Dual purpose for health and agricultureSource: http://www.powershow.com/view1/20943e-MzlhO/Reauthorizing_the_Child_Nutrition_Act_flash_ppt_presentationImage: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman
Dual purpose for health and agricultureAt that time many young men had been rejected from the World War II draft due to medical conditions related to childhood malnutritionSource: http://www.powershow.com/view1/20943e-MzlhO/Reauthorizing_the_Child_Nutrition_Act_flash_ppt_presentation
Within one year, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) had served a half billion meals to 7.1 million childrenSources: http://www.schoolnutrition.org/Content.aspx?id=2374
CACFP – provided government government subsidization for meals in child care center, adult care center, homeless shelters1981: The Ronald Regan administration signed the law to say that ketchup would be counted as a vegetableIn 1998, the program expanded to include reimbursement for snacks that were served to children in afterschool educational and enrichment program and to include children through 18 years of age. (FNS – USDA)Source: Ralston K., Newman C., Clauson A., Guthrie J. & Buzby J. July 2008. The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. USDA Economic Research Service Report Number 61. Washington, D.C.http://www.schoolnutrition.org/Content.aspx?id=2374
Children participating per daySource: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf
Of that 32 million meals per day: Over 20 million children participate in the free or reduced-price lunch program 11 million children participate in the breakfast program as well99& of all public schoolsSource:http://www.jamieoliver.com/us/foundation/jamies-food-revolution/__cms/uploads/4_Support%20Tool_The%20Basics.pdf
While school lunch and breakfast are permanently authorized, other programs require Congressional action to continueSource: http://frac.org/leg-act-center/cnr-priorities/cnr-faq/
If students are receiving most of their meals at schools then what is being served is increasingly critical in the health of these children coming from povertySource: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/Child_Nutrition_Fact_Sheet_12_10_10.pdfhttp://www.results.org/issues/us_poverty_campaigns/health_care_for_all/child_nutrition/
Two major reports were released in 2011 In hopes to grasp a better understanding for the hunger in America“Map the Meal Gap” was the first study to look beyond the state levelSource: http://www.results.org/issues/us_poverty_campaigns/health_care_for_all/child_nutrition/
Sources:U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/incpovhlth/2011/highlights.html>http://www.results.org/issues/us_poverty_campaigns/health_care_for_all/child_nutrition/
West Virginia: in 2011, 32.4 percent of adults in the state were obese – by 2030 it could be 60.2% OBESE not including those who are just overweightSources:U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)http://www.healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity2012/?stateid=WV
It has been suggested that this generation may be the first to have shorter life expectancies than their parentsSource: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr043743
365,000 deaths includes deaths from cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and diabetesSource: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm
The law suggests the range of issues that, at a minimum, should be addressed by the policies including: nutrition education, physical activity and other activities to promote wellness. Source:www.cde.state.co.us/.../WPTalkingtoYourSchoolAdministrator.ppt
The cafeteria is a natural learning laboratory and we need to make wellness a part of our school cultureVisiting community gardens, grocery stores or farms is a great educational experience and Farm to School (which is talked about in the next slides)
Started in 2010Source: http://www.jamieoliver.com/us/foundation/jamies-food-revolution/huntington
This allows for regional preferences and food availability Source: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/healthierschoolday/pdf/HHFKA_080112.pdf
Before:Grains:At least 1 serving/day and 8 servings a week – for all grades Whole grains were encouraged by not requiredMeats: At least 1-2 oz./day – for all gradesSource:www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/healthierschoolday/pdf/tips-parents.pdfImages:http://www.foodsubs.com/FGGrains.htmlwesleyliu12.blogspot.com
