Assessing learning


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An overview of assessing student learning for pre-service teachers.

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  • By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means,
    and that teaching is focused on desired results
  • Assessment also lets the teacher know if the objectives were or were not met and if re-teaching needs to take place. Some things absolutely have to be re-taught other concepts may be able to be incorporated into future lessons. But if it was important enough to teach and the learner didn’t get it the first time the teacher needs to contemplate how to re-teach it without holding everyone back.
    Discuss strategies to re-teach
    One - on -one time (office hours, before or after school, tutoring sessions)
    Individualized packets for additional reading or clarification
    Peer tutoring
    Assessment allows for improvement - a curriculum is a working document. Not something that is revisited every five years. Use it as a roadmap to what you are doing. When something doesn’t work , make notes in the curriculum to that changes can me made before the next time the unit or concept is taught.
    Assessment also allows the teacher to look at themselves critically. If students didn’t get it, if something was too “messy”, it something was not well received teachers need to self evaluate. Was it the way I taught it, was it the strategy I used, how could I make it better for students?, what would I can I do better and how? Teacher effectiveness needs to also be evaluated not just through self evaluation but by the learner, by peers and colleagues, by supervisors. Each group will see something different to make a whole picture of the effectiveness, the strengths and weakness of the instructor and instructional process.
    Organizations and districts gather data about the effectiveness of programs for funding and/or renewal. Assessment data can give on objective picture of the effectiveness of the program, about standards, objectives, performance. . .
    Assessment communicates information both informally and formally about programs and instruction - what learner say, what supervisors see, hear, and learn through data collection.
  • Assessment can be achieved through testing and non-testing methods.
    Testing is probably less effective in assessing the retention of information. Too often “stuff” is learned for the test but never applied or internalized. Testing provides a measurable accountability for oversight agencies and organizations.
    Assessment provides opportunity to check learner performance to the stated objectives of the lesson. Sometimes the teacher says the objective is one thing but never assesses whether or not students achieved the objective. A test or a project must be closely aligned with what the stated objectives are.
    Schools and organizations may have objectives that are set by agencies other than themselves. The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education sets standards that schools must meet.
    Example of Natalie Allen . . . . Natalie works for the Cardinal organization. What might be their objectives in hiring a dietician and how do they know she is doing the job she is hired to do? What sort of assessments might give the organization this information?
  • In effective assessments, we see a match between the type or format of the assessment and the achievement target it tends to measure. If the goal is for students to learn basic concepts and skills, then written tests and quizzes generally provide adequate and efficient measures. When the goal, however, is deep understanding, we need to rely on more complex assessment methods to determine if the goal has been reached.
  • A variety of assessment tools should be used to accommodate all types of learners. Within each lesson and unit a variety of assessment both formal and informal should be ussd.
    An authentic task is:
    Requires judgment and innovation.
    Asks a student to “do” the subject.
    Replicates or simulates the contexts in which adults are tested in the workplace.
    Assesses a student’s ability to efficiently and effectively use a repertoire of knowledge and skills to negotiate a complex task.
    Allows appropriate opportunities to rehearse, practice, and consult resources; obtain feedback on performances; and refine performances and products.
  • Formative assessments are single instruments that are used to guide further instruction and development of activities to help the learner achieve the objectives.
    Cumulative are the culminating activities or final assessment that may be a combination of many items -
    You have a culmanating project for Fontbonne in Education - What does that instrument look like? What is included? How could it guide the future for instruction here at Fontbonne? Describe how it helps the learner.
  • Critical Thinking/Higher Order Thinking. Using the information from Blooms - do any of these lend themselves to HOT versus LLT -
    HOT verbs:
    appraise, justify, compare, estimate, evaluate
    LLT verbs:
    define, label, match, list
    Are there any concepts or classes where some of these types of questions are more appropriate than others?
  • Age appropriateness of assessments is critical. List as many others as you can think of . . Discuss each method in terms of HOT, Age level, skills taught . . .
  • Three domains
    Scoring Tools help us to avoid subjectivity in scoring. It defines what the learner is expected to do and what you as the teacher are looking for when you score. Take personal issues out of the process
    Peer or self evaluation can be a very powerful tool.
  • What could we learn from this information?
    What would you do after you had this information?
  • Take the time to do an item analysis on all tests.
    Look at the mean median and mode
    Pay attention to any significant changes in each student’s scores.
  • Checklists, score sheets, rubrics are important tools for assessment.
    Many sources for creating these tools are available. Your other professionals, texts, web sites, teacher resource materials.
    CA, MS, SS, Art, Science, Math, Spl. Educ
  • Assessing learning

