Religion
Chapter 7
Religion
“a system of beliefs and practices that attempts
to order life in terms of culturally perceived
ultimate prioriti...
• Religion lies at the heart
of nationalism-e.g.
Middle East, Northern
Ireland, Bosnia, Kashmir,
Afghanistan, etc.
• Relig...
Key Characteristics of Religion
• Set of doctrines or beliefs
relating to a god or gods.
• Structure or hierarchy of
offic...
• Impact of religioncalendars, holidays,
architecture, place names,
slogans on coins or flags.
• A major forces in
combati...
Religions are divided into
• Branches-a large and fundamental division within a
religion-such as Catholic, Protestant and ...
Classifications of Religions
• Universalizing religions – religions that
actively seek converts because members believe
th...
Classifications of Religions
• Monotheistic religions – worship a single deity.
• Polytheistic religions – worship more th...
Religious Typology
• Monotheistic-belief in 1 god
• Polytheistic-belief in many
• Animistic-objects have
spirits-trees, mo...
Religions of the World

• Shamanism –
a community faith tradition in which people follow their
shaman, a religious leader,...
Where did the Major Religions
of the World Originate, and
How do Religions Diffuse?
From the Hearth of South Asia
• Hinduism –
originated in Indus River Valley over 4000
years ago.
* ritual bathing, karma, ...
Hinduism
• Ranks next in size after
Islam, but it the oldest
organized religion.
• No bureaucracy-but does
have holy men.
...
From the Hearth of South Asia
• Buddhism –
splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago.
Originated in a region from Nepal sout...
Buddhism
• Originated in India as a
reform movement of
Hinduism.
• Founded by Siddhartha
Gautama or the Buddha in
5th cent...
Buddhism
is mixed with local religions in some places. In Japan,
Buddhism is mixed with the local religion, Shintoism.
Shi...
Shintoism
• A Japanese ethnic religion
based on animism and
shamanism.
• Was modified by
introduction of Buddhismclosely r...
From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow)
River Valley
• Taoism –
originated in China more than 2500 years ago
* oneness of hum...
Chinese Religions
• Confucianism-mainly a
philosophy of life founded
by K’ung Fu-tze in 6th cent.
BC
• Became a state reli...
From the Hearth of the
Eastern Mediterranean
• Judaism –
originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago.
* first major ...
Judaism
• One of the world’s oldest
religions
• Monotheistic religion that
evolved in Southwest Asia
• 3 branches-Orthodox...
Shamanism & Traditional Religions
• Community faith and
traditional religion which
centers around a shamanreligious leader...
From the Hearth of the Eastern
Mediterranean

• Christianity –
originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago.
* monoth...
Christianity
• It has the largest number of
followers and is the most widely
dispersed with 1.6 billion or 40% of
the popu...
First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE
Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism
Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
•The Eastern Orthodox
Church makes up 14% of
Christianity and is a loose
collection of 14 selfgoverning churches in
Easter...
•The Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow
From the Hearth of the Eastern
Mediterranean
• Islam –
originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago.
* monotheisti...
The Diffusion of Islam
Islam
• Islam is the 2nd largest and
fastest growing religion
with 1 billion followers.
• It has 2 main sects or
divisions...
Nation of Islam
• Founded in 1930s as an AfricanAmerican modified form of
Islam.
• Ideology of nationalism and
modified Is...
Government Impact on Religion
The Soviet Union:
- Had an official
policy of atheism
- Discouraged
religious practice
- Dre...
Armenia and Azerbaijan
Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan
Disposition of the Deceased Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in
different ways, and cultural lands...
Religion’s impact in
history and culture is
evident in its centrality
in many places

Antwerp, Belgium
Hearths of Religion and Philosophy by 500 BCE
Hindu Temple –
Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect
and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted
Hind...
Buddhist Stupas 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in
meditation were built around 800 CE and still stan...
Western Wall, Jerusalem
Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities
the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic
Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants
by canton and commune
Minaret
(for call to prayer)
stands on the Sabah
State Mosque
in Kota Kinabalu,
Malaysia
Diffusion of Islam
into Europe
large mosque in Paris,
France
Rise of Secularism
• Secularism –
indifference to or rejection of organized
religious affiliations and ideas.
- Where is s...
The Rise of Secularism
• World wide 4/6 billion
adhere to a religion
• Separation of Church & State
a new concept
• Today ...
Migration plays a large role in the diffusion
of religions, both universalizing and ethnic.
As Europe becomes more secular...
How is Religion seen in the Cultural Landscape?
Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage
• Sacred Sites
places or spaces people infuse with religious
meaning.
• Pilgrimage
purposeful ...
Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage

Vatican City-Pope John Paul II greeted pilgrims in St.
Peter’s Square
Sacred Sites and Rituals
At Saint Declan’s Holy Well in Ardmore, Ireland
Pilgrims hang scraps of clothing as offerings
Thi...
Sacred Sites of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions:
Judaism (Western Wall)
Christianity (Church of th...
Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism
Hinduism – pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and
rituals are followed by millions.

Vara...
• The Ganges is a sacred river to Hindus, a symbol of life
without end. Pilgrims come from all over to bathe in its holy
w...
• As Shiva destroys the Universe with fire, Hindus
cremate their dead.
Sacred
Landscapes of
Buddhism
Swedogon Pagodo in
Yangon, Myanmar
Eight hairs of the
Buddha are preserved
under the dome (c...
• Buddhism came to Tibet
from India in the 8th
century. Tibetan
Buddhism is a mixture of
Tantric and other
Mahayana teachi...
Sacred
Landscapes of
Christianity
Catholic Churches
Are often located in the
center of European cities,
with spires reachi...
Spanish Catholic names are found in the South West
French
Catholic
names are
common in
Quebec
Sacred
Landscapes of
Christianity
Protestant Churches
This church in
Singapore is a Church
of England church in
city surro...
• Roman Catholicism is
the largest branch of the
Christian faith. The
Vatican in Rome is the
headquarters of the
Papacy an...
Day of the Dead
Altar in Notre Dame
de Chicago.
United Kingdom
Of Great Britain

England’s Cross of St. George

Scotland’s cross of St. Andrew
The cross of St. George on
The flags of Denmark,
Norway and Finland.

•.
Religious Landscapes in the United States
Protestant & Catholic Landscapes in the United
States

Scandinavian Lutheran Church

St. Mary’s Catholic Church
A public bus in Port-au-Prince,
Haiti

Store front church in
Toronto, Canada
Sacred Landscapes of Islam
Muslim Mosques-Dome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates
the importance of geometric ar...
The Hajj-Pilgrims circle the holy Kaaba in the Grand
Hajj
Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
•.

The Dome of the Rock, with its gilded dome and octagonal
base, stands in Jerusalem.
After the Great Mosque at Mecca an...
The Dome of the Rock
Review states of the Middle East & North Africa Before the Test
•The crescent, seen on
top of many mosques,
originally signified the
waxing of the moon.
It is associated with
special act...
Pakistan

Turkey

Saudi Arabia
What Role does Religion play in Political
Conflicts?
Conflicts along Religious Borders
• Interfaith Boundaries
– Boundaries between the world’s major faiths.

• Intrafaith Bou...
Interfaith Boundary in Africa
Israel & Palestine
Landscapes of Settlements
Israelis have had a policy of building settlements
for Jews in the Occupied Territories
Landscape of the Gaza Strip, 2005
In 2005, the Israeli government pulled out of the Gaza Strip, burning
down Jewish settle...
The West Bank
with a the proposed security
wall, parts of which the
Israeli government has
already built.
The Horn of Africa
Amharic (Coptic)
Christianity is in
central Ethiopia