Before:Fruit and Vegetables: ½ - ¾ cup per day (fruit and vegetable combined) for everyoneNow looks at fruit and vegetables as two separate meal components instead of oneSource:www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/healthierschoolday/pdf/tips-parents.pdfImages:onesassydoctor.blogspot.comhttp://www.recipekey.com/browse/recipes/Vegetables
Before:Sodium: No limitsSaturated fat: < 10% of calories (no change)Trans fat: no limitsSource:www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/healthierschoolday/pdf/tips-parents.pdfImages: http://www.google.com/imgres?q=salt&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1427&bih=715&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=S1-bCHwt985atM:&imgrefurl=http://www.realsimple.com/home-organizing/new-uses-for-old-things/28-uses-for-every-day-items-00000000007991/page3.html&docid=PmInNd12Kd3s_M&imgurl=http://img4-1.realsimple.timeinc.net/images/0901/salt-shakerextension.oregonstate.edu
Before:Milk:1 cup per day and a variety of fat contents allowed in flavored or regularTotal calories: No limitsCalories are currently under heavy debate with congress arguing that some kids are not satisfied with only that and need more because some high school students are rebelling against it and joining the brown-baggin’ it group so congress has passed a bill to repeal the calorie cap.Source:www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/healthierschoolday/pdf/tips-parents.pdfhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/18/house-republicans-introdu_n_1893936.htmlImages:school.discoveryeducation.com
Before the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in 2010Images:http://www.whatwereeating.com/etc/healthy-school-lunches-it-doesnt-have-to-be-an-oxymoron/http://www.dietsinreview.com/diet_column/06/wordless-wednesday-school-lunch/
Fail primarily due to not meeting standards for fat, saturated fat, or caloriesSources:1.Meal Wheel from Chef Ann Cooper http://www.lunchlessons.org/html_v2/meal_wheel.html2.Ralston K., Newman C., Clauson A., Guthrie J. & Buzby J. July 2008. The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. USDA Economic Research Service Report Number 61. Washington, D.C.3. RWJF. 2008. Impact of Federal commodity Programs on School meal Nutrition.
Cost nearly doubled after the first three yearsFrom 1960 – 1970 there was a six fold increase.Also, realize how expensive the health care cost will be from obesity – think cost/benefit analysisSource: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf
National School Lunch Program
National School Lunch Program and the Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act Wendy Thompson, WVU Graduate Dietetic Intern
Outline• History and Background of School Lunches• Overview of Child Nutrition Legislation• National School Lunch Program• Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act• 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act – Components – The need for improvements – How it will make improvements – Nutrition Guidelines – Financial Eligibility and Reimbursements• Additional Programs to Reduce Childhood Obesity
National School Lunch Act• National School Lunch Act was first created in 1946 – Chief Sponsor: Richard B. Russell – Signing President: Harry S. Truman
National School Lunch Act• Why was the National School Lunch Act was first designed?
National School Lunch Act• “As a measure of national security to safeguard the health and well-being of the Nation’s children” – Boost nutrition and health from the Great Depression – To strengthen potential military recruits• To boost food prices by utilizing extra products from the farmers and providing them to the school
Achievements of the National School Lunch Act• This act created the National School Lunch Program – Provided low cost or free school lunches to financially qualified students – The government subsidized the school through financial reimbursements for those meals – Prior to 1946, there were still meals served in schools but it was not standardized, mandated, or subsidized by the government
Overview of Child Nutrition Legislation• 1946 – National School Lunch Act• 1966 – Child Nutrition Act (Breakfast Program)• 1968 – Summer Lunch Program• 1975 – Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)• 1980 – Dietary Guidelines Americans• 1996 – Schools were required to comply with Dietary Guidelines• 1998 – After School Snack Program• 2002 – Farm Act Fruit/Veggie Pilot• 2004 – Child Nutrition & WIC Reauthorization Act• 2010 – Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act (CNRA)
NSLP Growth• 1947: 7.1 million children• 1970: 22 million children• 1980: 27 million children• 2011: 31.8 million children• Total: Since the modern program began, more than 224 billion total lunches have been served
