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WOCAT Training at SOFTEC/LAREC, Cambodia (June 2014)

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WOCAT Training at SOFTEC/LAREC, Cambodia (June 2014)

  1. 1. WOCAT Training at SOFTEC/LAREC World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies Kampong Chhnang, Cambodia 22. – 25. June 2014
  2. 2. 2 Programme Date Content Sunday 22.6 Introduction to WOCAT questionnaires (Technologies) -> preparation for field Monday 23.6. • Field day (morning): Technology documentation • Afternoon: Introduction to Approach questionnaire -> preparation for field Tuesday 24.6. • Field day (morning): Approach, entering data to QA • Afternoon: selection of As and Ts, data entering of QT Wednesday 25.6. (1/2 day) • Data entry in web • Introduction to Climate Change questionnaire • Debriefing and wrap up Start 8:30 Departure to PP: 13:00, 11:30 lunch
  3. 3. 3 1. Introduction to WOCAT Technologies and Approaches questionnaires • Group work on questionnaires • Preparation for field 2. Make WOCAT account 3. Introduction to WOCAT climate change questionnaire • Group work on questionnaires • Preparation for field Programme for Sunday 22.6.
  4. 4. 4 Introduction to WOCAT Tools Questionnaires on Technologies (QT) and Approaches (QA)
  5. 5. 5 Transect walk
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Rice straw on field A Technology to be documented.
  10. 10. 10 A framework for documentation and evaluation
  11. 11. 11 Who should fill the questionnaires? A team of SLM specialists who are familiar with the details of the SLM technology (technical, financial, socio-economic) … making use of existing documents and seeking advice from land users as much as possible If there is no hard data available, provide a best estimate based on your professional judgement!
  12. 12. 12 SLM Technologies Questionnaire
  13. 13. 13 SLM Technology Definition: “agronomic, vegetative, structural and/or management measures that prevent and control land degradation and enhance productivity in the field”
  14. 14. SLM Technology
  15. 15. 16
  16. 16. 17 Leave rice straw on field
  17. 17. G. Schwilch Questionnaires on SLM technologies & approaches Documenting information from and with landusers Documenting SLM knowledge at field level Entering data in questionnaire Entering data in database Computer data entry form
  18. 18. 19
  19. 19. 20 Shaded areas: questions Unshaded areas: explanations or examples Read very carefully and thoroughly (also the introduction) General Principles
  20. 20. 21 Open questions If information is not available or question is not applicable always indicate: n/a Types of questions
  21. 21. 22 Instructions on circles and square boxes Ranking categories
  22. 22. 23 Illustrations / Photos
  23. 23. 24 Good photos and drawings are essential
  24. 24. PART 1: GENERAL INFORMATION 1.1 Contributing SLM specialist(s) If several SLM specialists are involved, write the name of the main resource person and his / her institution below and add the other person(s) details in the Annex 1. Last name / surname: ....................................................................................... First name(s): ........................................................... female ˜ male ˜ Current institution and address: Name of institution: .................. Address of institution: .............. Postal Code: ---
  25. 25. 1.2 Brief identification of SLM Technology (see introduction, page i) Country: Burkina Faso......................................................... Technology code: Technology code: boxes 1-3: country code; boxes 4-6: consecutive number; will be assigned automatically when entering questionnaire information in the database 1.2.1 Common name of SLM Technology: Composting associated with planting pits Do not use generic names but be more specific to ensure that the Technology can be distinguished from similar ones (easier identification). 1.2.2 Local or other name(s) (with language) Zai avec apport de compost B R K 0 1 0 QT p. 1
