Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality Chapter 5
GenderGender – “a culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women: their ‘characters,’ the roles they play in society, what they represent.” - Domosh and Seager
• Gender is a social as well as biological difference.• Modernization has reduced the inequalities but has NOT eliminated them.• Even in Europe & the US equality has NOT been achieved.• UK, India, Israel, Pakistan & the Philippines have had female leaders=the US has not• Wages & barriers to economic & social advancement are found in the political and corporate realm
Gender Inequality• Women make 80 c. to the Male dollar-even accounting for time off to raise kids.• Over her career, the average U.S. woman loses $1.2 m. to wage inequity.• Every industrialized nation except US & Australia have paid parental leave with a guaranteed job upon return• Women over 65 are twice as likely to be poor as men.• Women chose jobs closer to home• Occupational segregation-women have less chance to advance-take lower paying jobs in more restricted locations• Male dominance is a world-wide phenomenon• In general Western women are better off than elsewhere
Female–Male Income DifferencesFig. 9-11: Women’s income is lower than men’s in all countries, but the gender gap is especially high in parts of the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America.
Demography & Health• On average women live 4 yrs. longer than men• Core countries-5 to 7 yrs. Longer• World Bank=Africa +3 yrs, South America & Europe, US + 6 yrs.• Women less likely to: – Smoke – Drink – Eat too much – Drive too fast – Have very high stress
Quality of Life-Maternal Mortality Rates• Western World rate is 5/100,000• South Asia has highest maternity mortality rates=650/100,000• Reasons: – Inadequate medical care – Excessive number of pregnancies – Malnutrition – Lack of adequate birth control
Female Infanticide-India• India-gender detection tests often result in aborted females-the ratio of men to women in India is widening.• Although outlawed-dowry still exists in India-families with sons receive payments from the bride’s parents• Dowry deaths are common• Laws against female infanticide & dowry deaths exist-but are not being enforced.
Women in India• Hindu culture attaches great importance to the male dominated family.• Hinduism teaches a reverence for all life-yet girls are still forced into arranged marriages- disputes over dowries “Bride Price” often results in the death of the young bride.• Many dowry deaths are reported as “kitchen accidents” and never investigated.
Dowry Deaths in India- murders of brides (often by burning) when a dispute arises over adowry. Difficult to “legislate away” the power relationships that lead todowry deaths-female infanticide is also tied to the disempowerment ofwomen
China• China’s traditional attitude toward women-a burden• Female infanticide was a common rural practice-but after the One Child Policy-it rose in urban areas as well.• Abortions in China are legal after gender identification tests• Millions of female infants die of food depravation, denial of medical care, abandonment or murder
Informal Economy –private, often home-based activitiessuch as tailoring, beer brewing, food preparation, orvegetable gardening.
Women inSubsaharan Africa- populate much of the ruralareas, as men migrate to citiesfor work.- produce 70% of the region’sfood.- only a small percentage ofwomen have legal title to theirland.
Family and Social Conditions• Great contrast in treatment of boys & girls that puts females at a physical & psychological disadvantage• Many girls have to work 7 or mores hours a day as children-married off as early as possible; – Mauritania 39% girls married by age 15, 15% had children – Bangladesh-73% married by age 15, 21% had 1 child by age 15
Women in Muslim Countries• Many women in traditional or fundamentalist Islamic states live in isolation and servitude.• Iran, Afghanistan & elsewhere women’s rights have eroded.• Ayatollah Khomeini’s 1979 Revolution in Iran created a theocracy• Taliban took over Afghanistan in 1997 & took women out of public life
Education & Opportunity• Education is the key to remove gender gap.• In India, over all illiteracy is 55%, for women it is 65% to 75%• Progress in education & literacy lags in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa• There is also a sharp contrast between urban & rural areas• Barriers remain in certain professions-even in the West
Economy & Productivity• Women in the periphery produce over ½ the food, build homes, dig wells, plant & harvest crops, make clothes, etc.• Women in Africa work hard: – Cultivating corn & staple crops – Walk long distances for water – Gather firewood – Take care of the children – Cook the meals
Women in the Labor Force• Core Nations-35% to 39% of the labor force are women• Middle & South America about 24% to 29% of the labor force are women• Sub-Saharan Africa-37% are women-about 80% work on plantations.• Asia about 50% of the labor force are women- mostly on farms
Politics & Public Life• US & Canada did not grant enfranchisement to women until 1920.• Several women have been leaders of their nations-but no woman has ever ran or been elected as President of the US• US-half of all voters are women: – yet only 8/100 Senators are women – 2/50 governors are women – 53/435 House members are women
Ellen Johnson-SirleafPresident of LiberiaElected with a stunning 60 %of the voteThis Harvard-educatedGrandmother, the firstwomanelected to lead an Africancountry faces hugechallengesNov. 2005 election
Race –a categorization of humans based on skin color andother physical characteristics. Racial categories are social andpolitical constructions because they are based on ideas thatsome biological differences are more important than others.