About the National School Lunch Program Today• Mission: “promote the health and well-being of the Nation’s children”• Used by over 100,000 schools and facilities• Serves 32 million meals per day – 5 billion lunches a year• 94% of ALL schools utilize this program – 60% of students participate in NSLP • Free lunch: 49% • Reduced lunch: 10%
Administration• The National School Lunch Program is administered by State education agencies, which operate the program through agreements with school food authorities• At the federal level the Food and Nutrition Services, a branch of the USDA, administer the program
Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act• The reauthorization serves as an opportunity to review and make changes in the statutes and happens every four to five years• Congress must reauthorize the federal child nutrition programs such as: – National School Lunch Program (NSLP) – School Breakfast Program – Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) – Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) – Afterschool Snack and Meal Program – Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) – WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program – Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program – Special Milk Program
Why do we need these programs?• To help ensure that children from low-income families have access to enough food to be healthy and productive.• Over 31 million children receive meals through the school lunch program• Schools are often times on the front lines of our national challenge to combat childhood obesity and improve children’s overall health• Many children receive most, if not all, of their meals at school
Hunger in America• "Food Hardship” by Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) – Showed that nearly 1 in 5 Americans struggle to afford enough food for themselves and their families• “Map the Meal Gap” by Feeding America – This data showed the food insecurity data on the individual county level• The results of these publications proved that hunger and poverty effect every county to a varying degree
Poverty and Food Insecurity• Child poverty in the U.S. was 21.9% in 2011 – Up from 16.2% in 2000 – This number has consistently increased for the past four years• In 2008, 16.7 million children (22.5% of all children) lived in households that were food insecure – Up from 12.4 million (16.9%) in 2007• 12.1 million adults and 5.2 million children lived in households with very low food security• Poverty and food insecurity higher for Hispanic and African-American households than non-Hispanic White households
Obesity• 1/3 of all US children are overweight or obese – Tripled since 1980• If obesity continues to increase at the rate it is now then – Over 50% of adults in 39 states could be obese by 2030 – Just 20 years ago, no state had an obesity rate above 15 percent
Complications of Obesity• Overweight children are more likely to remain overweight or become obese adults and develop chronic disease• Suffer more health problems• Miss more days of school, and become less likely to succeed academically• Increase the cost of health care• Shorter life expectancies – Obese boys will lose 11.6 yrs – Obese girls will lose 14.3 yrs
Diabetes and Heart Disease• Diabetes: • 32-38% of American children born in 2000 will develop diabetes in their lifetime – Lifetime risk of children for Type 2 Diabetes: • 32.8% for boys • 38.5% for girls• Heart disease – New study shows children having the plaque build up similar to that of a 45 year old – 100,000 new cases of coronary heart disease by 2035 directly attributable to childhood obesity epidemic• Unhealthy diet and physical activity patterns account for at least 365,000 deaths among adults in the United States each year
2010 Child Nutrition Legislation• The Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010, which is often referred to as the child nutrition reauthorization bill for short, was: – Written by Agriculture Committee Chairman, Blanche Lincoln – Passed by the Senate on August 5th, 2010 – Passed by the House on December 2nd, 2010 – Signed into law on December 13th, 2010 by President Obama
Who should be involved with childhood nutrition programs?• Community – HHFKA requires more community participation• Parents• Students• Representatives from the following groups: – School foodservice staff – School Board – School Administrators – Public
Who does this bill impact?• USDA will directly work to implement the provisions of the bill with: – States – School districts – Neighborhoods• Americans will start to see changes in their communities over time and ultimately see children of America becoming healthier.
Components of the Bill• This bill takes several necessary steps towards: – Reducing childhood obesity • Enhances the nutrition quality of school and pre-school meals and focus in on reducing childhood obesity • Strengthens local school wellness policies – Increases program mentoring and integrity • Improving administration and increasing compliance – Reducing hunger • By Improving the access • Increasing the resources for child nutrition program
How does it improve nutrition and focus on reducing childhood obesity?• Gives USDA the authority to set nutritional standards for all foods regularly sold in schools during the school day, including vending machines, the “a la carte” lunch lines, and school stores• Help communities establish local farm to school networks, create school gardens, and ensures that more local foods are used in the school setting
How does it improve nutrition and focus on reducing childhood obesity?• Expands access to drinking water in schools, particularly during meal times• Sets basic standards for school wellness policies including goals for nutrition promotion and education and physical activity, while still permitting local flexibility to tailor the policies to their particular needs• Promotes nutrition and wellness in child care settings through the federally-subsidized Child and Adult Care Food Program• Expands support for breastfeeding through the WIC program
Importance of Education to Fight Obesity• Schools can offer the healthiest foods possible, but it will not help change children’s eating behaviors unless we teach our students how to make healthy choices• Many children don’t understand the relationship between food production and what they eat
Jamie Oliver’s Food RevolutionJamie Oliver traveled toHuntington, WV, the“unhealthiest city inAmerica,” and spentthree months improvingthe food in the schools inhis reality TV showhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bGYs4KS_djg
Nutritional Recommendation Changes• The 2010 reauthorization act updated nutritional standards based on the newest Dietary Guidelines for Americans – The new meal plan has just gone into effect with the beginning of this school year (2012-2013) – There are specific requirements that school meals must meet but it is up to the individual school districts as to what foods are served, how often, and how foods are prepared – Prior to 2010, nutrition requirements had not been changed for over 15 years!
Nutrition Guidelines by GradeGrains:Grades K-5: 8 to 9 servings per weekGrades 6-8: 8 to 10 servings per weekGrades 9-12: 10 to 12 servings per weekStudents should have at least oneserving of grains each day, and one-halfof offerings must be rich in whole grain.Meats/Meat alternatives:Grades K-5: 8 to 10 ounces per weekGrades 6-8: 9 to 10 ounces per weekGrades 9-12: 10 to 12 ounces per weekNuts, tofu, cheese and eggs can besubstituted for meat in some cases.
Nutrition Guidelines by GradeFruits:Grades K-8: One-half cup per dayGrades 9-12: One cup per dayOnly half of the weekly fruitrequirement can come from juice.Vegetables:Grades K-8: Three-quarters cup per dayGrades 9-12: One cup per dayWeekly requirements for vegetablesubgroups, including dark green,red/orange, beans/peas, starchy andothers.
Nutrition Guidelines by GradeSodium:A timetable sets targets for even furtherreducing sodium levels by 2014, 2017, and2022By July 2014, sodium levels for lunchesshould not exceed: Grades K-5: 640 milligrams Grades 6-8: 710 milligrams Grades 9-12: 740 milligramsFats:Saturated fat can be no more than 10 % ofcaloriesNo trans-fat, except for those naturallyoccurring in meat and dairy products.
Nutrition Guidelines by GradeMilk:Grades K-12: 1 cup per dayLow fat (1% fat) or fat-free milkOnly fat-free milk can be flavored(chocolate or strawberry)Total calories:Grades K-5: 550 to 650 per dayGrades 6-8: 600 to 700 per dayGrades 9-12: 750 to 850 per dayCalories can be averaged over the week
Sample MenusBefore: After: Hot dog on bun (3 oz) Whole wheat spaghetti with with ketchup (4T) meat sauce (1/2 cup) Canned pears (1/4 cup) Whole wheat roll Green beans, cooked (1/2 cup) Raw celery (1/8 cup) Broccoli (1/2 cup) Raw carrots (1/8 cup) Cauliflower (1/2 cup) Ranch dressing (1.75 T) Kiwi halves (1/2 cup) Chocolate milk (8oz) Low-fat (1%) milk (8 oz) Low-fat ranch dip (1 oz) Soft margarine (5 g)
Compliance with Previous Nutritional Recommendations• Less than 1/4 of elementary schools met the total fat requirements• Less than 1/3 of elementary schools met the saturated fat requirements• 95% of schools were exceeding the upper limit for sodium• Vegetable consumption was higher, due to potatoes/french fries• In the 2004-05 school year, 93-94% of meals failed to meet all nutritional standards
How does it increase program mentoring and integrity?• Requires school districts to be audited every three years to improve compliance with nutritional standards• Requires schools to make information more readily available to parents about the nutritional quality of meals• Includes provisions to ensure the safety of school foods like: – Improving recall procedures – Extending hazard analysis – Stricter food safety requirements for school meals throughout the campus• Provides training the technical assistance for school food service providers
How does is increase access and therefore reduce hunger?– Reauthorizes child nutrition programs for another five years– Invests $4.5 billion in additional funding over the next ten years for child nutrition programs– Expands the after school meal program to all 50 states
How does is increase access and therefore reduce hunger?• Increases the number of eligible children enrolled in school meal programs by about 115,000 students by using Medicaid data to directly certify children who meet income requirements• Helps certify an average of 4,500 additional student per year to receive school meals by setting benchmarks for states to improve the certification process
How does is increase access and therefore reduce hunger?• Allows more universal meal access for eligible students in high poverty communities by eliminating paper applications and using census data to determine school-wide income eligibility.• This spring, NY, OH, WV, and the DC will be added to the states who are allowed to use the option of “community eligibility” for school meal programs. – This reduces the burden on families by eliminating household meal applications and helps the school by eliminating excessive amounts of paperwork.