Islam diffused into
the Horn of Africa

Indigenou...
The Former Yugoslavia
Genocide & Ethnic Cleansing
Identities are tied to
Religion, but are
deepened by:
Economic- colonial
experiences &
activity spaces
(segregation)
Boal’...
Religious
Fundamentalism & Extremism
• Religious fundamentalism –
a return to the basics of their faith.
found in Christia...
Islamic Extremists and Jihad
an Islamic holy war against the West
Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that
solving a religious conflict is typically not about
theology; it is ab...
The End
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  • Shinto torii in Japan
    Both Religion and language are the foundation of culture.
    Religion confers identity
    In less developed nations it is a binding force and a guide for daily routine
    Languages aren’t changed by persuasion, but RELIGION CAN BE
    Missionaries of evangelical religions travel all over the world.
  • Mosque in Nigeria
  • Muslims at prayer in France
  • Judaism is not considered a cultural religion due to its global dispersal
    Cultural religions-Hinduism in India, Shinto in Japan, Confucianism and Daoism in China
  • Numbers are not exact since East Asia has many unregistrered Christians.
  • Hinduism is found in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Nepal.-about 750 million
    Photo at right-orange robes and saffron ash on forehead-indicate a sadhu-a holy many who has dedicated his life to ascetism and meditation.
  • Giant golden Buddha at Phra Phuttha Chinnarat in Thailand draws pilgrims from all over Southeast Asia
  • A torii gate welcomes pilgrims to the Itsukushima Shrine on Miyajima Island-it is sacred to Shinto and Buddhism
  • Buddha, Confucius and Lao Zi
  • Yemeni Jew in 1914 reads from the sacred Torah
    Total number is about 18 million world wide
  • Do Road Atlas Religious Toponyms
  • SW Asia is the heartland of Islam with 400 million followers.
    In Central Asia it is found in the Central Asian Republics, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Western China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, part of the Philippines, East Africa, Bosnia and Albania in the Balkans of Europe.
    India has 120 million (more than Pakistan)
    Sub-Saharan Africa has 170 million Muslims
  • 2 Muslim men chat outside a hostel in Galle Fort, India
  • Founded in Chicago by Elijah Mohammad-grew rapidly in 1960s and 1970s Son of the original founder changed the religion-brought ritual and practices closer in line to orthodox Islam, increased ties to Africa and Caribbean-became more mainstream.
    Photo of Malcolm X at right
  • Church membership can be misleading since many names on the role do not reflect regular attendance-this is especially true in Europe where many cathedrals and churches are practically empty on Sunday
  • Top left-Amana, Iowa German Protestant burial. Top left Yucatan, Mexico colorful above ground burials.
    Bottom left-cremation outside of the Taj Mahal. Bottom right-the Taj Mahal is large the tomb built for the the wife of the Mughul Emperor.
  • Spanish Catholic Names SW US
  • Quebec-French Roman Catholic names
  • Left-Entrance of Chartres Cathedral-symbolic representation of Christ in the center with the 4 apostles surrounding him.
    Right a Rose Window in Chartres Cathedral
  • Above ground burials in the low-lying Flanders area of Belgium-city of Damme.
  • The church was built by French Canadians, but the neighborhood now is predominantly Hispanic.
  • The English Cross of St. George and Scotland’s Cross of St. Andrew are combined to form the Union Jack of the UK.
  • Lutheran dominated Scandinavia depicts the cross of St. George on its flags.
  • The Saudi flag displays the shahada or profession of faith; “there is no God, but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.”
  • Top-Left-Muslim women in Afghanistan during the Taliban period had to wear burquas-Top-Right women in Turkey a secular state.
    Bottom left-Iranian women wearing chadors as required by Shia Islam. Bottom right the clerical vestments of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Islamic students protest French laws prohibiting the hijab in schools-The Hijab is our honor.
    Top right-a woman enters a UN refugee camp after escaping ethnic cleansing in Srbenica
    Grozny, Chechnya Feb. 2000
  • Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that solving a religious conflict is typically not about theology; it is about identity.
  • Neb religion