The Human Race• Technically race is not a correct term-since we are all the same race or species-human.• Example-all dogs are the same species-yet great variation in size, color, shape, etc.-FAR LESS VARIETY IN HUMANS.• Human subspecies exhibit a difference in gene frequency-e.g. northern Europe-blue-eyed dominant, southern Europe brown-eyed is dominant
Four Basic Human Stocks• Negroid stock from African sources• Australoid stock of Southeast Asia origins• Mongoloid stock which arose in East Asia• Caucasoid stock from Southwest Asia & European sources• These stocks are based on skin color, physique, facial shape and hair style
Skin Color• Skin color is determined by melanin or pigment-dark skin originated in low latitudes-light skin originated at high latitudes.• Melanin is a pigment that protects the inner layers of skin from damage from ultraviolet rays.• Darker skin produces more vitamin D.• Skin color not a reliable indicator of racial relationships- e.g. Aboriginal Australians & Sub-Saharan Africans are dark-skinned, but not closely related genetically.• Why do Tropical South Americans have lighter skin than Tropical Africans?-Arrival time-South American indigenous population arrive there between 13,000 to 30,000 years ago-thus not enough time for more melanin development.
Physique & Physical Traits• Bergmann’s Rule-people in warmer climates tend to be more slender-people in cooler climates tend to be more squat- this also applies to animals• Heads-cephalic index-ratio of width & length of skull- Europeans—long heads, Japanese—round heads.• Noses-warm, moist climates— short,wide, flat noses; Low latitudes deserts, high latitude dry zones—long narrow noses
Physique & Physical Traits• Hair- general tendency; Asians—straight hair; Europeans—curly hair, African—wooly hair.• Eyes-epicanthic folds- small piece of overlapping skin that give the eyelid a distinctive appearance-the fold is present in East Asians, South African San people and Native Americans
Race as a Social Category• Race is more difficult to use as a social category due to increased mixing of races.• In Africa-darkness of pigmentation is still the basis of “racial” divisions, to some degree in India-Aryan, Dravidian.• Racism-a belief that your race is superior to others- – Apartheid in South Africa ended in the 1990s – Racial Segregation in the US not banned-but still de facto
On Racism and Colonialism -“Colonial racism was a major element in that conception of‘Empire’ which attempted to weld dynastic legitimacy andnational community. It did so by generalizing a principle ofinnate, inherited superiority on which its own domesticposition was (however shakily) based on the vastness ofoverseas possessions, covertly (or not so covertly) conveyingthe idea that if, say, English lords were naturally superior toother Englishmen, no matter: these other Englishmen were noless superior to the subjected natives.” - Benedict Anderson
• Racial Categories are typically imposed on people through: – Residential segregation-(Milwaukee, Detroit) – Racialized divisions of labor – Racial categories defined by governments
Population in the U.S. by Race, 2000In 2000, the U.S. Census Bureau allowed Americans to categorize themselves as one race or more than one race.
EstimatedPercentage of U.S.Population byRace andEthnicity until2050In 2000, the U.S.Census Bureaucalculated race andHispanic originseparately. Estimatesare that by 2050, the“White, non-Hispanicpopulation will nolonger be the majority.
Residential Segregation• The “degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment.” – Massey and Denton
Highest Rate of ResidentialSegregation for African Americans:Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Lowest Rate of Residential Segregation forHispanics/Latinos: Baltimore for Asians/Pacific Islanders: Baltimore, Maryland
Identities in Neighborhoods change over time: Invasion and Succession: new immigrants to a city often move to areas occupied by older immigrant groups.
Sense of Place• We infuse places with meaning and feeling, with memories and emotions.• Our sense of place becomes part of our identity and our identity affects the ways we define and experience place.
Ethnicity• Ethnicity – a constructed identity that is tied to a place … it is often considered “natural” because it implies ancient relations among people over time.
Ethnic Patterns & Processes• Ethnicity is NOT the same as race, but it is as important.• It is culture, NOT race, that dominates the world’s patterns today• Ethnicity is more difficult to define – Shared cultural traits – Common history – Treasured cultural landscapes – Perceived threat to language or religion
Ethnic Mosaics• Ethnic comes from the Greek word for people or nation “ethnos”• Ethnic often used to describe a neighborhood or a cuisine.• Ethnic enclaves are common in urban areas; “China Town,” “Little Italy,” or “Little Mexico.”• Racial or ethnic identity often a matter of self “Welcome to perception. Little Havana”
Ethnicities in ChicagoFig. 7-5: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and European Americans are clustered in different areas of the city.
Cultural Revival & Linkage• Ethnic dispersal takes place-yet links to the old neighborhood or homeland remain. This linkage is aided by modern media & communication.• African-Americans demonstrated against South African apartheid.• Irish-Americans sent money to support the I.R.A. in its struggle against Britain.
Hispanic Americans in the U.S.Fig. 7-2: The highest percentages of Hispanic Americans are in the southwest and in northern cities.
African Americans in the U.S.Fig. 7-1: The highest percentages of African Americans are in the rural South and in northern cities.
Native Americans in the U.S.Fig. 7-4: The highest percentages of Native Americans are in parts of the plains, the southwest, and Alaska.
How does a place change when the people who live there change?
Sexuality and SpaceWhere peoplewith a sharedidentitycluster, howdo they createa space forthemselves?
Power Relationships• Power Relationships assumptions and structures about who is in control, who has power over others.Through power relationships, people create places where they limit the access of other peoples Belfast, Northern Ireland
How do Power Relationships factor into How People are Counted?The U.S. Census undercounts: - minority populations - the homelessThe Gross National Income (GNI) does not count: - unpaid work of women in the household - work done by rural women in poorer countries
• Ethnic Groups in Los Angeles• Barrioization – when the population of a neighborhood changes over largely to Hispanics.• cultural landscapes change to reflect changing populations• strife is usually tied to economic change