Who is eligible?• Any student enrolled in a participating school may purchase meals through the NSLP• Free and reduced price meal eligibility are determined by household income and the federal poverty level – Free lunch: </130% • If the family is receiving SNAP benefits, then that child automatically qualifies – Reduced price lunch: 130-185% – Full price: Above 185%• For 2012 - 2013 for a family of 3: – Poverty level = $19,090 • 130% = $24,817 • 185% = $35,317
How is pricing determined?• Local food authorities set the cost for full-price school lunch• Schools must operate their meal service as a non- profit entity• All meals are subsidized in some way, even the meals sold at full price• Afterschool snacks are provided to children under the same income standards as the lunch prices• In schools were at least 50% of their student body is eligible for free or reduced-price lunches then snacks may be served free of charge to all students
HHFKA Impact on Financial Reimbursement• As an incentive for compliance with the updated meal requirements, those who are certified receive an extra $0.06 per meal served – This is a historic investment, the first real reimbursement rate increase in 30 years – This bonus will be adjusted for inflation in the years ahead• Schools are reimbursed standard cash rates if less than 60% of the student body are receiving free or reduced- price lunches except: – Schools in Hawaii and Alaska and schools with high percentages of low-income students receive higher reimbursements
Non-Monetary Reimbursements• USDA foods which are known as “entitlement foods” – These are awarded at a value of 22.75 cents for each meal served that fiscal year – Schools may also receive “bonus” USDA foods if they are available from surplus agricultural stocks – The type of food they receive is dependent on availability and pricing• As part of the HHFKA, USDA will seek improvement of nutritional quality of commodity foods
How much does the program cost?• By comparison, the lunch programs total cost in: – In 1947: $70 million – In 1950: $119.7 million – In 1960: $225.8 million – In 1970: $565.5 million – In 1980: $3.2 billion – In 1990: $3.7 billion – In 2000: $6.1 billion – In 2011: $11.1 billion
Programs to Reduce Childhood Obesity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kj_2xx- UKWo&feature=player_embedded
Programs to Reduce Childhood Obesity• Farm To School – Started in the 1990’s with just a few programs – Currently, all 50 states have Farm to School Programs – There are about 2,571 program in the U.S. – 10,217 schools are involved – 2,470 school districts are involved
Health Benefits of Farm to School• Improve childhood nutrition, reduce hunger, and prevent obesity and obesity-related diseases by: – Strengthening childrens and communities knowledge about, and attitudes toward, agriculture, food, nutrition and the environment – Increasing childrens participation in the school meals program – Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables
Economic Benefits of Farm To School• Benefit school food budgets, after start-up – If planning and menu choices are made consistent with seasonal availability of fresh and minimally processed whole foods.• Support economic development across numerous sectors and promote job creation.• Increase market opportunities for farmers, fishers, ranchers, food processors and food manufacturers.• Decrease the distance between producers and consumers, thus promoting food security while reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and reliance on oil.