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Behaviroal Design

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A brief introduction to behavioral design in user experience.

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Behaviroal Design

  1. 1. Behavioral Design Cecilia Boström 2020
  2. 2. Behavior What makes us take action?
  3. 3. To understand behavior, we have to understand people People are in general: Lazy Weak-willed Easily distracted Forgetful Bad losers
  4. 4. Fogg’s behavior model
  5. 5. Behavior = Motivation + Ability + Prompt
  6. 6. Motivation Motivation is what drives all deliberate actions by humans. Motivation is based on emotion, in particular the search for satisfaction and the avoidance of conflict.
  7. 7. Ability The ability to perform the action. Are physically able to? Do we have the time? The money? The mental strength?
  8. 8. Prompt Something in the environment that starts a behavior. It could be an alarm signal, a buzz, a stoplight. Or something internally within ourselves, such as hunger, boredom or fatigue.
  9. 9. Source: https://www.behaviormodel.org/
  10. 10. Decisions take place in one of two systems:
  11. 11. • The mind is divided between conscious and automatic processes • These processes are like a rider on the back of an elephant • The rider’s inability to steer the elephant using force explains a lot about the puzzles of our mental mind (especially the difficulties with willpower) • To learn how the train the elephant is the key to self-improvement The elephant & the rider analogy Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/timmaurer/2015/07/24/riding-the-elephant-mastering-decision-making-in-money- and-life/
  12. 12. How to persuade people to say yes! Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Persuasion • Reciprocity • Scarcity • Authority • Consistency • Liking • Consensus
  13. 13. We feel obliged to give back of what we have received from others 1. Reciprocity Make sure that what you give is personalized and unexpected, and you’ll likely get something in return. For example: ● Gifts ● Favours ● Party invitations Source: https://www.influenceatwork.com/principles-of-persuasion/
  14. 14. We want more of things we can have less of 2. Scarcity Tell people what they risk losing if not considering your offer. Examples: ● Limited edition ● Special offers ● Sale Source: https://www.influenceatwork.com/principles-of-persuasion/
  15. 15. Loss aversion We are more motivated of what we might lose, than what we might win…
  16. 16. We tend to follow credible experts 3. Authority The principle works well if someone else tells how good someone is. Examples: ● Credible badges ● Linkedin endorsements ● Lab coats Source: https://www.influenceatwork.com/principles-of-persuasion/
  17. 17. Milgram’s experiment
  18. 18. We tend to be consistent with what we have earlier said or done 4. Consistency If we have said or written something publicly, we are likely to stick with those opinions in the future. Examples: Stating something publicly, makes you more committed to do it. Source: https://www.influenceatwork.com/principles-of-persuasion/
  19. 19. We tend to say yes to people we like 5. Liking In general, we like people who are similar to us, gives us compliments and cooperate with us towards shared goals. Source: https://www.influenceatwork.com/principles-of-persuasion/
  20. 20. We tend to look at the actions of others to reach a decision - Especially when uncertain! 6. Consensus / Social proof Source: https://www.influenceatwork.com/principles-of-persuasion/
  21. 21. How we get hooked What steers addictive-like behavior?
  22. 22. Are you addicted to any app or service? What do you think makes you addicted?
  23. 23. In the 1950’s, the psychologist B.F. Skinner studied behaviour in response to specific stimuli. Lab animals were placed in specially built boxes and taught to perform actions, such as pressing a lever, in response to light and sound signals. Sometimes the animals got food as a reward, en electrical shock, or nothing at all. The animals that got random rewards continued to press the lever, even long after the food stopped coming. Operant conditioning chambers and random rewards
  24. 24. Just like the lab animals, we are wired to endlessly search for our next reward. We endlessly search for our next reward… Variable rewards come in three types: • Rewards of the tribe We want to feel accepted, important, attractive and included by others. • Rewards of the hunt We want to find food and supplies. We also want good deals and information. • Rewards of the self We look for novel sensory stimulation. Source: https://www.nirandfar.com/want-to-hook-your-users-drive-them-crazy/
  25. 25. Emails give us all three reward types in random intervals: • The social obligation to reply (the tribe) • The chance of a potential opportunity (the hunt) • The feeling of taking control of the notifications and keep unread messages to zero (the self) Random rewards make e-mails addictive
  26. 26. • Start a behavior using triggers Habit-forming tech starts with an external, such as notifications. In the long run, triggers can become internal. Consider feeling bored and start checking instagram. The feeling itself has become the internal trigger. • Make the desired action easy and boost user motivation This increases chances of users behaving the way we want. Manufacturing desire using The Hook Model • Create desire through unpredictability Dopamine levels surge when we expect a reward. Add variability and the effect multiplies. • Let the user invest time to improve the service By for example encouraging users to like a youtube video, the service becomes more interesting the next time they go through the hook. It also makes it more likely that they do continue using the service. Source: https://www.nirandfar.com/how-to-manufacture-desire/
  27. 27. Bluma Wulfovna Zeigarnik (1900-1988) was a Soviet psychologist and psychiatrist who discovered that people easier remember unfinished tasks, rather than completed ones. We tend to feel at unease when we leave things incomplete The Zeigarnik Effect
  28. 28. The Zeignarnik Effect in digital interfaces
  29. 29. Conclude & reflect • What is your most important insight? • What surprised you? • What will you take with you? • What did you get curious to learn more about?

A brief introduction to behavioral design in user experience.

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