  26. 26. 1.3 Area information 1.3.1 Define the area in which the SLM Technology has been applied  Includes both the area occupied by conservation measures and the additional area protected by them State / Province: Boulgou Province District / Commune: Total SLM technology area: 200 km2 If precise area is not known, indicate approximately. • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha) • 0.1 - 1 km2 • 1 - 10 km2 • 10 - 100 km2 • 100 km2 - 1,000 km2 • 1,000 km2 - 10,000 km2 • > 10,000 km2 QT p. 3
  27. 27. Compost production, and its application in planting pits (zai) by farmers on fields near their homes. Compost is produced in shallow pits, approximately 20 cm deep and 1.5 m by 3 m wide. During November and December layers of chopped crop residues, animal dung and ash are heaped, as they become available, up to 1.5 m high and watered. QT p. 4
  28. 28. On which current land use type is the Technology applied? Land use type(s) - subcategory(ies): agro-pastoral (usually one type, maximum two) If land use has changed due to the implementation of the Technology, indicate land use type before and after: Original land use (before implementation of SLM Technology): ........................................................................................................................................ Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology) (if relevant): ............................................................................................................................................................. 2.2 Purpose and classification Population increase has led to cultivation of all the available arable land, thus shortening or eliminating fallow periods. Organic matter in the soil is reduced, the water holding capacity of the soil has diminished and consequently yields have fallen. This has been compounded by the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s. QT p. 7
  29. 29. 30 C: Cropland: land used for cultivation of crops, including fallow (field crops, orchards):  Ca: annual cropping  Cp: perennial non-woody cropping  Ct: perennial tree and shrub cropping Land use types G: Grazing land: land used for animal production:  Ge: extensive grazing land  Gi: intensive grazing land F: Forests / woodlands: land used mainly for wood production, other forest products, recreation, protection:  Fn: natural  Fp: plantations, afforestation  Fo: other (e.g. selective cutting of natural forests and incorporating planted species).
  30. 30. 31 Land use types: M: Mixed: mixture of land use types within the same land unit:  Mf: agroforestry (cropland and forest)  Mp: agropastoralism (cropland and grazing land)  Ma: agrosilvopastoralism (cropland, grazing land and forest)  Ms: silvopastoralism (forest and grazing land)  Mo: other O: Other land:  Oi: mines and extractive industries,  Os: settlements, roads, infrastructure network,  Oo: others (wastelands, deserts, glaciers).
  31. 31. 32 Ranking categories 2.2 Purpose and classification cont’d A SLM Technology consists of one or more SLM measures belonging to the following categories: QT p. 8
  32. 32. 33 Agronomic Agronomic measures such as mixed cropping, contour cultivation, mulching, etc. • Are usually associated with annual crops • Are repeated routinely each season or in a rotational sequence • Are of short duration and not permanent
  33. 33. 34 Vegetative Vegetative measures such as grass strips, hedge barriers, windbreaks, etc. • Involve the use of perennial grasses, shrubs or trees • Are of long duration
  34. 34. 35 Structural Structural measures such as terraces, banks, bunds, constructions, palisades, etc. • Often lead to a change in slope profile • Are of long duration or permanent
  35. 35. 36 Management Management measures such as land use change, area closure, rotational grazing, etc. • Involve a fundamental change in land use • Involve no agronomic and structural measures
  36. 36. 37 Combinations Combinations in conditions where they are complementary and thus enhancing each other. Any combinations of the above measures are possible, e.g.:  Structural: terrace with  Vegetative: fruit trees and grass with  Agronomic: fertilization.
