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Chapter 40                                              Conservation                                                Biolog...
40.1 Conservation biology Conservation biology   Goal of conserving natural resources for this    generation and all fut...
Biodiversity & Extinction Biodiversity – variety of life on Earth    Between 10 and 50 million species may exist Of the...
Genetic & Ecosystem Diversity Genetic diversity    Variations among the members of a population    The more diverse a p...
Landscape diversity Landscape diversity    Ecosystems can be so fragmented that they are connected by     patches or str...
Medicinal & Agricultural Value Medicinal Value   Most prescription drugs in the United States were    originally derived...
Figure 40.3 Direct value of diverse wildlife (Cont.)                                                       40-7
Consumptive Use Value Consumptive Use Value   Most freshwater and marine harvests depend on the    catching of wild anim...
Ecological Value Biogeochemical Cycles Dispose of Waste    Biodiversity contributes to workings of water, carbon,     ph...
Figure 40.4 Tourists (inset) love to visit natural ecosystems, such as  this forest, which has indirect value because of i...
Habitat Loss & Extinctions Of 1,880 threatened and endangered species in  U.S., habitat loss was involved in 85% of cases...
Figure 40.5ACopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                  ...
Non-native Species Alien species – nonnative members brought  into new ecosystems   Introduced by      Colonization – E...
Figure 40.6A Kudzu, a vine from Japan, has displaced many native              plants in the southern United States        ...
40.7 Pollution contributes to extinctions Exs. of Pollution    Acid deposition – (or “Acid Rain”):Both sulfur dioxide   ...
Ozone & Organic Chemicals Ozone depletion – Ozone (O3) “shield” absorbs most of  the wavelengths of harmful ultraviolet (...
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnUjTHB1lvM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-gqJAsXiKQ
Figure 40.7 (Top) Normal coral reef. (Bottom) Bleaching of a coral reef. A temperature rise of only a few degrees causes c...
40.8 Overexploitation         contributes to extinctions Overexploitation occurs when the number of individuals  taken fr...
40.9 Disease contributes to extinctions Number of pathogens that cause diseases is on  the rise, threatening human health...
Figure 40.9The Harlequin toad is near extinction due to a fungal pathogen                                                 ...
40.10 Habitat preservation:             Keystone Species Keystone species   Species that influence the viability of a co...
Figure 40.10A Landscape preservation will help grizzly bears,               Ursus arctos horribilis, survive              ...
40.11 Restoration Ecology Restoration ecology – seeks scientific ways to  return ecosystems to former state   Three prin...
 The Everglades – southern Florida   Vast sawgrass prairie, interrupted occasionally by a    hardwood tree island   Beg...
Figure 40.11   A variety ofanimals make their   home in the   Everglades              40-30
Figure 40.12 These activities are characteristic of a sustainable society. Arrows point   inward to signify that these act...
40.13 Renewable Energy Sources Traditional renewable energy sources     Hydroelectric plants     Geothermal energy    ...
Figure 40.13A Traditional sources of renewable energy           Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission req...
Connecting the Concepts:           Chapter 40 Biodiversity includes genetic, ecosystem & landscape  diversity Organisms ...
Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40
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Bio 100 Chapter 40

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Bio 100 Chapter 40

  1. 1. Chapter 40 Conservation Biology Lecture OutlineCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. 40.1 Conservation biology Conservation biology  Goal of conserving natural resources for this generation and all future generations  Support of biodiversity for all species  Helps reduce extinctions of species 40-2
  3. 3. Biodiversity & Extinction Biodiversity – variety of life on Earth  Between 10 and 50 million species may exist Of the described species, nearly 1,200 in the United States and 40,000 worldwide are in danger of extinction Endangered species is in peril of immediate extinction throughout all or most of its range 40-3
  4. 4. Genetic & Ecosystem Diversity Genetic diversity  Variations among the members of a population  The more diverse a population, the more likely they survive Ecosystem diversity  Conserve species that play a critical role in an ecosystem  Saving an entire ecosystem can save many species 40-4
  5. 5. Landscape diversity Landscape diversity  Ecosystems can be so fragmented that they are connected by patches or strips of land that allow organisms to move from one ecosystem to the other Distribution of Biodiversity  Biodiversity is not evenly distributed throughout the biosphere  Some regions of the world are called biodiversity hotspots because they contain unusually large concentrations of species  Exs: Madagascar, Great Barrier Reef in Australia, rainforests 40-5
  6. 6. Medicinal & Agricultural Value Medicinal Value  Most prescription drugs in the United States were originally derived from living organisms  Valued at over $200 billion Agricultural Value  Crops such as wheat, corn, and rice are derived from wild plants  Biological pest controls (natural predators and parasites) are often preferable to chemical pesticides  Ladybugs, bats 40-6
  7. 7. Figure 40.3 Direct value of diverse wildlife (Cont.) 40-7
  8. 8. Consumptive Use Value Consumptive Use Value  Most freshwater and marine harvests depend on the catching of wild animals, such as crustaceans, mammals, and fishes  Provides a variety of other products that are sold in the marketplace worldwide, including wild fruits and vegetables, skins, fibers, beeswax, and seaweed  Many trees in the natural environment are still felled for their wood 40-8
  9. 9. Ecological Value Biogeochemical Cycles Dispose of Waste  Biodiversity contributes to workings of water, carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles Natural Areas Provide Fresh Water, Prevent Soil Erosion, and Regulate Climate  Water-holding capacity of forests and wetlands reduces the possibility of flooding  Forests improve climate because they take up carbon dioxide Ecotourism Is Enjoyed by Many  In U.S., people spend $4 billion each year on ecotourism 40-9
  10. 10. Figure 40.4 Tourists (inset) love to visit natural ecosystems, such as this forest, which has indirect value because of its water-holding capacity and its ability to take up carbon dioxide 40-10
  11. 11. Habitat Loss & Extinctions Of 1,880 threatened and endangered species in U.S., habitat loss was involved in 85% of cases  Other significant causes of extinction are introduction of alien species, pollution, overexploitation, and disease 40-11
  12. 12. Figure 40.5ACopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Macaws, Ara macao, and other species are endangered for the reasons graphed here Habitat loss Alien species Pollution Overexploitation Disease 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Species Affected © Gunter Ziesler/Peter Arnold/Photolibrary 40-12
  13. 13. Non-native Species Alien species – nonnative members brought into new ecosystems  Introduced by  Colonization – Europeans brought various familiar species with them when they colonized new places  Dandelions  Horticulture and agriculture – Aliens now taking over vast tracts of land have escaped from cultivated areas  Kudzu is a vine from Japan that the U.S. Department of Agriculture thought would help prevent soil erosion  Accidental transport – Global trade and travel accidentally bring many new species from one country to another  Zebra mussels 40-13
  14. 14. Figure 40.6A Kudzu, a vine from Japan, has displaced many native plants in the southern United States 40-14
  15. 15. 40.7 Pollution contributes to extinctions Exs. of Pollution  Acid deposition – (or “Acid Rain”):Both sulfur dioxide from power plants and nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust are converted to acids when they combine with water vapor in the atmosphere  Eutrophication – Lakes are also under stress due to over-enrichment (excess nitrogen and phosphorus)  Algae blooms occur and upon death, the decomposers break down the algae, but in so doing, they use up oxygen 40-15
