MILLER/SPOOLMANLIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT                17TH                  Chapter 5                  Biodiversity, Spe...
Core Case Study: Southern Sea Otters: Are They Back from the Brink of Extinction? • Habitat • Hunted: early 1900s • Partia...
Southern Sea Otter                     Fig. 5-1a, p. 104
Species Interact in Five Major Ways• Interspecific Competition• Predation• Parasitism• Mutualism• Commensalism
Most Species Compete with One     Another for Certain Resources• For limited resources• Ecological niche for exploiting re...
Some Species Evolve Ways to Share             Resources• Resource partitioning   • Using only parts of resource   • Using ...
Resource Partitioning Among Warblers                                       Fig. 5-2, p. 106
Specialist Species of Honeycreepers                                      Fig. 5-3, p. 107
Most Consumer Species Feed on Live   Organisms of Other Species (1)• Predators may capture prey by   1. Walking   2. Swimm...
Predator-Prey Relationships                              Fig. 5-4, p. 107
Most Consumer Species Feed on Live      Organisms of Other Species (2)• Prey may avoid capture by   1. Run, swim, fly   2....
Some Ways Prey Species Avoid      Their Predators                               Fig. 5-5, p. 109
Some Species Feed off Other Species       by Living on or in Them• Parasitism• Parasite is usually much smaller than the h...
Parasitism: Trout with Blood-Sucking Sea Lamprey                                             Fig. 5-7, p. 110
In Some Interactions, Both Species                Benefit• Mutualism• Nutrition and protection relationship• Gut inhabitan...
Mutualism: Hummingbird and Flower                                    Fig. 5-8, p. 110
Mutualism: Oxpeckers Clean Rhinoceros; Anemones           Protect and Feed Clownfish                                      ...
In Some Interactions, One Species Benefits      and the Other Is Not Harmed • Commensalism • Epiphytes • Birds nesting in ...
Commensalism: Bromiliad Roots on Tree Trunk Without                  Harming Tree                                         ...
Most Populations Live Together in        Clumps or Patches (1)• Population: group of interbreeding individuals of the  sam...
Most Populations Live Together in       Clumps or Patches (2)• Why clumping?  1. Species tend to cluster where resources a...
Population of Snow Geese                           Fig. 5-11, p. 112
Generalized Dispersion Patterns                                  Fig. 5-12, p. 112
Populations Can Grow, Shrink, or              Remain Stable (1)• Population size governed by   •   Births   •   Deaths   •...
Populations Can Grow, Shrink, or           Remain Stable (2)• Age structure  • Pre-reproductive age  • Reproductive age  •...
Some Factors Can Limit Population                 Size• Range of tolerance   • Variations in physical and chemical environ...
Trout Tolerance of Temperature                                 Fig. 5-13, p. 113
No Population Can Grow Indefinitely:     J-Curves and S-Curves (1)• Size of populations controlled by limiting factors:   ...
No Population Can Grow Indefinitely:     J-Curves and S-Curves (2)• Environmental resistance   • All factors that act to l...
No Population Can Grow Indefinitely:     J-Curves and S-Curves (3)• Exponential growth   • Starts slowly, then accelerates...
Logistic Growth of Sheep in Tasmania                                       Fig. 5-15, p. 115
When a Population Exceeds Its Habitat’sCarrying Capacity, Its Population Can Crash • A population exceeds the area’s carry...
Exponential Growth, Overshoot, and  Population Crash of a Reindeer                                     Fig. 5-17, p. 116
Species Have Different Reproductive            Patterns (1)• Some species   •   Many, usually small, offspring   •   Littl...
Species Have Different Reproductive            Patterns (2)• Other species  •   Reproduce later in life  •   Small number ...
Under Some Circumstances Population   Density Affects Population Size• Density-dependent population controls  •   Predatio...
Several Different Types of Population       Change Occur in Nature• Stable• Irruptive   • Population surge, followed by cr...
Population Cycles for the Snowshoe Hare and                Canada Lynx                                          Fig. 5-18,...
Humans Are Not Exempt from      Nature’s Population Controls• Ireland   • Potato crop in 1845• Bubonic plague   • Fourteen...
Communities and Ecosystems Change over     Time: Ecological Succession • Natural ecological restoration    • Primary succe...
Some Ecosystems Start from Scratch:        Primary Succession• No soil in a terrestrial system• No bottom sediment in an a...