  37. 37. 38 Back to our example… Composting associated with planting pits 1
  38. 38. 39 2.2 Purpose and classification 1 QT p. 9
  39. 39. 40 Fotos: H.P. Liniger Mitigation / „Cure“Prevention „Rehab“ Stage of SLM intervention
  40. 40. 42 • W: Soil erosion by water Land Degradation types Source: WOCAT 2007 • E: Soil erosion by wind • C: Chemical soil deterioration • P: Physical soil deterioration • B: Biological degradation • H: Water degradation
  41. 41. 43 2.2 Purpose and classification cont’d Ha: aridification 1 Pc: compaction 1 Wt: loss of topsoil 2 Cn: fertility decline and reduced OM 1 QT p. 9
  42. 42. What were the main causes of land degradation (identified in Direct causes - Human induced Deforestation /removal of natural vegetation Over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Other human induced causes: abandonment of fallows - Natural Change of seasonal rainfall Indirect: Education, access to knowledge and support services Demographics Poverty / wealth 2.2 Purpose and classification cont’d QT p. 10
  43. 43. 45 1 x x x QT p. 12
  44. 44. 46 2.4 Technical Drawing QT p. 13
  45. 45. 2.5 Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs and costs for Choose among •2.5.1. agronomic measures QT15 -17 •2.5.2. vegetative measures QT 18 - 20 •2.5.3. structural measures QT 21 - 24 •2.5.4. management measures QT 25 - 27  Type and layout, type of management  Activities, inputs, and costs (establishment and maintenance) QT p. 14/15
  46. 46. 48 2.6 Overview of costs QT p. 28
  47. 47. 2.7 Natural environment • Average annual rainfall • Agro-climatic zone • Growing seasons per year • Altitude • Landforms • Slopes • Soil information - depth, texture, etc. • Water information – availability, quality, etc. • Biodiversity QT p. 30-34
  48. 48. 50 2.7.5 Adaptation to climate variability QT p. 31
  49. 49. 2.8 Human environment and land use • Land users applying technology • Population density • Land ownership / Land use and water use rights • Significance of off-farm income • Access to services and infrastructure • Market orientation • Cropping system, size, etc. of production systems (e.g. cropland, grazing land) QT p. 35-41
  50. 50. 52 PART 3: Analysis 3.1 Impacts QT p. 42
  51. 51. 53 x x x x QT p. 48
  52. 52. 54 QT p. 50 Possibility of doubling cereal yields in normal years: any surplus production can be sold Produce enough good compost/manure. Ensures yields in dry years, giving security against drought and hunger The modest quantity of compost applied is not enough to replace the nutrients extracted by the crops in the long term Small amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous fertiliser need to be added and crop rotation practiced.
  53. 53. 55 Documented questionnaire nicely presented (reader friendly) in a 4-page summary
  54. 54. Standardized SLM Technologies Automatically generated from the database!
  55. 55. 57
  56. 56. 58 A framework for documentation and evaluation
  57. 57. 59 SLM Approach
  58. 58. 60 SLM Approach Addresses questions: • How was implementation achieved? • Who achieved it?
  59. 59. 61 A ‘SLM Approach’ - as defined by WOCAT: A SLM Approach defines the ways and means used to promote and implement a SLM Technology and to support it in achieving more sustainable soil and water use. A ‘SLM Approach’ - refers to a particular land conservation activity, be it an official project/ programme, an indigenous system, or changes in a farming system towards more sustainable soil and water use. SLM Approach cont.
  60. 60. 62 A ‘SLM Approach has following elements: • All participants (policy-makers, administrators, experts, technicians, land users, i.e. actors at all levels), • inputs and means (financial, material, legislative, etc.), • and know-how (technical, scientific, practical). SLM Approach cont.
  61. 61. 63 • Approach includes different levels of intervention: from the individual farm, through the community level, the extension / advisory system, the regional or national administration, or the policy level, to the international framework. • WOCAT includes indigenous conservation measures and spontaneous adoptions or adaptations of SLM Technologies. • QA addresses the questions of how implementation was achieved and who achieved it. SLM Approach cont.
  62. 62. 64 Zabré women’s agroecological programme Approach example A demand-driven initiative, by a women’s association, aimed at the promotion of composting through training and extension, using project staff and local facilitators.