  16. 16. Ozone & Organic Chemicals Ozone depletion – Ozone (O3) “shield” absorbs most of the wavelengths of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation so they do not strike the Earth  Severe ozone shield depletion can impair crop and tree growth and also kill plankton that sustain oceanic life Organic chemicals – Organic chemicals are used in pesticides, dishwashing detergents, cosmetics & plastics  Mimic the effects of hormones and, in that way, most likely harm wildlife Solid waste disposal – plastic floating in the ocean creates a danger to wildlife 40-16
  17. 17.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnUjTHB1lvM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-gqJAsXiKQ
  18. 18. Figure 40.7 (Top) Normal coral reef. (Bottom) Bleaching of a coral reef. A temperature rise of only a few degrees causes coral reefs to “bleach” and become lifeless. As the oceans warm and land recedes, coral reefs could move northward 40-22
  19. 19. 40.8 Overexploitation contributes to extinctions Overexploitation occurs when the number of individuals taken from a wild population is so great that the population becomes severely reduced in number  Overexploitation accounts for 17% of extinctions U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization tells us that humans have now overexploited 11 of 15 major oceanic fishing areas 40-23
  20. 20. 40.9 Disease contributes to extinctions Number of pathogens that cause diseases is on the rise, threatening human health as well as that of wildlife Pollution can weaken organisms so that they are more susceptible to disease  Example: Almost half of sea otter deaths along the coast of California are now due to infectious diseases 40-24
  21. 21. Figure 40.9The Harlequin toad is near extinction due to a fungal pathogen 40-25
  22. 22. 40.10 Habitat preservation: Keystone Species Keystone species  Species that influence the viability of a community, although their numbers may not be excessively high  Extinction of a keystone species can lead to other extinctions and loss of biodiversity  Ex: Grizzly bears in northwestern US and Canada  Berry seed distribution, control populations of other animals  Otters  Keep populations of other species in check  Bats  Essential pollinators 40-26
  23. 23. Figure 40.10A Landscape preservation will help grizzly bears, Ursus arctos horribilis, survive 40-27
  24. 24. 40.11 Restoration Ecology Restoration ecology – seeks scientific ways to return ecosystems to former state  Three principles have so far emerged  It is best to begin as soon as possible before remaining fragments of the original habitat are lost  Once the natural history is understood, it is best to use biological techniques that mimic natural processes to bring about restoration  Goal is sustainable development, ability of an ecosystem to maintain itself while providing services to human beings 40-28
  25. 25.  The Everglades – southern Florida  Vast sawgrass prairie, interrupted occasionally by a hardwood tree island  Beginning of 20th century, settlers began to drain land to grow crops  A restoration plan has been developed that will sustain the Everglades ecosystem, while maintaining the services society requires  The Everglades is to receive a more natural flow of water from Lake Okeechobee 40-29
  26. 26. Figure 40.11 A variety ofanimals make their home in the Everglades 40-30
  27. 27. Figure 40.12 These activities are characteristic of a sustainable society. Arrows point inward to signify that these activities increase the carrying capacity of the Earth Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. integrated pest multi-use farming management wetland, delta conservation preservation of water and restoration mass transit and recycling and energy-efficient composting transportation (farming): © Inga Spence/Visuals Unlimited; (wetland preservation):© Peter DeJong/AP Images; (recycling): © Jeffrey Greenberg/PhotResearchers, Inc.;(bus): Courtesy DaimlerChrysler;(drip irrigation): ©Inga Spence/Visuals Unlimited; (integrated pest management): Courtesy V.Jane Windsor, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture &Consumer Services 40-31
  28. 28. 40.13 Renewable Energy Sources Traditional renewable energy sources  Hydroelectric plants  Geothermal energy  Wind power  Solar energy In the future, biofuels may run power plants or your car 40-32
  29. 29. Figure 40.13A Traditional sources of renewable energy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hydropower dams Wind power Solar panels on roof-top Sun-tracking mirrors of a solar energy plant(dam): © David L. Pearson/Visuals Unlimited;(wind power): © S.K. Patrick/Visuals Unlimited; (solar panels, roof): © Argus 40-33 Foto Archiv/Peter Arnold/Photolibrary; (solar energyplant): © Gerald and Buff Corsi/Visuals Unlimited
  30. 30. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 40 Biodiversity includes genetic, ecosystem & landscape diversity Organisms have medicinal, agricultural & ecological value Habitat loss & introduction of non-native species are destructive Overexploitation, pollution & diseases contribute to extinctions Importance of developing renewable energy sources Habitat preservation & restoration = sustainable development 40-34

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