from public, will not be able to hurt more innocent people • Death of Lam Kor-wan will not be able to fully make up for his crimes
    22. 22. #10: Mustafa shoplifting – 2011 • Hawa Nachia A Muhammad Yassin, her sister-in-law Najmudeen Saharjath and Najmudeen’s husband Mohammed Riaz • Stole more than $2500 worth of items • Well-thought out and planned: • Removed security tags • Placed items in discarded plastic bags • Secured with cable ties • Housewives sentenced to 12 weeks’ jail • Mohammed Riaz fined $3500 after pleading that he was the sole breadwinner + needed to take care of children and mother
    23. 23. CASE STUDIES: JUSTICE NOT SERVED
    24. 24. #1: Syariah Law • In the Quran (Syariah Law), if an unmarried man or woman commits adultery, the punishment should be 100 lashes. • In the Hadith, the punishment is 100 lashes and banishment for a year. • 100 lashes and stoning to death for married man or woman. • Some requirements have to be met too. • The adulterer needs to confess first • 4 male eyewitnesses
    25. 25. #1: Syariah Law • Injustice to the spouses of the adulterers  emotional hurt cannot possibly be healed with physical punishment • Injustice  different type of punishments • Injustice  punishment only for the outsider, not disloyal spouse • Injustice  no eye witnesses or confession, get away scot-free • Injustice  male eye witnesses
    26. 26. #2: Gender inequality in Lesotho • African nation of Lesotho, women are unable to own land, or are disadvantaged in legislation regarding inheritance rights • Cannot have independent ownership without co-signing with a male • Women thus stay in abusive relationships at risk of losing property • Widows lose their homes when husband dies
    27. 27. #2: Gender inequality in Lesotho • Injustice  clear indication of gender inequality, discrimination against women • Injustice  no valid reasons behind such ‘policy’
    28. 28. #3: Stephen Dennison - 1959 • In 1925 at the age of 16, after shoplifting a $5 box of candy from a store in upstate New York, Stephen Dennison was sent to the state reformatory. • Two years later he was transferred to the state penitentiary, where, over the years, he broke a number of minor rules. • For these infractions, extra time was added to his sentence. • Forgotten and ignored by prison bureaucrats, Dennison spent 34 years in prison for originally stealing that box of candy before finally being released in 1959.
    29. 29. #4: James Montgomery - 1949 • In 1923 in Waukegan, Ill., a 62-year-old mentally deranged white woman named Mamie Snow claimed that she had been raped by James Montgomery, a 26-year-old black man. • After a 20-minute trial Montgomery was convicted because the prosecutor, who was a member of the Klu Klux Klan, supressed a medical report that showed that Miss Snow was still a virgin. • After spending 26 years in prison for a crime that never occurred, Montgomery was granted a retrial and was acquitted in 1949.
    30. 30. #5: Richard Fourtin Jr. • Was 52 years old • He sexually assaulted (raped) a 26 year old lady with severe cerebral palsy  cannot speak, little body movement, but could gesture and bite (he was dating her mom) • no evidence she could not communicate her refusal to have sex • The conviction overturned because his victim is not legally considered 'physically helpless'.
    31. 31. #5: Richard Fourtin Jr. • No evidence that she refused sex, but there was no evidence that she agreed either • She could not talk and could only move a little, let alone defend herself against a rapist • She could bite though, which led the court to conclude that if she did not agree, she should have bit her assailant • So unfair and ridiculous 
    32. 32. #6: Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito • Meredith Fletcher murdered by Rudy Guede • All evidence points to him (forensics; DNA) • Roommate Amanda and her boyfriend Raffaele were arrested and convicted even though they were innocent • Forced by the police to agree to their claims • Media portrayed them as sex crazy murderers • Spent 4 years in jail (they were innocent)
    33. 33. #6: Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito • Initial media portrayal  humiliating and untrue • Jury seen falling asleep; judge talking on phone • The prosecution’s main case was “possible, therefore probable.” • They were blamed before the forensic evidence was even collected • All the evidence pointed to Rudy Guede raping and murdering her with no relation to them at all • Evidence pertaining to them  unsubstantial/unreliable
    34. 34. #7: Daisy Coleman • Raped when she was 14 by schoolmate Matt Barnett, then 17 • No rape charge although "all suspects were in custody" and there were "audio/ video confessions“ • The prosecuting authority felt that the evidence were not strong enough, hence dropping the charge • This year, he pleaded guilty to misdemeanour child endangerment, and hence was charged with that
    35. 35. #8: Navy abuse • A U.S. Navy doctor, Lt. Cmdr. Anthony L. Velasquez, 48, walked free after serving seven days in the brig at the Yokosuka base in Kanagawa Prefecture. • He had admitted to two counts each of wrongful sexual contact and conduct unbecoming an officer • He had gotten off lightly with a two-year prison sentence, $28,000 fine and forfeiture of all pay and allowances suspended for a year in a deal struck with naval authorities. • Twenty-nine further charges were dropped in exchange for his guilty plea.
    36. 36. #8: Navy abuse • He was a molester of 23 women • Victims do not feel that justice was served • E.g. One victim said, “Velasquez mostly made me feel very uncomfortable. He would do extra vaginal checks that I found out later were probably not necessary. When I was in the exam room and therefore half-naked, he would talk to me while rubbing my knee and make me feel super uncomfortable"
    37. 37. #9: Stoning of Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow • Reported: 23 year-old Somalian woman who was sentenced to death by stoning – found guilty of adultery • Public execution – “forced into a hole, buried up to her neck then pelted with stones until she died in front of more than 1,000 people” • Was actually a 13 year-old girl who was trying to report that she was raped by three men • Convicting a 13 year-old girl of adultery is illegal under Islamic law
    38. 38. #10: Father Brennan • Priest who sexually abused altar boy: allegedly abused him for 3 years, since he was 11 years-old • Rape and sexual assault charges against Fr. Brennan were dropped after victim Sean McIlmail passed away • Was also investigated for clergy abuse in 2005, but was not charged because statute of limitations for alleged assaults passed • Is not charged/punished for his previous crimes  unfair for victims who have had to suffer in silence for indefinite periods of time

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