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WOCAT-LADA modules: Watershed Management & Climate Change Adaptation

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WOCAT-LADA modules: Watershed Management & Climate Change Adaptation

  1. 1. 1 WOCAT-LADA Methods and Tools Modules Biodiversity Poverty Light Watershed management CARBON sequestr. Climate Change Basic
  2. 2. WOCAT modular Modular structure meets the needs of different user groups and keeps the framework flexible and open for supplementary topics/ themes and global issues Core element of WOCAT-LADA framework are questionnaires for evaluating SLM based on expert knowledge (QT, QA and QM).
  3. 3. LADA local assessment (impact) LADA-Local provides a standard methodological approach and tool- kit for the assessment of land degradation processes, their causes and impacts at local level in collaboration with local stakeholders and communities. Local Assessment Module
  4. 4. Steps of local assessment Four field components 1. Characterisation of study area • Reconnaissance visit • Focus group discussion • Transect walk: rapid assessment of LD & SLM 2. Detailed site assessment of land & water resources • Soil properties / soil health • Soil erosion • Vegetation and biodiversity • Water resources • SLM best practices in area (QT, QA)
  5. 5. LADA Local AssessmentLADA Local Assessment
  6. 6. On-the-spot survey and sampling 3.2. Vegetation surveys 3.3. Water resources survey Assessment of land & water resources The land use systems and types and resources being assessed determine which indicators and tools / measurements are required (e.g. pasture, crop, forest, surface/ ground water) 3.1 Soil erosion / soil properties
  7. 7. Steps of local assessment contd 3. Livelihood assessment • HH livelihood interview, drivers, causes and impacts • Discussion with land users / key informants 4. Analysis of impacts on Ecosystem Services (DPSIR)
  8. 8. Watershed Management Module
  9. 9. What is a Watershed Rain Ridge Area drained Water cours e Area drained by a common water course is the watershed
  10. 10. Watershed Photo: H.P. Liniger Photo: H.P. Liniger Disaster Risk Reduction On- and offsite impacts of LD and SLM!
  11. 11. Integrated use of land, vegetation and water in a geographically discrete catchment or drainage area for the benefit of its residents, with the objective of: • maintaining the hydrological services • reducing/avoiding negative downstream impacts • reducing/avoiding negative groundwater impacts (adapted from The World Bank, 2008) Watershed Management
  12. 12. Is the process by which the use of land and other resources in a watershed is planned and regulated to optimise productivity and socio- cultural benefits as well as sustaining the resource base and ecological functions or services.  Production and protection Watershed Management Baqa Kushta in 2008 Baqa Kushta in 2010 HelvetasHelvetasHelvetasHelvetas
  13. 13. 16 Show spatial arrangement of the different measures/ technologies (where in the system, topo- sequence) and their interrelationship Evaluate impact and outcomes of these techniques holistically (as a system) Watershed management module the QW is closely linked to the QT Watershed management module (QW)
  14. 14. Link to QT
  15. 15. QW - Contents Part 1: General information 1.1 Contributing watershed management specialist 1.2 Brief identification of watershed 1.3 Watershed information 1.4 Description of the watershed 1.5 Land use Part 2: Watershed characteristics and its management 2.1 Overview 2.2 Watershed’s natural environment 2.3 Human environment and impacts 2.4 Integrated watershed management
  16. 16. QW- Contents cont’d Part 3: Analysis of watershed management 3.1 Impacts: benefits and disadvantages 3.2 Institutional and policy aspects 3.2 Concluding statement Annex: • Available documentation • Evaluation of the questionnaire • Additional information • Land degradation types and it causes • Land conservation measures
  17. 17. 20 1.4.1 Provide a transect technical drawing of the watershed showing minimum two to maximum four subsections (physiographic, functional) Divide watershed into 2-4 sections along a transect Map. Need to define/ place these sections within a watershed Description of the watershed (1.4)
  18. 18. Micro watershed: Durlung watershed (Nepal) 10-100 km2 • Section 1: High hills steep slope with less biodiversity and less population density. The altitude is as much as 3020 masl. Slope normally greater than 70°, dry lands with rocky mountainous hills. • Section 2: Low hills less steep with diverse farming and settlements
  19. 19. 22 Small scale watershed:Small scale watershed: Oued Hallouf (QW TUN 001)Oued Hallouf (QW TUN 001) 10-100 km2 Section 1: Mountain zone (Djebel) Secton 2: Piedmont zone Section 3: Plain zone (Jeffara)
  20. 20. Subsections of watershed • Section 1: High Himalaya (Head water) • Section 2: High Mountain (Head water) • Section 3: Middle Mountain (Head water) • Section 4: Siwalik (Transfer zone) • Section 5: Terai (Depositional zone) Large scale watershed (Macrobasin): Koshi Basin (Nepal and India) >10,000 km2 
  21. 21. Part 2: Characteristics and management For the following describe for each section of the transect separately Land use types (1.5) Natural environment: rainfall, climate, slopes, altitude etc (2.2) 2.2.10 Availability of water Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Surface water (permanent) Surface water (rainy season only) Depth of ground water table (in m.) …… …… …… ……