    1. 1. Religion Chapter 7
    2. 2. Religion “a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities.” - Stoddard and Prorak “perceived ultimate priorities” often translate into a list of things a follower “should” do and ways a follower “should” behave.
    3. 3. • Religion lies at the heart of nationalism-e.g. Middle East, Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Kashmir, Afghanistan, etc. • Religion in many nonwestern areas practically constitutes culture. • Religious cultural landscapes-churches, temples, mosques, shrines, cemeteries, statues, veils, turbans, beards and scars
    4. 4. Key Characteristics of Religion • Set of doctrines or beliefs relating to a god or gods. • Structure or hierarchy of officials • Rituals for: – – – – – – Birth Death Reaching adulthood Marriage Prayer Routine services on a Fri, Sat. or Sun.
    5. 5. • Impact of religioncalendars, holidays, architecture, place names, slogans on coins or flags. • A major forces in combating social ills and promoting – Education – Medicine and health care – The arts • But also – – – – Blocked scientific study Oppressed dissidents Supported imperialism Kept women inferior
    6. 6. Religions are divided into • Branches-a large and fundamental division within a religion-such as Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox branches of Christianity. • Denomination-a division or a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single administrative bodyBaptist, Lutheran, Methodist denominations of Protestantism • Sect-has several meanings– A relatively small group that broke away from an bigger group or – An organized ecclesiastical body or – A dissenting or schismatic religious body or – A religious denomination-such as sects of Islam
    7. 7. Classifications of Religions • Universalizing religions – religions that actively seek converts because members believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal. • Ethnic religions – religions whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members do not actively seek converts.
    8. 8. Classifications of Religions • Monotheistic religions – worship a single deity. • Polytheistic religions – worship more than one deity, even thousands. • Animistic religions – belief that inanimate objects posses spirits and should be revered.
    9. 9. Religious Typology • Monotheistic-belief in 1 god • Polytheistic-belief in many • Animistic-objects have spirits-trees, mountains, rivers • Global or Universal-found all over the world-see converts-aim to be universal • Evangelical-religions that seek new converts • Cultural religion-limited to a national culture or a single region-Shinto, Daoism, etc.
    10. 10. Religions of the World • Shamanism – a community faith tradition in which people follow their shaman, a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary.
    11. 11. Where did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How do Religions Diffuse?
    12. 12. From the Hearth of South Asia • Hinduism – originated in Indus River Valley over 4000 years ago. * ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation sacred text: Vedas sacred sites: Ganges River social manifestation: caste system diffusion: through South Asia and into Southeast Asia
    13. 13. Hinduism • Ranks next in size after Islam, but it the oldest organized religion. • No bureaucracy-but does have holy men. • Vedas or stories, but not a book like the Qu’ran, Bible or Torah. • Concentrated in South Asian hearth. • Polytheistic-thousands of gods-many cults-much fragmentation.
    14. 14. From the Hearth of South Asia • Buddhism – splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. * anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment founder: Siddartha (the Buddha) sacred sites: stupas diffusion: most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia
    15. 15. Buddhism • Originated in India as a reform movement of Hinduism. • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama or the Buddha in 5th cent. BC. • A strongly regional faith-it remains strong in SE Asia, China and Japan, but died out in India. • Four Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path are the guiding principles.
    16. 16. Buddhism is mixed with local religions in some places. In Japan, Buddhism is mixed with the local religion, Shintoism. Shinto Shrine In Kyoto, Japan, this Shinto shrine is visible after walking through a torii – a gateway usually formed by two wooden posts and topped by two horizontal beams.
    17. 17. Shintoism • A Japanese ethnic religion based on animism and shamanism. • Was modified by introduction of Buddhismclosely related today-many Japanese practice both. • Reverence for nature and the land-emperor seen as divine. • Belief in kami or spirits • Used by militants as a nationalistic religion in 1930s to unify the country in war time.
    18. 18. From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley • Taoism – originated in China more than 2500 years ago * oneness of humanity and nature founder: Lao-Tsu sacred text: “Book of the Way” social manifestation: Feng Shui diffusion: East Asia
    19. 19. Chinese Religions • Confucianism-mainly a philosophy of life founded by K’ung Fu-tze in 6th cent. BC • Became a state religion of China-emphasized duty, social order and respect of others • Daoism or Taoism “the Way” founded by Lao Zi, a reverence and harmony with nature-easily coexisted with Confucianism and Buddhism
    20. 20. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean • Judaism – originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. * first major monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) sacred text: Torah founder: Abraham sacred sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River social manifestation: Zionism diffusion: into European cities during the diaspora, into N. America during WWII, into Israel over last 50 years