Primary Ecological Succession                                Fig. 5-19, p. 119
Some Ecosystems Do Not Have to Start from    Scratch: Secondary Succession (1)• Some soil remains in a terrestrial system•...
Natural Ecological Restoration of Disturbed Land                                             Fig. 5-20, p. 120
Secondary Ecological Succession in Yellowstone Following                      the 1998 Fire                               ...
Some Ecosystems Do Not Have to Start from    Scratch: Secondary Succession (2)• Primary and secondary succession   • Tend ...
Succession Doesn’t Follow a            Predictable Path• Traditional view   • Balance of nature and a climax community• Cu...
Three Big Ideas1. Certain interactions among species affect their use   of resources and their population sizes.2. There a...
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Bio 105 Chapter 5

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Bio 105 Chapter 5

  1. 1. MILLER/SPOOLMANLIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17TH Chapter 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control
  2. 2. Core Case Study: Southern Sea Otters: Are They Back from the Brink of Extinction? • Habitat • Hunted: early 1900s • Partial recovery • Why care about sea otters? • Ethics • Tourism dollars • Keystone species
  3. 3. Southern Sea Otter Fig. 5-1a, p. 104
  4. 4. Species Interact in Five Major Ways• Interspecific Competition• Predation• Parasitism• Mutualism• Commensalism
  5. 5. Most Species Compete with One Another for Certain Resources• For limited resources• Ecological niche for exploiting resources• Some niches overlap
  6. 6. Some Species Evolve Ways to Share Resources• Resource partitioning • Using only parts of resource • Using at different times • Using in different ways
  7. 7. Resource Partitioning Among Warblers Fig. 5-2, p. 106
  8. 8. Specialist Species of Honeycreepers Fig. 5-3, p. 107
  9. 9. Most Consumer Species Feed on Live Organisms of Other Species (1)• Predators may capture prey by 1. Walking 2. Swimming 3. Flying 4. Pursuit and ambush 5. Camouflage 6. Chemical warfare
  10. 10. Predator-Prey Relationships Fig. 5-4, p. 107
  11. 11. Most Consumer Species Feed on Live Organisms of Other Species (2)• Prey may avoid capture by 1. Run, swim, fly 2. Protection: shells, bark, thorns 3. Camouflage 4. Chemical warfare 5. Warning coloration 6. Mimicry 7. Deceptive looks 8. Deceptive behavior
  12. 12. Some Ways Prey Species Avoid Their Predators Fig. 5-5, p. 109
  13. 13. Some Species Feed off Other Species by Living on or in Them• Parasitism• Parasite is usually much smaller than the host• Parasite rarely kills the host• Parasite-host interaction may lead to coevolution
  14. 14. Parasitism: Trout with Blood-Sucking Sea Lamprey Fig. 5-7, p. 110
  15. 15. In Some Interactions, Both Species Benefit• Mutualism• Nutrition and protection relationship• Gut inhabitant mutualism• Not cooperation: it’s mutual exploitation
  16. 16. Mutualism: Hummingbird and Flower Fig. 5-8, p. 110
  17. 17. Mutualism: Oxpeckers Clean Rhinoceros; Anemones Protect and Feed Clownfish Fig. 5-9, p. 111
  18. 18. In Some Interactions, One Species Benefits and the Other Is Not Harmed • Commensalism • Epiphytes • Birds nesting in trees
  19. 19. Commensalism: Bromiliad Roots on Tree Trunk Without Harming Tree Fig. 5-10, p. 111
  20. 20. Most Populations Live Together in Clumps or Patches (1)• Population: group of interbreeding individuals of the same species• Population distribution 1. Clumping 2. Uniform dispersion 3. Random dispersion
  21. 21. Most Populations Live Together in Clumps or Patches (2)• Why clumping? 1. Species tend to cluster where resources are available 2. Groups have a better chance of finding clumped resources 3. Protects some animals from predators 4. Packs allow some to get prey
  22. 22. Population of Snow Geese Fig. 5-11, p. 112
  23. 23. Generalized Dispersion Patterns Fig. 5-12, p. 112
  24. 24. Populations Can Grow, Shrink, or Remain Stable (1)• Population size governed by • Births • Deaths • Immigration • Emigration• Population change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration)
  25. 25. Populations Can Grow, Shrink, or Remain Stable (2)• Age structure • Pre-reproductive age • Reproductive age • Post-reproductive age
  26. 26. Some Factors Can Limit Population Size• Range of tolerance • Variations in physical and chemical environment• Limiting factor principle • Too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance • Precipitation • Nutrients • Sunlight, etc