  22. 22. Oued Hallouf (QW TUN 001)Oued Hallouf (QW TUN 001) 1.5 Land uses of each section defined in the watershed
  23. 23. 26 Human environment: e.g. population density, occupation, land tenure, etc (2.3) Some aspects of human environment describe an interrelation among sections (e.g. upstream/ downstream) 2.3.8 Are there socio-economic interactions between upstream and downstream resource users in the watershed? no  yes  If yes, specify: Upstream and downstream resource users are in contact for soil and water management. Each year for example workshops or exchange days about sustainable land management are organized by institutes or NGOs. No regulatory mechanisms and no commercial agreements between upstream and downstream resource users are in effect (Tunisia). Part 2: Characteristics and management
  24. 24. 2.4.1 Watershed system  various interrelated technologies work as a system, impact achieved by joint functioning of all technologies (e.g. gully plugging check dam, water conservation pits and plantation)  different technologies positioned in a sequence in the landscape (topo-sequence, defined by waterflow, up-/downstream)  often a combination of technologies (approaches) cover an area Integrated watershed management (2.4)
  25. 25. Watershed system (
  26. 26. 2.4 IWM example Tunisia (Ts)
  27. 27. 2.4 IWM example Tunisia (Ts)
  28. 28. Challenges (Part 2) How to express sensitivity and/or tolerance to climate extremes for the whole watershed Tolerant technologies / QT codes1 Sensitive technologies / QT codes1 not known Temperature increase .................... ....................  Temperature decrease .................... ....................  Seasonal rainfall increase .................... ....................  Seasonal rainfall decrease .................... ....................  Heavy rainfall events (intensities and amount) .................... ....................  Windstorms / dust storms .................... ....................  Floods .................... ....................  Droughts / dry spells .................... ....................  Decreasing length of growing period .................... ....................  Others (specify): ………………………. .................... ....................  Under climatic extremes, are the technologies applied as a system in the watershed tolerant of or sensitive to:
  29. 29. 2.4 IWM example Tunisia
  30. 30. 2.4 IWM example Tunisia (As)
  31. 31. 34 How to express impacts (benefits and disadvantages) for the whole watershed (weighted average, average of all sections?) 3.1 Impacts: benefits and disadvantages Challenges (Part 3)
  32. 32. 3.1 Impacts: example Tunisia
  33. 33. 36 Section on Institutional and policy aspects (3.2) 3.2.4 Is payment for environmental services (PES) applied for implementing the management plan? Payments include financial mechanisms and other rewards such as training, provision of inputs, conflict resolution measures, etc. no  yes  Analysis (Part 3)
  34. 34. For each section Identify disturbances in the water balance (problems): what and where? Select and evaluate technologies/ approaches Identify most promising technologies/ approaches for the sections/ zones within the watershed (decision support for solutions) Watershed management planning (DRR)
  35. 35. 38 –Upper zone: Grazing land and forestsUpper zone: Grazing land and forests –Middle zone: cropland, and mixed areasMiddle zone: cropland, and mixed areas –Lower zone: settlements, cropland, grazing landLower zone: settlements, cropland, grazing land Watershed Management, DRR, CC adaptation  Promote appropriate productive & protective practices in the 3 zones PPCR Tajikistan WB project
  36. 36. Good Practices in SWC - contribution to adaptation and farmers´ resilience towards climate change in the Sahel Toposequence diagram GIZ Niger
  37. 37. 40 Major results from Watershed DS tool:Major results from Watershed DS tool: – Key: the water cycle  on- and off-site impacts – High water losses in drylands causing disasters: flood and drought – Discussion about investments in upper to protect lower zones – Productive protection in all zones!!! – Prevention rather than cure or rehabilitation – Valuable / crucial contribution by all stakeholders!!! – Local solutions often available but need up-scaling
  38. 38. Climate Change Adaptation Module
  39. 39. Guiding principles: 1)Diversification of land use practices and farm incomes 2)Intensification of use of natural resources 3)Expansion of highly productive land use practices 4)Protection of land and livelihoods from extreme weather events 1 2 3 4 developed and tested: PPCR - Pilot Program for Climate Resilience in Tajikistan • to identify best SLM practices to improve rural livelihoods and resilience to climate change and • to make policy recommendations for their up-scaling Climate Change Adaptation Module
  40. 40. Adaptation to Climate Change Climate Change: A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that changes the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. (IPCC 2007) Adaptation: An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects. It involves planned, enhanced, developed and implemented measures and behaviors to prevent, moderate, cope with and take advantage of the consequences of climate events. (adapted from UNDP 2005, UKCIP 2003 and IPCC 2001)
  41. 41. Climate change adaptation module Knowledge for developing SLM adaptation strategies Climate Change Module: QC Aim: evaluate sensitivity / tolerance (vulnerability / resilience) of SLM technologies to CC QC is closely linked to QT