    1. 1. ASSESSING LEARNING Wolff EDU597 “Evidence of understanding is a greater challenge than evidence that the student knows a correct or valid answer.” Jay McTighe
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES Analyze purposes of assessment.  Discuss why assessment is important.  Recognize the importance of variety and differentiation in assessment.  Examine methods for gathering and analyzing assessment data.  Examine sample data to determine strategies for analysis and interpretation of data.  Wolff EDU597
    3. 3. ASSESSMENT IS: Wolff EDU597
    4. 4. Who are your customers for assessment?  Why do you give assessments?  Do you score what is to score or do you score what is essential?  What is the difference between performance and authentic assessment?  Wolff EDU597
    5. 5. FOUR QUESTIONS THAT WILL GUIDE YOU IN DEVELOPING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS What do you want students to know and be able to do?  What will count as acceptable performance?  What criteria will assure expert and unbiased judgment?  How will you provide feedback for growth.  Wolff EDU597
    6. 6. Wolff EDU597 Assessment should improve performance.
    7. 7. BACKWARD DESIGN GRANT WIGGINS/ JAY MCTIGHE 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Wolff EDU597 1. Identifying desired results
    8. 8. INTERNAL ALIGNMENT 1. Activity 1. Assessment 2. Outcome 2. Activity 2. Assessment 3. Outcome 3. Activity 3. Assessment Wolff EDU597 1. Outcome
    9. 9. FIVE BENCHMARK PRACTICES FOR SUCCESSFUL ASSESSMENT a. Use assessment to restructure the curriculum in order to develop an abilities-based class. c. Incorporate ongoing self-assessment of teaching and learning. d. Use class assessment techniques to focus on cooperative projects. e. Assess overall student progress, and determine when changes occur by using follow-up studies of retention and achievement. Wolff EDU597 b. Delineate expected outcomes and make them available to the students.
    10. 10. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT Assist student learning  Identify student strengths  Assess effectiveness of instructional strategies Wolff EDU597 
    11. 11. PURPOSES, CONT. Assess and improve curriculum  Assess and improve teacher effectiveness  Provide data  Communicate with others outside program Wolff EDU597 
    12. 12. ASSESSMENT. . . Testing and non-testing methods  Checking objective attainment  Outside agency competencies  Wolff EDU597
    13. 13. CURRICULAR PRIORITIES AND ASSESSMENT METHODS Assessment Types Performance tasks and projects Open-ended Complex Authentic Important to know and do “Enduring” understanding Wolff EDU597 Traditional quizzes and tests Paper-pencil Selected-response Constructed-response Worth being familiar with
    14. 14. ASSESSMENT. . . Varied types, over time: academic exam questions, prompts, and problems quizzes and test items informal checks for understanding student self-assessments Wolff EDU597 authentic tasks and projects
    15. 15. TESTING AS ASSESSMENT Pre Assessment  Measures what students know About a topic before the unit or lesson begins  Formative assessment  Measures progress  interim Summative assessment  Measures time growth over Wolff EDU597 
    16. 16. RELIABILITY OF ASSESSMENT Wolff EDU597 Snapshot vs. Album Reliable assessment requires multiple evidence over time.
    17. 17. SELECTION-TYPE ITEMS True-False items Includes stem and alternatives (with distracter) Demonstrates relationship between two ideas Multiple choice items Matching items Wolff EDU597  Must be right or wrong     
    18. 18. SUPPLY-TYPE ITEMS Completion items  Statements w/term omitted Written as question  Short answer items   Identification items  Requires labeling or locating parts of a diagram  Essay questions  Evaluate higher level thinking; control for student guessing; approximates use of skills in real life Wolff EDU597 
    19. 19. NON-TESTING MEANS OF ASSESSMENT Diaries  Attitude surveys  Diagrams  Oral/written reports  Projects  Poster  Participation  Others . . . . .  Wolff EDU597
    20. 20. NON-TESTING ASSESSMENT Can assess three domains  Scoring Tools:   Scorecards__  Rubrics/Rating Scales Avoid subjectivity in scoring tools  Utilize peer and self evaluation  Wolff EDU597  Checklists
    21. 21. Wolff EDU597 ANALYZING DATA
    22. 22. SAMPLE GRAPHIC Wolff EDU597
    23. 23. SAMPLE BY WORK TYPE Wolff EDU597
    24. 24. IN CLASS ACTIVITY: DATA ANALYSIS -- Sample grade sheet Wolff EDU597 Discuss: 1. Why do we need to examine data? 2. What information does this data give you? 3. How would analysis influence your teaching? 4. Share your discussion with class.
    25. 25.  In what other ways can you analyze data? Wolff EDU597
    26. 26. DEVELOPING ITEMS - GROUP ACTIVITY Begin with standard  State objective in measurable terms  Decide on type of assessment  Determine guidelines for scoring  Develop a scoring tool  Assign points  Bloom’s level must match – internal alignment  Wolff EDU597
    27. 27. Wolff EDU597