Tonghua is a city in Manchuria (Dongbei) , just north of North Korea
Nat. Geog. March 2004 Kunming, China-pollution due to increased burning of coal for cooking & heating
Workers load coal in Shanxi Province, China. Burned in homes, power plants & factories, coal provides 65% of China’s energy needs. Highest coal consumption in the world-it could more than double in 20 years.
Top Kamikaze pilots prepare for their last mission Bottom-post war ruins of Japan.
Left-Atomic bomb explodes over Nagasaki, Japan, August 9 th 1945 Right-a view of Nagasaki after the atomic bomb blast.
Part 4 industry
Part 4 Industry
Manufacturing Centers in Eastern Europe and Russia
The Former Soviet Union• Moscow developed light industry in the last days of the Tsars and St. Petersburg focused on machinery, optics, medical equipment, shipbuilding, chemicals & textiles• Soviets emphasized heavy industry-established Nizhni Novgorod (southeast of Moscow) as the “Detroit of the Soviet Union”• WW II Soviets shifted industries east to protect them from the German advance-Volga area & Urals• Ural Mountains provided metallic ores:copper, iron, nickel, chromite, bauxite, etc.• Siberia coal and iron remained important• Kuzbas, Krasnoyarsk and Lake Baykal region served by Trans-Siberian Railroad-impressive coal, timber & water resources
Major Manufacturing Regions of East Asia Shanghai Steel Mill
• Japan built steel mills in Eastern Asia-China Dongbei (Manchuria) during its occupation in WW II• From 1949 until 1969 Soviet planners helped the China industrialize• Tonghua Iron & Steel is subsidized and operated by the Communist Party.• Built in 1958, it employs 29,000 workers-China produces 30% of the world’s steel
Eastern Asia-China• Shanghai recently beat out Rotterdam as the busiest port in the world.• China has many jobs that or outsourced or moved offshore.• Northeast is China’s rust belt with many state-run inefficient factories.• Dalian, Shanghai, Zhuhai, Xiamen & Shenzhen- smog- choked cities jammed with people-rapidly changing with new construction & renewal
• Shenyang on the Liao Eastern Asia-China River became the “Chinese Pittsburgh” with machine-making and steel production.• Shanghai & Chang River district is the 2nd largest industrial region of China-rail cars, ships, books, food & chemicals• Enormous labor force, low daily wages, few restrictions have attracted foreign companies to China’s Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Coal=65% of China’s energy & Consumption could double in 20 years
• ½ the US population, size of Eastern Asia-Japan California, limited resources, yet remarkable industrial growth-Meiji Restoration 1860s• Kanto Plain includes Tokyo- Yokohama-Kawasaki metro areas=2nd biggest megalopolis on earth- produces 20% of Japan’s total goods• Kansai District, Kobe-Kyoto- Osaka triangle is the 2nd area- The Imperial Palace in steel, chemicals, autos, Tokyo shipbuilding & textiles
After WW II, Japanese industryrecovered quickly due to itslarge supply of cheap, highlyskilled labor
• Japan rapidly industrialized in the late 19th cent.• Due to a lack of resource, Japan acquired colonies on the Asian mainland at the expense of China.• In the 1930s militarists dominated the government & began a policy of further expansion.
At left-Kamikaze pilots bow before the Emperor• Right-the ruined Japanese landscape after WWII