  42. 42. Components of Vulnerability By reducing the vulnerability of a system the system becomes more resilient… ExposureExposure SensitivitySensitivity Potential ImpactsPotential Impacts Adaptive CapacityAdaptive Capacity VulnerabilityVulnerability
  43. 43. 47 Definitions Resilience: The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self-organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity. Adaptive Capacity: The ability of a human system and the SLM technology / approach to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Exposure: The nature and degree to which a system is exposed to significant climatic variation. Sensitivity: The degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate variability or change. (IPCC, 2007 & 2001)
  44. 44. QC content
  45. 45. Q Climate Change Adaptation 49
  46. 46. QC Part 1
  47. 47. Link to QT
  48. 48. QC Part 2 2.1 General observations of CC 2.2 Frequency of extreme climate events 2.3 Seasonal calendar of CC observations 2.4 Crop seasonal sensitivity 2.5 Controlling factors 2.6 Impacts of CC 3.1 Capacity to adjust to CC 3.2 Existence of adaptive measures ExposureExposure SensitivitySensitivity Potential ImpactPotential Impact Adaptive CapacityAdaptive Capacity
  49. 49. Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan BSc Thesis Loes Masselink
  50. 50. Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan
  51. 51. Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan
  52. 52. I: the initial stage D: the crop development stage M: the mid - season stage L: the late season stage Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan
  53. 53. Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan
  54. 54. Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan
  55. 55. 3.2 Adaptive capacity of land users (QT – 2.8.7) Monitoring SLM practices in Tajikistan
  56. 56. QC application in TJ: First results Up to date 20 QCs were filled in covering a variety of agroclimatic zones in Tajikistan
  57. 57. Taj national overview 61 10 Technology Groups No CC impact being addressed Improved grazing land 4 Vegetation degradation Irrigation infrastructure management 7 Water shortage Water harvesting 3 Less frequent rainfalls Soil productivity enhancement 7 Soil fertility decline Cross-slope measures: onsite protection 5 Heavy rainfall Cross-slope measures: offsite protection 4 Land slides due to extreme rainfalls Agroforestry 10 Crop failure in monoculture systems Planted and natural forest 3 Riverbank erosion Tree belts 4 Wind erosion, change in microclimate Indirect SLM measures 2 Desertification Total number of WOCAT case studies 46
  58. 58. not only the extreme events are important but also gradual changes! QC application in TJ: First results
  59. 59. Sensitivity of SLM technologies QC application in TJ: First results
  60. 60. therefore… Need for SLM technologies that: • increase resistance to pests and diseases • improve adaptation to warmer temperatures using suitable crop varieties • increase water harvesting and preserve soil humidity
  61. 61. Other WOCAT modules land tenure ?? LADA local assessment
  62. 62. • The various WOCAT-LADA-DESIRE tools complement each other at the different levels (local to global) • Stimulates self-evaluation and encourages learning by comparing experiences within SLM initiatives • Serves for informed choices & decision making • Practices have to be modified and adapted to the specific local context • Assist monitoring and adaptation of implemented SLM practices Use of tools for KM and DS
  63. 63. Thank you ‫ﺸﻛﺮﺍ‬

Editor's Notes

  • Nepal, road to Jiri, near Lamosangu (bridge crossing Dudh Khosi)
    Nieuwsgierig geworden, wil ik daar wat meer van weten (Jullie natuurlijk ook)
  • SHL_DecisionSupportToolbox.pdf
  • Based on Section 1 depicting the problems and climate change vulnerabilities of agriculture in Tajikistan, and Section 2 showing possible solutions to these problems, in Section 3, we came up with «guiding principles» on how to transform from being vulnerable to resilient.
    Intensification not in the sense of exploitation, but in the sense of efficient and rational use of resources.
  • Those CC impacts which were perceived as the most frequent are related to precipitation: decreased precipitation was mentioned as an impact by 18 out of the 20 respondents followed by heavy rainfall events
    Other important impacts are droughts, shift in pest and diseases, cold spells, decreased snow cover
    explain the problems, e.g. increased snow cover / decreased snow cover at the same time, or decreased and increased precipitation, why there etc.
    all 20 QCs analysed
  • Expansion of good land, intensification, diversification
    Environmentally sound: protecting the village, the watersheds
    Distributed to village members according to a bidding or auction mechanism
    Needs a legal arrangment to convert open access grazing land to crop / haymaking (partly irrigated) land with a longer contract, needs clarificaiton of ownership access rights
    Quite an investment
    Only near village
    Involves a variety of different land uses and SLM practices
  • The core element of the WOCAT framework are questionnaires for evaluating SLM based on expert knowledge. The modular structure meets the needs of different user groups and keeps the framework flexible and open for supplementary topics/ themes and global issues