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MILLER/SPOOLMANLIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT                17TH                  Chapter 7                  Climate and Biodi...
Core Case Study: Different Climates     Support Different Life Forms• Climate -- long-term temperature and precipitation  ...
Three Major Climate Zones                            Fig. 7-1, p. 147
The Earth Has Many Different              Climates (1)• Weather  • Temperature, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover  • ...
Natural Capital: Generalized Map of the Earth’s Current                    Climate Zones                                  ...
The Earth Has Many Different                 Climates (2)• Air circulation in lower atmosphere due to   1.   Uneven heatin...
Global Air Circulation                         Fig. 7-3, p. 149
Energy Transfer by Convection     in the Atmosphere                                Fig. 7-4, p. 150
Connected Deep and Shallow Ocean Currents                                            Fig. 7-5, p. 150
Greenhouse Gases Warm the          Lower Atmosphere• Greenhouse gases  • H2O  • CO2  • CH4  • N2O• Natural greenhouse effe...
Flow of Energy to and from the Earth                                       Fig. 3-4, p. 57
Earth’s Surface Features Affect Local               Climates• Differential heat absorption by land and water   • Land and ...
Rain Shadow EffectWindward Side                        Leeward Side                                                    Fig...
Climate Helps Determine Where          Organisms Can Live• Major biomes: large land regions with certain types  of climate...
The Earth’s Major Biomes                           Fig. 7-7, p. 153
North America Biomes                       Figure 3, Supplement 8
Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate                       and Biomes                                 ...
Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average         Temperature as Limiting Factors                                ...
Global Plant Biodiversity                            Figure 6, Supplement 8
There Are Three Major Types of                   Deserts1. Tropical deserts – United Arab Emirates2. Temperate deserts – D...
Climate Graphs of Three Types of Deserts                                           Fig. 7-10, p. 155
Temperate Desert Ecosystem in North America                                       Figure 1, Supplement 6
Science Focus: Staying Alive              in the Desert• Beat the heat/every drop of water counts• Plant adaptations   • S...
Wildflowers Bloom after Rain in Arizona                                          Fig. 7-A, p. 156
There Are Three Major Types of             Grasslands (1)1. Tropical2. Temperate3. Cold (arctic tundra)
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold                  Grasslands                                             Fi...
There Are Three Major Types of               Grasslands (2)• Tropical   • Savanna        • Grazing animals        • Browsi...
Temperate Tall-Grass Prairie Ecosystem in North America                                              Figure 2, Supplement 6
There Are Three Major Types of               Grasslands (3)• Arctic tundra: fragile biome   •   Plants close to ground to ...
Monoculture Crop Replacing Biologically Diverse            Temperate Grassland                                            ...
Temperate Shrubland: Nice Climate,         Risky Place to Live• Chaparral• Near the sea: nice climate• Prone to fires in t...
There Are Three Major Types of              Forests (1)1. Tropical2. Temperate3. Cold   • Northern coniferous and boreal
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests                                                 Fig. 7-13, p. 160
There Are Three Major Types of                 Forests (2)• Tropical rain forests   •   Temperature and moisture   •   Str...
Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem                                 Fig. 7-14, p. 161
Niche Stratification in a Tropical Rain Forest                                                 Fig. 7-15, p. 162
There Are Three Major Types of              Forests (3)• Temperate deciduous forests  • Temperature and moisture  • Broad-...
Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystem in North America                                            Figure 4, Supplement 6
There Are Three Major Types of              Forests (4)• Evergreen coniferous forests: boreal and taigas   • Temperature a...
Evergreen Coniferous Forest Ecosystem in North America                                             Figure 5, Supplement 6
Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State                                            Fig. 7-16, p. 163
Mountains Play Important             Ecological Roles• Majority of the world’s forests• Islands of biodiversity• Habitats ...
Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State                                             Fig. 7-17, p. 163
Humans Have Disturbed Most of         the Earth’s Lands• Deserts• Grasslands• Forests• Mountains
Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems                                           Fig. 7-18, p. 165
Three Big Ideas1. Differences in climate, based mostly on long-term   differences in average temperature and precipitation...
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Bio 105 chapter 7