  27. 27. Trout Tolerance of Temperature Fig. 5-13, p. 113
  28. 28. No Population Can Grow Indefinitely: J-Curves and S-Curves (1)• Size of populations controlled by limiting factors: • Light • Water • Space • Nutrients • Exposure to too many competitors, predators or infectious diseases
  29. 29. No Population Can Grow Indefinitely: J-Curves and S-Curves (2)• Environmental resistance • All factors that act to limit the growth of a population• Carrying capacity (K) • Maximum population a given habitat can sustain
  30. 30. No Population Can Grow Indefinitely: J-Curves and S-Curves (3)• Exponential growth • Starts slowly, then accelerates to carrying capacity when meets environmental resistance• Logistic growth • Decreased population growth rate as population size reaches carrying capacity
  31. 31. Logistic Growth of Sheep in Tasmania Fig. 5-15, p. 115
  32. 32. When a Population Exceeds Its Habitat’sCarrying Capacity, Its Population Can Crash • A population exceeds the area’s carrying capacity • Reproductive time lag may lead to overshoot • Population crash • Damage may reduce area’s carrying capacity
  33. 33. Exponential Growth, Overshoot, and Population Crash of a Reindeer Fig. 5-17, p. 116
  34. 34. Species Have Different Reproductive Patterns (1)• Some species • Many, usually small, offspring • Little or no parental care • Massive deaths of offspring • Insects, bacteria, algaeTend to grow at exponential rates.
  35. 35. Species Have Different Reproductive Patterns (2)• Other species • Reproduce later in life • Small number of offspring with long life spans • Young offspring grow inside mother • Long time to maturity • Protected by parents, and potentially groups • Humans • Elephants Tend to grow at logistic rate.
  36. 36. Under Some Circumstances Population Density Affects Population Size• Density-dependent population controls • Predation • Parasitism • Infectious disease • Competition for resources
  37. 37. Several Different Types of Population Change Occur in Nature• Stable• Irruptive • Population surge, followed by crash• Cyclic fluctuations, boom-and-bust cycles • Top-down population regulation • Bottom-up population regulation• Irregular
  38. 38. Population Cycles for the Snowshoe Hare and Canada Lynx Fig. 5-18, p. 118
  39. 39. Humans Are Not Exempt from Nature’s Population Controls• Ireland • Potato crop in 1845• Bubonic plague • Fourteenth century• AIDS • Global epidemic
  40. 40. Communities and Ecosystems Change over Time: Ecological Succession • Natural ecological restoration • Primary succession-start from nothing • Secondary succession-start with cleared soil
  41. 41. Some Ecosystems Start from Scratch: Primary Succession• No soil in a terrestrial system• No bottom sediment in an aquatic system• Takes hundreds to thousands of years• Need to build up soils/sediments to provide necessary nutrients
  42. 42. Primary Ecological Succession Fig. 5-19, p. 119
  43. 43. Some Ecosystems Do Not Have to Start from Scratch: Secondary Succession (1)• Some soil remains in a terrestrial system• Some bottom sediment remains in an aquatic system• Ecosystem has been • Disturbed • Removed • Destroyed
  44. 44. Natural Ecological Restoration of Disturbed Land Fig. 5-20, p. 120
  45. 45. Secondary Ecological Succession in Yellowstone Following the 1998 Fire Fig. 5-21, p. 120
  46. 46. Some Ecosystems Do Not Have to Start from Scratch: Secondary Succession (2)• Primary and secondary succession • Tend to increase biodiversity • Increase species richness and interactions among species• Primary and secondary succession can be interrupted by • Fires • Hurricanes • Clear-cutting of forests • Plowing of grasslands • Invasion by nonnative species
  47. 47. Succession Doesn’t Follow a Predictable Path• Traditional view • Balance of nature and a climax community• Current view • Ever-changing mosaic of patches of vegetation • Mature late-successional ecosystems • State of continual disturbance and change
  48. 48. Three Big Ideas1. Certain interactions among species affect their use of resources and their population sizes.2. There are always limits to population growth in nature.3. Changes in environmental conditions cause communities and ecosystems to gradually alter their species composition and population sizes (ecological succession).

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