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Bio 105 Chapter 16


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Bio 105 Chapter 16

  1. 1. MILLER/SPOOLMAN LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17TH Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  2. 2. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1)• Energy efficiency• Advantages of reducing energy waste: • Quick and clean • Usually the cheapest to provide more energy • Reduce pollution and degradation • Slow global warming • Increase economic and national security
  3. 3. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (2)• Four widely used devices that waste energy 1. Incandescent light bulb 2. Motor vehicle with internal combustion engine 3. Nuclear power plant 4. Coal-fired power plant
  4. 4. Flow of Commercial Energy through the U.S. Economy Fig. 16-2, p. 399
  5. 5. We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (1)• Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) • Two forms of energy from same fuel source• Replace energy-wasting electric motors• Recycling materials• Switch from low-efficiency incandescent lighting to higher-efficiency fluorescent and LED lighting
  6. 6. LEDs Fig. 16-4, p. 401
  7. 7. We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (2)• Electrical grid system: outdated and wasteful• Utility companies switching from promote use of energy to promoting energy efficiency • Spurred by state utility commissions
  8. 8. We Can Save Energy and Money in Transportation• Corporate average fuel standards (CAFE) standards • Fuel economy standards lower in the U.S. countries • Fuel-efficient cars are on the market • 2016 - 39 miles per gallon for cars and 30 mpg for trucks• Hidden prices in gasoline: $12/gallon • Car manufacturers and oil companies lobby to prevent laws to raise fuel taxes
  9. 9. Average Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sold in the U.S. and Other Countries Fig. 16-5, p. 402
  10. 10. More Energy-Efficient Vehicles Are on the Way• Superefficient and ultralight cars• Gasoline-electric hybrid car• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle• Energy-efficient diesel car• Electric vehicle with a fuel cell
  11. 11. Solutions: A Hybrid-Gasoline-Electric Engine Car and a Plug-in Hybrid Car Fig. 16-6, p. 403
  12. 12. Light-Weight Carbon Composite Concept Car Fig. 16-7, p. 405
  13. 13. We Can Design Buildings That Save Energy and Money • Green architecture • Living or green roofs • Superinsulation • U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
  14. 14. A Green Roof in Chicago-City Hall Fig. 16-8, p. 405
  15. 15. We Can Save Money and Energy in Existing Buildings (1) • Conduct an energy survey • Insulate and plug leaks • Use energy-efficient windows • Stop other heating and cooling losses • Heat houses more efficiently
  16. 16. We Can Save Money and Energy in Existing Buildings (2) • Heat water more efficiently • Use energy-efficient appliances • Use energy-efficient lighting
  17. 17. A Thermogram Shows Heat Loss Fig. 16-9, p. 406
  18. 18. Individuals Matter: Ways in Which You Can Save Money Where You Live Fig. 16-10, p. 407
  19. 19. Why Are We Still Wasting So Much Energy?• Energy remains artificially cheap • Government subsidies • Tax breaks • Prices don’t include true cost• Few large and long-lasting incentives • Tax breaks • Rebates • Low-interest loans
  20. 20. We Can Use Renewable Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity • Renewable energy • Solar energy: direct or indirect • Geothermal energy • Benefits of shifting toward renewable energy • Renewable energy cheaper if we eliminate • Inequitable subsidies • Inaccurate prices • Artificially low pricing of nonrenewable energy
  21. 21. We Can Heat Buildings and Water with Solar Energy• Passive solar heating system• Active solar heating system
  22. 22. Passive Solar Home in Colorado Fig. 16-12, p. 410
  23. 23. Rooftop Solar Hot Water on Apartment Buildings in Kunming, China Fig. 16-13, p. 410
  24. 24. World Availability of Direct Solar Energy Figure 22, Supplement 8
  25. 25. U.S. Availability of Direct Solar Energy Figure 23, Supplement 8
  26. 26. We Can Cool Buildings Naturally• Technologies available • Open windows when cooler outside • Use fans • Superinsulation and high-efficiency windows • Overhangs or awnings on windows • Light-colored roof • Geothermal pumps
  27. 27. We Can Use Sunlight to Produce High- Temperature Heat and Electricity• Solar thermal systems • Central receiver system • Collect sunlight to boil water, generate electricity • 1% of world deserts could supply all the world’s electricity • Require large amounts of water – could limit • Wet cooling • Dry cooling• Low net energy yields
  28. 28. Solar Thermal Power in California Desert Fig. 16-15, p. 411
  29. 29. Solutions: Solar Cooker in India Fig. 16-17, p. 412
  30. 30. Solar Cell Array in Niger, West Africa Fig. 16-19, p. 413