    21. 21. Judaism • One of the world’s oldest religions • Monotheistic religion that evolved in Southwest Asia • 3 branches-Orthodox, Conservative and Reformed • Not evangelical-does not seek converts • Concentrated in Israel, but widely scattered in Middle East, North Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Europe and the Americas
    22. 22. Shamanism & Traditional Religions • Community faith and traditional religion which centers around a shamanreligious leader, healer, visionary. • Small isolated groups in Africa, SE Asia, East Asia and Native America • Traditional religions in Africa believe in a god creator and provider as well as spirits and an afterlife.
    23. 23. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean • Christianity – originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. * monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life sacred text: Bible founder: Jesus (son of God) sacred sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem split in the church: * split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in 1054 * Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s diffusion: into Western Europe, and then world wide during colonialism and after.
    24. 24. Christianity • It has the largest number of followers and is the most widely dispersed with 1.6 billion or 40% of the population • Roman Catholicism is the largest segment and is found in Europe, North American and Latin America. • Protestantism dominates in Northern Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. • Eastern Orthodox is found in Eastern Europe, Russia and Ethiopia.
    25. 25. First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
    26. 26. •The Eastern Orthodox Church makes up 14% of Christianity and is a loose collection of 14 selfgoverning churches in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. •To the right are the spires of St. Basil’s Cathedral in the Kremlin of Moscow. Notice the Orthodox cross on the onion-domed spire.
    27. 27. •The Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow
    28. 28. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean • Islam – originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago. * monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad received from Allah, Five Pillars. sacred text: Qu’ran founder: Muhammad sacred sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem split in the church: * shortly after Muhammad’s death, split into Sunni Muslims (great majority) Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran) diffusion: across Arabian peninsula, across North Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia
    29. 29. The Diffusion of Islam
    30. 30. Islam • Islam is the 2nd largest and fastest growing religion with 1 billion followers. • It has 2 main sects or divisions-Sunni, the majority and Shiite centered in Iran & Iraq. • It is dominant in North Africa, Southwest Asia and extends into Central and Southeast Asia
    31. 31. Nation of Islam • Founded in 1930s as an AfricanAmerican modified form of Islam. • Ideology of nationalism and modified Islam founded on the principle of freeing blacks from white oppression. • 1950s –60s Malcolm X his militant speeches increased followers • Over 7 m. Muslims in the US, about 1 million are Nation of Islam Muslim. • Louis Farrakhan’s anti-semitism brought negative attention.
    32. 32. Government Impact on Religion The Soviet Union: - Had an official policy of atheism - Discouraged religious practice - Drew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areas
    33. 33. Armenia and Azerbaijan Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan
    34. 34. Disposition of the Deceased Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect the religious traditions. Hindu crematorium in Mombasa, Kenya
    35. 35. Religion’s impact in history and culture is evident in its centrality in many places Antwerp, Belgium
    36. 36. Hearths of Religion and Philosophy by 500 BCE
    37. 37. Hindu Temple – Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism in most of Cambodia.
    38. 38. Buddhist Stupas 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.
    39. 39. Western Wall, Jerusalem
    40. 40. Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic
    41. 41. Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants by canton and commune
    42. 42. Minaret (for call to prayer) stands on the Sabah State Mosque in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
    43. 43. Diffusion of Islam into Europe large mosque in Paris, France
    44. 44. Rise of Secularism • Secularism – indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas. - Where is secularism on the rise and why?
    45. 45. The Rise of Secularism • World wide 4/6 billion adhere to a religion • Separation of Church & State a new concept • Today in the Developed World religion has declined in importance • Secularism is most common in urban, industrialized nations • Anti-religious ideologies like communism discouraged organized worship
    46. 46. Migration plays a large role in the diffusion of religions, both universalizing and ethnic. As Europe becomes more secular, migrants from outside of Europe continue to settle in the region. Imagine Europe 30 years from now. Predict where in Europe secularism will be the most prominent and where religious adherence will strengthen.
    47. 47. How is Religion seen in the Cultural Landscape?
    48. 48. Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage • Sacred Sites places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning. • Pilgrimage purposeful travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