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Bio 105 chapter 7

  1. 1. MILLER/SPOOLMANLIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17TH Chapter 7 Climate and Biodiversity
  2. 2. Core Case Study: Different Climates Support Different Life Forms• Climate -- long-term temperature and precipitation patterns – determines which plants and animals can live where• Tropical: equator, intense sunlight• Polar: poles, little sunlight• Temperate: in-between tropical and polar
  3. 3. Three Major Climate Zones Fig. 7-1, p. 147
  4. 4. The Earth Has Many Different Climates (1)• Weather • Temperature, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover • Hours to days• Climate • Area’s general pattern of atmospheric conditions over decades and longer
  5. 5. Natural Capital: Generalized Map of the Earth’s Current Climate Zones Fig. 7-2, p. 149
  6. 6. The Earth Has Many Different Climates (2)• Air circulation in lower atmosphere due to 1. Uneven heating of the earth’s surface by sun 2. Rotation of the earth on its axis 3. Properties of air, water, and land• Ocean currents • Prevailing winds • Earth’s rotation • Redistribution of heat from the sun • Surface currents and deep currents
  7. 7. Global Air Circulation Fig. 7-3, p. 149
  8. 8. Energy Transfer by Convection in the Atmosphere Fig. 7-4, p. 150
  9. 9. Connected Deep and Shallow Ocean Currents Fig. 7-5, p. 150
  10. 10. Greenhouse Gases Warm the Lower Atmosphere• Greenhouse gases • H2O • CO2 • CH4 • N2O• Natural greenhouse effect • Gases keep earth habitable • Earth would be 33oC colder without• Human-enhanced global warming
  11. 11. Flow of Energy to and from the Earth Fig. 3-4, p. 57
  12. 12. Earth’s Surface Features Affect Local Climates• Differential heat absorption by land and water • Land and sea breezes• Rain shadow effect • Most precipitation falls on the windward side of mountain ranges • Deserts on leeward side• Cities create microclimates
  13. 13. Rain Shadow EffectWindward Side Leeward Side Fig. 7-6, p. 152
  14. 14. Climate Helps Determine Where Organisms Can Live• Major biomes: large land regions with certain types of climate and dominant plant life • Not uniform • Mosaic of patches• Latitude and elevation• Annual precipitation• Temperature
  15. 15. The Earth’s Major Biomes Fig. 7-7, p. 153
  16. 16. North America Biomes Figure 3, Supplement 8
  17. 17. Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes Fig. 7-8, p. 153
  18. 18. Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors Fig. 7-9, p. 154
  19. 19. Global Plant Biodiversity Figure 6, Supplement 8
  20. 20. There Are Three Major Types of Deserts1. Tropical deserts – United Arab Emirates2. Temperate deserts – Deserts in U.S.3. Cold deserts – Gobi Desert• Fragile ecosystem • Slow plant growth • Low species diversity • Slow nutrient recycling • Lack of water
  21. 21. Climate Graphs of Three Types of Deserts Fig. 7-10, p. 155
  22. 22. Temperate Desert Ecosystem in North America Figure 1, Supplement 6
  23. 23. Science Focus: Staying Alive in the Desert• Beat the heat/every drop of water counts• Plant adaptations • Succulents • Deep tap roots• Animal strategies and adaptations • Physiology and anatomy • Behavior
  24. 24. Wildflowers Bloom after Rain in Arizona Fig. 7-A, p. 156
  25. 25. There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (1)1. Tropical2. Temperate3. Cold (arctic tundra)
  26. 26. Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands Fig. 7-11, p. 157
  27. 27. There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (2)• Tropical • Savanna • Grazing animals • Browsing animals• Temperate • Cold winters and hot and dry summers • Tall-grass prairies • Short-grass prairies • Often converted to farmland
  28. 28. Temperate Tall-Grass Prairie Ecosystem in North America Figure 2, Supplement 6
  29. 29. There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (3)• Arctic tundra: fragile biome • Plants close to ground to conserve heat • Most growth in short summer • Animals have thick fur • Permafrost • Underground soil that stays frozen• Alpine tundra: above tree line in mountains
  30. 30. Monoculture Crop Replacing Biologically Diverse Temperate Grassland Fig. 7-12, p. 158
  31. 31. Temperate Shrubland: Nice Climate, Risky Place to Live• Chaparral• Near the sea: nice climate• Prone to fires in the dry season
  32. 32. There Are Three Major Types of Forests (1)1. Tropical2. Temperate3. Cold • Northern coniferous and boreal
  33. 33. Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests Fig. 7-13, p. 160
  34. 34. There Are Three Major Types of Forests (2)• Tropical rain forests • Temperature and moisture • Stratification of specialized plant and animal niches • Little wind – reliance on animals for pollination • Rapid recycling of scarce soil nutrients • Impact of human activities
  35. 35. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem Fig. 7-14, p. 161
  36. 36. Niche Stratification in a Tropical Rain Forest Fig. 7-15, p. 162
  37. 37. There Are Three Major Types of Forests (3)• Temperate deciduous forests • Temperature and moisture • Broad-leaf trees • Slow rate of decomposition – leaves thick layer of organic matter • Impact of human activities
  38. 38. Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystem in North America Figure 4, Supplement 6
  39. 39. There Are Three Major Types of Forests (4)• Evergreen coniferous forests: boreal and taigas • Temperature and moisture • Few species of cone bearing trees • Slow decomposition – soil isn’t nutrient rich• Coastal coniferous forest• Temperate rain forests
  40. 40. Evergreen Coniferous Forest Ecosystem in North America Figure 5, Supplement 6
  41. 41. Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State Fig. 7-16, p. 163
  42. 42. Mountains Play Important Ecological Roles• Majority of the world’s forests• Islands of biodiversity• Habitats for endemic species• Help regulate the earth’s climate• Major storehouses of water • Role in hydrologic cycle
  43. 43. Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State Fig. 7-17, p. 163
  44. 44. Humans Have Disturbed Most of the Earth’s Lands• Deserts• Grasslands• Forests• Mountains
  45. 45. Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems Fig. 7-18, p. 165
  46. 46. Three Big Ideas1. Differences in climate, based mostly on long-term differences in average temperature and precipitation, largely determine the types and locations of the earth’s deserts, grasslands, and forests.2. The earth’s terrestrial systems provide important ecological and economic services.3. Human activities are degrading and disrupting many of the ecological and economic services provided by the earth’s terrestrial ecosystems.

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