  31. 31. Solar-Cell Power Plant in Arizona Fig. 16-20, p. 414
  32. 32. We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (2) • Key problems • High cost of producing electricity • Need to be located in sunny desert areas • Fossil fuels used in production • Solar cells contain toxic materials • Will the cost drop with • Mass production • New designs • Government subsidies and tax breaks
  33. 33. Global Production of Solar Electricity Figure 11, Supplement 9
  34. 34. We Can Produce Electricity from Falling and Flowing Water• Hydropower • Uses kinetic energy of moving water • Indirect form of solar energy • World’s leading renewable energy source used to produce electricity• Advantages and disadvantages• Micro-hydropower generators
  35. 35. Tradeoffs: Dams and Reservoirs Fig. 13-13, p. 328
  36. 36. Tides and Waves Can Be Used to Produce Electricity • Produce electricity from flowing water • Ocean tides and waves • So far, power systems are limited • Disadvantages • Few suitable sites • High costs • Equipment damaged by storms and corrosion
  37. 37. Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (1)• Wind: indirect form of solar energy • Captured by turbines • Converted into electrical energy• Second fastest-growing source of energy• What is the global potential for wind energy?• Wind farms: on land and offshore
  38. 38. World Electricity from Wind Energy Figure 12, Supplement 9
  39. 39. Solutions: Wind Turbine and Wind Farms on Land and Offshore Fig. 16-23, p. 417
  40. 40. Wind Turbine Fig. 16-24, p. 417
  41. 41. Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (2)• Countries with the highest total installed wind power capacity • Germany • United States • Spain • India • Denmark• Installation is increasing in several other countries
  42. 42. Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (3)• Advantages of wind energy• Drawbacks • Windy areas may be sparsely populated – need to develop grid system to transfer electricity • Winds die down; need back-up energy • Storage of wind energy • Kills migratory birds • “Not in my backyard”
  43. 43. Case Study: The Astounding Potential of Wind Power in the United States• “Saudi Arabia of wind power” • North Dakota • South Dakota • Kansas • Texas• How much electricity is possible with wind farms in those states? • Could create up to 500,000 jobs
  44. 44. United States Wind Power Potential Figure 24, Supplement 8
  45. 45. We Can Get Energy by Burning Solid Biomass• Biomass • Plant materials and animal waste we can burn or turn into biofuels• Production of solid mass fuel • Plant fast-growing trees • Biomass plantations • Collect crop residues and animal manure• Advantages and disadvantages
  46. 46. We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (1)• Liquid biofuels • Biodiesel • Ethanol• Biggest producers of biofuel • The United States • Brazil • The European Union • China
  47. 47. We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (2)• Major advantages over gasoline and diesel fuel produced from oil 1.Biofuel crops can be grown almost anywhere 2.No net increase in CO2 emissions if managed properly 3.Available now
  48. 48. We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (3)• Studies warn of problems: • Decrease biodiversity • Increase soil degrading, erosion, and nutrient leaching • Push farmers off their land • Raise food prices • Reduce water supplies, especially for corn and soy
  49. 49. Bagasse is Sugarcane Residue-can be used to make ethanol Fig. 16-28, p. 421
  50. 50. Natural Capital: Rapidly GrowingSwitchgrass-can be converted to ethanol Fig. 16-29, p. 423
  51. 51. Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (1)• Algae remove CO2 and convert it to oil • Not compete for cropland = not affect food prices • Wastewater/sewage treatment plants • Could transfer CO2 from power plants• Algae challenges 1. Need to lower costs 2. Open ponds vs. bioreactors 3. Affordable ways of extracting oil 4. Scaling to large production
  52. 52. Getting Energy from the Earth’s Internal Heat (1)• Geothermal energy: heat stored in • Soil • Underground rocks • Fluids in the earth’s mantle• Geothermal heat pump system • Energy efficient and reliable • Environmentally clean • Cost effective to heat or cool a space
  53. 53. Natural Capital: A Geothermal Heat Pump System Can Heat or Cool a House Fig. 16-31, p. 425
  54. 54. Getting Energy from the Earth’s Internal Heat (2)• Hydrothermal reservoirs • U.S. is the world’s largest producer• Hot, dry rock• Geothermal energy problems • High cost of tapping hydrothermal reservoirs • Dry- or wet-steam geothermal reservoirs could be depleted • Could create earthquakes
  55. 55. Geothermal Sites in the United States Figure 26, Supplement 8
  56. 56. Geothermal Sites Worldwide Figure 25, Supplement 8
  57. 57. Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland Fig. 16-32, p. 425