  63. 63. 65
  64. 64. 66 PART 1: General Information • Contributing SLM specialist(s) (1.1) • Identification of SLM approach (1.2) • Area Information (1.3) 1.2.4 Did the Approach concentrate / focus: - on conservation only - mainly on conservation with other activities - mainly on other activities Give keywords for the other activities: ......................................................................................... QA p. 1
  65. 65. 67 Description, objectives and operation (2.1) • Organogram/ organization chart/ flow chart (2.1.2 ) PART 2: Specification QA p. 4
  66. 66. 68 2.1.3 Main problems addressed by the approach PART 2: Specification cont’d QA p. 7
  67. 67. 69 2.1.5 Decision making x QA p. 8
  68. 68. 70 2.2. Participation 2.2.2. Land user involvement QA p. 9
  69. 69. 71 Questions on gender / disadvantaged groups x Differences in participation between men and women: There were great differences – in the beginning at least – when AFZ merely asked the men to ‘allow’ their wives to learn about composting. After two years, men started to participate in the training and eventually as many of them as women began to make and use compost. Another difference was in discussions, when men tended to dominate. QA p. 11
  70. 70. 72 2.3 Financing Costs met by different contributors/donors ( 2.4 Technical support & promotion Training / awareness raising ( Forms of training for land users ( How adequate is advisory service ( Research type – on station or on farm or both ( 2.5. External material support What was financed and under which conditions? ( Were local institutions supported under the approach (2.5.3) PART 2: Specification cont’d
  71. 71. 73 PART 3: Analysis 3.1 Methods for monitoring & evaluation Describe monitoring procedures 3.1.2 Changes due to monitoring and evaluation QA p. 15
  72. 72. 74 3.2 Impact analysis 3.2.1 Land management 3.2.2 Socio economic 3.2.3 Training, advisory service and research 3.2.4 Land ownership, land use rights/ water rights and legislation Did the Approach help land users to improve sustainable land management? Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well- being? To what degree did the existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights help or hinder the Approach implementation? PART 3: ANALYSIS QA p. 16
  73. 73. PART 3: Concluding statements QA p. 20
  74. 74. Standardized SLM Technologies & Approaches Automatically generated from the database!
  75. 75. documented and presented in standardized WOCAT format … enhanced through messages from land users audio-visual messages from land user to land user
  76. 76. SLM Technologies and Approaches WOCAT Online database
  77. 77. Synthesized experiences (global, regional national)  Inventories of practices and guidelines: – Rainwater Harvesting (2013) - guidelines to good practice – where the land is greener (2007): Global overview book, with a selection of 70 case studies, analysis and policy points (E,F,S) – National overview books (Ethiopia, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Mongolia, Senegal, Tunisia, etc.)
  78. 78. 83 • Build small groups and have a detailed look at the Technologies (QT) and Approach (QA) questionnaires  translation into Khmer for students • Which questions are not clear, where do you see problems? Preparation for field days: • Look through QT and QA and prepare to document: • QT: rice straw on field • QA: model farmer • Which questions can you already answer? • Which questions do you have to ask to farmers/land users? • Prepare discussion with land users and how to translate technical terms from English to Khmer? Group work (QT/QA)
  79. 79. 84
  80. 80. 85 • Build small groups and have a detailed look at the Climate Change questionnaire (QC)  translation into Khmer for students • Which questions are not clear, where do you see problems? Preparation for field days: • Look through QC and prepare to evaluate: • QT: rice straw on field • Which questions can you already answer? • Which questions do you have to ask to farmers/land users? • Prepare discussion with land users and how to translate technical terms in English to Khmer? Group work (QC)
  81. 81. 86
  82. 82. How to register for WOCAT ds/WOCAT_registration_process_en.pdf
  83. 83. How to register for WOCAT 1. Go on 2. Click on “Login” in the upper right corner of the site 3. Click on “Create a new account”
  84. 84. How to register cont’d 4. Enter required information (marked by a star): Institution: enter the first letters of your institution and check if the full name turns up –if yes, continue filling in the form –if not, write full name and click on “add your institution” Fill in the form 5. Click on “create account” to finalize 6. After carefully rereading all the information click again on “create account”, a registration confirmatin message will show up 7. Go to your e-mail account and follow instructions. Afterwards you will have to wait until the WOCAT secretariat has reviewed your information and sent you a confirmation e- mail.
  85. 85. Why a WOCAT account? The WOCAT account will give you access to – the database on SLM Approaches – the database on SLM Technologies – the database on Degradation and SLM Mapping read access is also possible without a log in – receive the WOCAT newsletter – access some specific sites (e.g. address database) If you create a WOCAT account, your address information will be available for the logged in WOCAT users. You can register as: Information only Active user (needed to enter data)