Not until 8,000 years ago did humans begin to live in cities
Top Amsterdam Bottom-hillside slum in South America Calcutta and Mumbai, India are growing at a very rapid pace Costal China has phenomenal growth as well-Shenzen, China grew from 20,000 (size of Homewood) to 2.5 million (size of Chicago) in 30 years.
Picture at upper right-the Euphrates River where urban civilization began Lower right-Iranian farmers winnowing grain-same method is ancient times. Before urbanization, people often clustered in agricultural villages – a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. About 10,000 years ago, people began living in agricultural villages
Picture at right-a roof garden-city hall Chicago-reduces air conditioning costs
Urban elite required to organize the distribution of food, organize defense and irrigation. The harvest was stored as a tax and tribute Out of this need for an organized society came record keeping and writing Laws ere codified or written down and traditions were preserved in writing.
The River Valley civilizations or Hydrologic Societies as Marvin Harris called them, developed governments, mathematics, engineering to irrigate and control the rive and architecture.
The Maya civilization thrived from 200 to 800 AD- with 2 million people in the Yucatan The Aztec civilization thrived from 1200 to 1500 AD Olmec were the first to emerge in Central America
Ancient Americas rain god Tlaloc (main god of Teotihuacan) on the top on an ornate incense burner from Teotihuacan
UrbanGeography Chapter 9
City – a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.Urban-The buildup of the central city and the suburban realm – the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city.
20th Century-the Urban Century• 1900 only 13 cities had 1 million people• 1999 about 362 cities had 1 million• By 2025 there will be 650 cities of 1 million or more• Sometime in 21st cent. The world will become mostly urban• Western Europe, US & Canada are 4/5 urban• China and India are only 3/10 urban
Urban Definitions• Urban-a general term for towns, cities and suburban areas• City-nucleated settlement with many functions and a central business district• Town-small than a city- less complex• Suburb-subsidiary area that is exclusively residential, commercial or industrial-not self sufficient.
Urban Morphology The layout of a city, its physical form and structure.Berlin, GermanyWith wall (above)And without wall(right)
Ancient Cities• Between 7,000 & 5,000 b.p. agricultural societies became more complex with irrigation & larger scale farming• Stratified societies developed with priests, merchants, administrators, soldiers and farmers• Central authority or the state developed which led to the rise of ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece & the Roman Empire.
Urban Definitions• Central City-main city around which suburbs have grown• Urbanized area-continuously built up area with buildings & population density with no reference to political boundaries• Metropolitan area-a large scale functional entity containing several urbanized areas that are integrated as an economic whole
Attributes of Cities• Centers of political power • Cultural and Artistic• Centers of industrial pursuits power • Centers of education• Centers of technology and research• A market place for • Entertainment of all goods types• Specialization in • Sports teams, arenas products and services and parks• Services of all types • An anchor of society• Medical advances
Five Hearths of Urbanization• Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE• Nile River Valley, 3200 BCE• Indus River Valley, 2200 BCE• Huang He and Wei River Valleys, 1500 BCE• Mesoamerica, 200 BCE
Five Hearths of UrbanizationIn each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained.
Function & Location• Earliest civilizations probably developed with the need for organization to create irrigation and provide enough food• Availability of water, good farmland and defensible sites helped certain towns thrive• Positions on travel & trade routes created urban growth.• Urban elites or decision makers evolved.• Writing made the codification of laws and record keeping possible.
Theocratic Centers• God-kings or theocratic rulers developed in some ancient cities.• Priests, temples and shrines took center stage in the Yucatan, Guatemala and Honduras when the Maya Indians developed the great cities of Tikal, Chichen-Itza, Uxmal and Copan.• They also served as educational centers with teachers and philosophers