    49. 49. Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Vatican City-Pope John Paul II greeted pilgrims in St. Peter’s Square
    50. 50. Sacred Sites and Rituals At Saint Declan’s Holy Well in Ardmore, Ireland Pilgrims hang scraps of clothing as offerings This practice is common at sacred sites in Far Eastern Russia
    51. 51. Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: Judaism (Western Wall) Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre) Islam (Dome of the Rock)
    52. 52. Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism Hinduism – pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and rituals are followed by millions. Varanasi, India on the Ganges River where Hindus perform morning rituals.
    53. 53. • The Ganges is a sacred river to Hindus, a symbol of life without end. Pilgrims come from all over to bathe in its holy waters.
    54. 54. • As Shiva destroys the Universe with fire, Hindus cremate their dead.
    55. 55. Sacred Landscapes of Buddhism Swedogon Pagodo in Yangon, Myanmar Eight hairs of the Buddha are preserved under the dome (chedi)
    56. 56. • Buddhism came to Tibet from India in the 8th century. Tibetan Buddhism is a mixture of Tantric and other Mahayana teachings developed further by spiritual leaders or monks called lamas. • A prayer wheel contains a mantra, a prayer or chant that is repeated many times. Each turn of the wheel counts as a prayer said and merit gained.
    57. 57. Sacred Landscapes of Christianity Catholic Churches Are often located in the center of European cities, with spires reaching far above the other buildings.
    58. 58. Spanish Catholic names are found in the South West
    59. 59. French Catholic names are common in Quebec
    60. 60. Sacred Landscapes of Christianity Protestant Churches This church in Singapore is a Church of England church in city surrounded by Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims
    61. 61. • Roman Catholicism is the largest branch of the Christian faith. The Vatican in Rome is the headquarters of the Papacy and a powerful symbol to Catholics around the world. • European cities were dominated by the spires of great cathedrals and churches until the 20th century.
    62. 62. Day of the Dead Altar in Notre Dame de Chicago.
    63. 63. United Kingdom Of Great Britain England’s Cross of St. George Scotland’s cross of St. Andrew
    64. 64. The cross of St. George on The flags of Denmark, Norway and Finland. •.
    65. 65. Religious Landscapes in the United States
    66. 66. Protestant & Catholic Landscapes in the United States Scandinavian Lutheran Church St. Mary’s Catholic Church
    67. 67. A public bus in Port-au-Prince, Haiti Store front church in Toronto, Canada
    68. 68. Sacred Landscapes of Islam Muslim Mosques-Dome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates the importance of geometric art evident in Muslim architecture.
    69. 69. The Hajj-Pilgrims circle the holy Kaaba in the Grand Hajj Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
    70. 70. •. The Dome of the Rock, with its gilded dome and octagonal base, stands in Jerusalem. After the Great Mosque at Mecca and the Prophet’s tomb at Medina, it is Islam’s third holiest site. According to Muslim tradition, the rock at its center was the point from which the Prophet Muhammad visited heaven one night in 619.
    71. 71. The Dome of the Rock
    72. 72. Review states of the Middle East & North Africa Before the Test
    73. 73. •The crescent, seen on top of many mosques, originally signified the waxing of the moon. It is associated with special acts of devotion to God. •The star and crescent appear on many flags of countries that are mainly Muslim.
    74. 74. Pakistan Turkey Saudi Arabia
    75. 75. What Role does Religion play in Political Conflicts?
    76. 76. Conflicts along Religious Borders • Interfaith Boundaries – Boundaries between the world’s major faiths. • Intrafaith Boundaries – Boundaries within a single major faith.
    77. 77. Interfaith Boundary in Africa
    78. 78. Israel & Palestine
    79. 79. Landscapes of Settlements Israelis have had a policy of building settlements for Jews in the Occupied Territories
    80. 80. Landscape of the Gaza Strip, 2005 In 2005, the Israeli government pulled out of the Gaza Strip, burning down Jewish settlements and handing control over to Palestinians.
    81. 81. The West Bank with a the proposed security wall, parts of which the Israeli government has already built.
    82. 82. The Horn of Africa Amharic (Coptic) Christianity is in central Ethiopia Islam diffused into the Horn of Africa Indigenous religions remain in pockets
    83. 83. The Former Yugoslavia Genocide & Ethnic Cleansing
    84. 84. Identities are tied to Religion, but are deepened by: Economic- colonial experiences & activity spaces (segregation) Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that solving a religious conflict is typically not about theology; it is about identity Northern Ireland
    85. 85. Religious Fundamentalism & Extremism • Religious fundamentalism – a return to the basics of their faith. found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam • Religious extremism – fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
    86. 86. Islamic Extremists and Jihad an Islamic holy war against the West
    87. 87. Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that solving a religious conflict is typically not about theology; it is about identity. You are assigned the potentially Nobel Prize-winning task of “solving” the conflict either in Northern Ireland or in Israel and Palestine. Using Boal’s example, determine how you can alter activity spaces and change identities to create the conditions for long-lasting peace in one of these major conflict zones.
    88. 88. The End

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