Agriculuture vocabulary


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Agriculuture vocabulary

  1. 1. HumanGeog r aphyAgriculture
  2. 2. Shifting Cultivation  The use of multiple plots of land, normally three or more, which are planted in rotation by the year as to promote soil functionality.
  3. 3. Agriculture  The science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming  The cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
  4. 4. Intertillage  In shifting cultivation, spreads out production over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field.
  5. 5. Slash-and-Burn(swidden)  A method of agriculture used in the tropics, in which forest vegetation is felled and burned, the land is cropped for a few years, then the forest is allowed to reinvade.  Swidden is the plot of land that has been slash-and-burned upon.
  6. 6. MILKSHED  A region that produces milk for a specific community  The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
  7. 7. Market Gardening Highly intensive (in capital terms) farming of flowers, fruit, and very perishable vegetables on a commercial basis. Located close to urban areas as an immediate market, but large enterprises may also distribute at a national and regional scale.
  8. 8. Livestock Ranching  The breeding and raising of animals, these animals are usually used for meat purposes and raised in large herds.
  9. 9. Subsidy Assistance paid to a business or economic sector.
  10. 10. MediterraneanAgriculture Form of Agriculture along the side of the Mediterranean Sea. The sea winds provide moisture for the crops and moderate winter temperatures and takes place in hilly, mountainous regions. Ex: Olives and grapes
  11. 11. Luxury Crop Crops that are not essential to human survival and are sold at a high price. EX: Tobacco, Sugarcane, and cotton
  12. 12. Crop Rotation  The system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weed diseases and pests-
  13. 13. Commercial agriculture  The production of crops where the main goal is to turn a profit. Usually intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets. –AP human geography website.
  14. 14. Carl Sauer  American geographer who studied and focused on the relationship between humans and land
  15. 15. Domestication Adaptation on to intimate association with human life.
  16. 16. Fallow  Unplowed and unseeded during a growing season
  17. 17. Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same feild
  18. 18. Von Th űnen’s Model ofLand Use  States how market prices and location affect the production decisions of individual farmers
  19. 19. Horticulture  The growing of fruit, vegetables, or flowers
  20. 20. GMO (geneticallymodified organisms)  Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods.
  21. 21. Green Revolution  Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fetilizers.
  22. 22. Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
  23. 23. SubsistenceAgriculture - agriculture designed primarily to provide for direct consumption by the farmer’s family.
  24. 24. Neolithic Revolution  Transferring from hunter and gathering to cultivating plants (agriculture).
  25. 25. Vertical IntegrationOwnership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist along a variety ofpoints on a commodity chain.
  26. 26. Truck farmby mac and tim  Highly efficient large scale operations that take full advantage of machines at every stage of the growing process.
  27. 27. Ridge tillage  System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production cost and promote greater soil conservation
  28. 28. Transhumance Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
  29. 29. Pastoral Nomadism  Pastoralism involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs for food, shelter, and clothing.
  30. 30. Thomas Malthus an English scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent. Malthus has become widely known for his theories about population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors
  31. 31. Rural Settlement  Clustered rural settlement- a place where a number of families live in close proximity to each other with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
  32. 32. Extensive SubsistenceAgriculture  Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family.
  33. 33. Intensive SubsistenceFarming  Primary subsistence pattern of large- scale, populous societies. It results in much more food being produced per acre compared to other subsistence patterns.  A form of subsistence agriculture that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yields
  35. 35. Dairying  Branch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals for the production of milk and the various dairy products processed from it
  36. 36. Agribusiness  Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
  37. 37. Feedlot  A management system in which naturally grazing animals are confined to a small area which produces no feed and are fed on stored feeds.
  38. 38. Biotechnology The manipulation of living organisms to produce useful usually commercial products
  39. 39. Boserup hypothesis  Agricultural methods that depend on the size of the population.
  40. 40. Commodity chain Process used by multinational corporations where firms gather resources, transform them into foods or commodities and, finally is distributed to the consumers
  41. 41. “ Tragedy of theCommons”  If a resource is used by all, then, ultimately, that resource will be destroyed.
  42. 42. Plantation  a usually large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers.