SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Bio 100 Chapter 24

W
wmk423
1 of 37
Download to read offline
Chapter 24
                                            Reproduction
                                              in Plants
                                      Lecture Outline



Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
 Alternation of generations
    Sporophyte
          Dominant in flowering plants
          Bears flowers – reproductive structure
          Diploid or 2n
          Produces haploid microspores and megaspores by meiosis
    Gametophyte
        Haploid or 1n
        Produces gametes
        Microspore undergoes mitosis and become a pollen grain, a male
         gametophyte
        Megaspore undergoes mitosis to become embryo sac, a female
         gametophyte

    Upon fertilization, the cycle returns to the 2n sporophyte


                                                                      24-2
 Plant Reproduction, cont.

    Once a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote becomes an embryo,
     still within an ovule

    Ovule develops into a seed, which contains the embryo and
     stored food surrounded by a seed coat

    Ovary becomes a fruit, which aids in dispersing the seeds

    When a seed germinates, a new sporophyte emerges and,
     through mitosis and growth, becomes a mature organism


 Sexual life cycle of flowering plants is adapted to land
                                                                 24-3
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

                                                                                                              Figure 24.1A
                                                                                                              Alternation of
                  8                                                                                           generations in
                                                                                                              flowering plants
          mi
             to
               s is

                                                                           anther
              7                      1 sporophyte
  seed

                                                                  2
                                          diploid (2n)                   ovule
 zygote  6                                                               ovary
FERTILIZATION                                                                              MEIOSIS

                                           haploid (n)


                                                                             3 microspore

egg                                                                                              megaspore
          sperm                                                                        m                  4
                                     5                                                  ito
                                                                                           si
                                                                                                s
                                     Male gametophyte
                                       (pollen grain)

                                   Female gametophyte                                                                     24-4
                                      (embryo sac)
 Flowers are unique to angiosperms
   Produce spores, protect gametophyte, attract
    pollinator, produce fruits

   Exs. of pollinators: birds, beetles, flies, butterflies,
    bats

 Typical flower
   4 whorls of modified leaves attached to a receptacle
     1.   Sepals – protect bud
     2.   Petals – attract pollinators
     3.   Stamens – Male Portion (anther & filament)
     4.   Carpel – Female Portion (stigma, style & ovary)
                                                               24-5
Figure 24.1B Anatomy of a flower
              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.


         stamen                                                                              carpel
        anther                                                                                stigma
        filament                                                                              style
                                                                                              ovary
          petal                                                                               ovule




         sepal                                                                     receptacle


                                                                                                             24-6

Recommended

Ch 10 Notes for website
Ch 10 Notes for websiteCh 10 Notes for website
Ch 10 Notes for websitepetersbiology
 
Ch 3: Water and Life
Ch 3: Water and LifeCh 3: Water and Life
Ch 3: Water and Lifeveneethmathew
 
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological MoleculesCh 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Moleculesveneethmathew
 
9.3 plant growth
9.3 plant growth9.3 plant growth
9.3 plant growthBob Smullen
 
IB Biology 9.1 transport in the xylem of plants
IB Biology 9.1 transport in the xylem of plantsIB Biology 9.1 transport in the xylem of plants
IB Biology 9.1 transport in the xylem of plantsBob Smullen
 
9.1 transport in the xylem of plants
9.1 transport in the xylem of plants9.1 transport in the xylem of plants
9.1 transport in the xylem of plantsBob Smullen
 
IB Diploma Program - Biology - Topic 1 Cell Biology
IB Diploma Program - Biology - Topic 1 Cell BiologyIB Diploma Program - Biology - Topic 1 Cell Biology
IB Diploma Program - Biology - Topic 1 Cell BiologyNandhini D P
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th edition
Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th editionPlant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th edition
Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th editionMae Canencia
 
06 a tour of the cell
06 a tour of the cell06 a tour of the cell
06 a tour of the cellkindarspirit
 
Biology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plants
Biology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plantsBiology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plants
Biology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plantsNirmala Josephine
 
1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions
1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions
1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questionsMiltiadis Kitsos
 
Leaf structure
Leaf structureLeaf structure
Leaf structure115944
 
Ch 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
Ch 14: Mendel and the Gene IdeaCh 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
Ch 14: Mendel and the Gene Ideaveneethmathew
 
Chapter 7 - Cellular Respiration
Chapter 7 - Cellular RespirationChapter 7 - Cellular Respiration
Chapter 7 - Cellular Respirationcavalierem
 
07 plant cells, tissues and organs
07 plant cells, tissues and organs07 plant cells, tissues and organs
07 plant cells, tissues and organsmrtangextrahelp
 
Plant structure, growth development
Plant structure, growth developmentPlant structure, growth development
Plant structure, growth developmentclarot16
 
Biology Form 5 Chapter 3 - Coordination & Response Part 6 - Plant Hormones
Biology Form 5 Chapter 3  - Coordination & Response  Part 6 - Plant HormonesBiology Form 5 Chapter 3  - Coordination & Response  Part 6 - Plant Hormones
Biology Form 5 Chapter 3 - Coordination & Response Part 6 - Plant HormonesNirmala Josephine
 
Ch 2: The Chemical Context of Life
Ch 2: The Chemical Context of LifeCh 2: The Chemical Context of Life
Ch 2: The Chemical Context of Lifeveneethmathew
 

What's hot (20)

Fruits
FruitsFruits
Fruits
 
Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th edition
Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th editionPlant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th edition
Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th edition
 
06 a tour of the cell
06 a tour of the cell06 a tour of the cell
06 a tour of the cell
 
Chapter 8 notes
Chapter 8 notesChapter 8 notes
Chapter 8 notes
 
20 lecture biotech
20 lecture biotech20 lecture biotech
20 lecture biotech
 
Biology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plants
Biology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plantsBiology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plants
Biology Form 5 Chapter 1 : 1.7- 1.8 transport in plants
 
1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions
1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions
1.2. Ultrastructure of cells - practise questions
 
Biology Lab Report 1
Biology Lab Report 1Biology Lab Report 1
Biology Lab Report 1
 
Leaf structure
Leaf structureLeaf structure
Leaf structure
 
Ch 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
Ch 14: Mendel and the Gene IdeaCh 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
Ch 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
 
Chapter 7 - Cellular Respiration
Chapter 7 - Cellular RespirationChapter 7 - Cellular Respiration
Chapter 7 - Cellular Respiration
 
07 plant cells, tissues and organs
07 plant cells, tissues and organs07 plant cells, tissues and organs
07 plant cells, tissues and organs
 
Plant transport
Plant transportPlant transport
Plant transport
 
Plant tissues
Plant tissuesPlant tissues
Plant tissues
 
Plant structure, growth development
Plant structure, growth developmentPlant structure, growth development
Plant structure, growth development
 
Biology Form 5 Chapter 3 - Coordination & Response Part 6 - Plant Hormones
Biology Form 5 Chapter 3  - Coordination & Response  Part 6 - Plant HormonesBiology Form 5 Chapter 3  - Coordination & Response  Part 6 - Plant Hormones
Biology Form 5 Chapter 3 - Coordination & Response Part 6 - Plant Hormones
 
Cell Division
Cell DivisionCell Division
Cell Division
 
Plant tissues
Plant tissuesPlant tissues
Plant tissues
 
Ch 2: The Chemical Context of Life
Ch 2: The Chemical Context of LifeCh 2: The Chemical Context of Life
Ch 2: The Chemical Context of Life
 
Intro to Genetics
Intro to GeneticsIntro to Genetics
Intro to Genetics
 

Viewers also liked

What Are the Parts of a Plant?
What Are the Parts of a Plant?What Are the Parts of a Plant?
What Are the Parts of a Plant?huntington_ed
 
Invertebrates
InvertebratesInvertebrates
Invertebratesjactanner
 
Intro to ecology and the scientific method
Intro to ecology and the scientific methodIntro to ecology and the scientific method
Intro to ecology and the scientific methodTransition Academy
 
Classification of tropical horticultural plants
Classification of tropical horticultural plantsClassification of tropical horticultural plants
Classification of tropical horticultural plantslemon muli
 
Seed Basics: Botany and Biology
Seed Basics: Botany and BiologySeed Basics: Botany and Biology
Seed Basics: Botany and BiologySeeds
 
Invertebrate Power Point Final
Invertebrate Power Point FinalInvertebrate Power Point Final
Invertebrate Power Point Finalpaige roti
 
Soybean breeding persentation final 1
Soybean breeding persentation final 1Soybean breeding persentation final 1
Soybean breeding persentation final 1Shukla Prabha Shankar
 
Chapter 3 biodiversity
Chapter 3 biodiversityChapter 3 biodiversity
Chapter 3 biodiversityIzudin Hasan
 
VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES
VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATESVERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES
VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATESreinater
 

Viewers also liked (13)

What Are the Parts of a Plant?
What Are the Parts of a Plant?What Are the Parts of a Plant?
What Are the Parts of a Plant?
 
Seed structure
Seed structureSeed structure
Seed structure
 
Invertebrates
InvertebratesInvertebrates
Invertebrates
 
Intro to ecology and the scientific method
Intro to ecology and the scientific methodIntro to ecology and the scientific method
Intro to ecology and the scientific method
 
Classification of tropical horticultural plants
Classification of tropical horticultural plantsClassification of tropical horticultural plants
Classification of tropical horticultural plants
 
Fruits
FruitsFruits
Fruits
 
Seed Basics: Botany and Biology
Seed Basics: Botany and BiologySeed Basics: Botany and Biology
Seed Basics: Botany and Biology
 
Invertebrate Power Point Final
Invertebrate Power Point FinalInvertebrate Power Point Final
Invertebrate Power Point Final
 
Soybean breeding persentation final 1
Soybean breeding persentation final 1Soybean breeding persentation final 1
Soybean breeding persentation final 1
 
Exoskeleton
ExoskeletonExoskeleton
Exoskeleton
 
Invertebrates slide show
Invertebrates slide showInvertebrates slide show
Invertebrates slide show
 
Chapter 3 biodiversity
Chapter 3 biodiversityChapter 3 biodiversity
Chapter 3 biodiversity
 
VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES
VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATESVERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES
VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES
 

Similar to Bio 100 Chapter 24

Bio 100 Chapter 18
Bio 100 Chapter 18Bio 100 Chapter 18
Bio 100 Chapter 18wmk423
 
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02Cleophas Rwemera
 
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02Cleophas Rwema
 
Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant ReproductionForm 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant ReproductionSook Yen Wong
 
12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra
12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra
12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar ChandraDilip Kumar Chandra
 
Chapter 26 lecture presentation
Chapter 26 lecture presentationChapter 26 lecture presentation
Chapter 26 lecture presentationMuhammad Tiwana
 
PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant ReproductionPMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant ReproductionSook Yen Wong
 
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01Cleophas Rwemera
 
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01Cleophas Rwema
 
Ch. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
Ch. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and BiotechnologyCh. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
Ch. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and BiotechnologyAndreDominic1
 
Bio 100 Chapter 21
Bio 100 Chapter 21Bio 100 Chapter 21
Bio 100 Chapter 21wmk423
 
Reproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdf
Reproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdfReproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdf
Reproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdfAlyssaSimon8
 

Similar to Bio 100 Chapter 24 (20)

Ch31 lecture
Ch31 lectureCh31 lecture
Ch31 lecture
 
Bio 100 Chapter 18
Bio 100 Chapter 18Bio 100 Chapter 18
Bio 100 Chapter 18
 
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
 
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
Chapter24 121109104114-phpapp02
 
Chap. 4 plant reproduction final
Chap. 4 plant reproduction finalChap. 4 plant reproduction final
Chap. 4 plant reproduction final
 
Chap. 4 plant reproduction final
Chap. 4 plant reproduction finalChap. 4 plant reproduction final
Chap. 4 plant reproduction final
 
Chap39
Chap39Chap39
Chap39
 
Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant ReproductionForm 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
 
12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra
12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra
12. Reproduction in plants by Dilip Kumar Chandra
 
Plantreproduction
PlantreproductionPlantreproduction
Plantreproduction
 
Chapter 26 lecture presentation
Chapter 26 lecture presentationChapter 26 lecture presentation
Chapter 26 lecture presentation
 
PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant ReproductionPMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction
 
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
 
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
Chapter18 121105001806-phpapp01
 
Ch. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
Ch. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and BiotechnologyCh. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
Ch. 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
 
Plant reproduction
Plant reproductionPlant reproduction
Plant reproduction
 
Bio 100 Chapter 21
Bio 100 Chapter 21Bio 100 Chapter 21
Bio 100 Chapter 21
 
Reproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdf
Reproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdfReproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdf
Reproduction-and-Development-in-Plants (1).pdf
 
Unit 23 Plant Reproduction
Unit 23 Plant ReproductionUnit 23 Plant Reproduction
Unit 23 Plant Reproduction
 
Unit 22 Plant Lifecycles
Unit 22 Plant LifecyclesUnit 22 Plant Lifecycles
Unit 22 Plant Lifecycles
 

More from wmk423

Bio 105 Chapter 23
Bio 105 Chapter 23Bio 105 Chapter 23
Bio 105 Chapter 23wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 22
Bio 105 Chapter 22Bio 105 Chapter 22
Bio 105 Chapter 22wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 39
Bio 100 Chapter 39Bio 100 Chapter 39
Bio 100 Chapter 39wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 38
Bio 100 Chapter 38Bio 100 Chapter 38
Bio 100 Chapter 38wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 36
Bio 100 Chapter 36Bio 100 Chapter 36
Bio 100 Chapter 36wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 22
Bio 100 Chapter 22Bio 100 Chapter 22
Bio 100 Chapter 22wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 21
Bio 105 Chapter 21Bio 105 Chapter 21
Bio 105 Chapter 21wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 20
Bio 105 Chapter 20Bio 105 Chapter 20
Bio 105 Chapter 20wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 19
Bio 105 Chapter 19Bio 105 Chapter 19
Bio 105 Chapter 19wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 18
Bio 105 Chapter 18Bio 105 Chapter 18
Bio 105 Chapter 18wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 17
Bio 105 Chapter 17Bio 105 Chapter 17
Bio 105 Chapter 17wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 16
Bio 105 Chapter 16Bio 105 Chapter 16
Bio 105 Chapter 16wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 15
Bio 105 Chapter 15Bio 105 Chapter 15
Bio 105 Chapter 15wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 16
Bio 100 Chapter 16Bio 100 Chapter 16
Bio 100 Chapter 16wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 17
Bio 100 Chapter 17Bio 100 Chapter 17
Bio 100 Chapter 17wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 13
Bio 100 Chapter 13Bio 100 Chapter 13
Bio 100 Chapter 13wmk423
 
Bio 100 Chapter 14
Bio 100 Chapter 14Bio 100 Chapter 14
Bio 100 Chapter 14wmk423
 
Bio 105 Chapter 14
Bio 105 Chapter 14Bio 105 Chapter 14
Bio 105 Chapter 14wmk423
 

More from wmk423 (20)

Bio 105 Chapter 23
Bio 105 Chapter 23Bio 105 Chapter 23
Bio 105 Chapter 23
 
Bio 105 Chapter 22
Bio 105 Chapter 22Bio 105 Chapter 22
Bio 105 Chapter 22
 
Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40Bio 100 Chapter 40
Bio 100 Chapter 40
 
Bio 100 Chapter 39
Bio 100 Chapter 39Bio 100 Chapter 39
Bio 100 Chapter 39
 
Bio 100 Chapter 38
Bio 100 Chapter 38Bio 100 Chapter 38
Bio 100 Chapter 38
 
Bio 100 Chapter 36
Bio 100 Chapter 36Bio 100 Chapter 36
Bio 100 Chapter 36
 
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
 
Bio 100 Chapter 22
Bio 100 Chapter 22Bio 100 Chapter 22
Bio 100 Chapter 22
 
Bio 105 Chapter 21
Bio 105 Chapter 21Bio 105 Chapter 21
Bio 105 Chapter 21
 
Bio 105 Chapter 20
Bio 105 Chapter 20Bio 105 Chapter 20
Bio 105 Chapter 20
 
Bio 105 Chapter 19
Bio 105 Chapter 19Bio 105 Chapter 19
Bio 105 Chapter 19
 
Bio 105 Chapter 18
Bio 105 Chapter 18Bio 105 Chapter 18
Bio 105 Chapter 18
 
Bio 105 Chapter 17
Bio 105 Chapter 17Bio 105 Chapter 17
Bio 105 Chapter 17
 
Bio 105 Chapter 16
Bio 105 Chapter 16Bio 105 Chapter 16
Bio 105 Chapter 16
 
Bio 105 Chapter 15
Bio 105 Chapter 15Bio 105 Chapter 15
Bio 105 Chapter 15
 
Bio 100 Chapter 16
Bio 100 Chapter 16Bio 100 Chapter 16
Bio 100 Chapter 16
 
Bio 100 Chapter 17
Bio 100 Chapter 17Bio 100 Chapter 17
Bio 100 Chapter 17
 
Bio 100 Chapter 13
Bio 100 Chapter 13Bio 100 Chapter 13
Bio 100 Chapter 13
 
Bio 100 Chapter 14
Bio 100 Chapter 14Bio 100 Chapter 14
Bio 100 Chapter 14
 
Bio 105 Chapter 14
Bio 105 Chapter 14Bio 105 Chapter 14
Bio 105 Chapter 14
 

Bio 100 Chapter 24

  • 1. Chapter 24 Reproduction in Plants Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 2.  Alternation of generations  Sporophyte  Dominant in flowering plants  Bears flowers – reproductive structure  Diploid or 2n  Produces haploid microspores and megaspores by meiosis  Gametophyte  Haploid or 1n  Produces gametes  Microspore undergoes mitosis and become a pollen grain, a male gametophyte  Megaspore undergoes mitosis to become embryo sac, a female gametophyte  Upon fertilization, the cycle returns to the 2n sporophyte 24-2
  • 3.  Plant Reproduction, cont.  Once a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote becomes an embryo, still within an ovule  Ovule develops into a seed, which contains the embryo and stored food surrounded by a seed coat  Ovary becomes a fruit, which aids in dispersing the seeds  When a seed germinates, a new sporophyte emerges and, through mitosis and growth, becomes a mature organism  Sexual life cycle of flowering plants is adapted to land 24-3
  • 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 24.1A Alternation of 8 generations in flowering plants mi to s is anther 7 1 sporophyte seed 2 diploid (2n) ovule zygote 6 ovary FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS haploid (n) 3 microspore egg megaspore sperm m 4 5 ito si s Male gametophyte (pollen grain) Female gametophyte 24-4 (embryo sac)
  • 5.  Flowers are unique to angiosperms  Produce spores, protect gametophyte, attract pollinator, produce fruits  Exs. of pollinators: birds, beetles, flies, butterflies, bats  Typical flower  4 whorls of modified leaves attached to a receptacle 1. Sepals – protect bud 2. Petals – attract pollinators 3. Stamens – Male Portion (anther & filament) 4. Carpel – Female Portion (stigma, style & ovary) 24-5
  • 6. Figure 24.1B Anatomy of a flower Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. stamen carpel anther stigma filament style ovary petal ovule sepal receptacle 24-6
  • 7. Figure 24.1C b. Azaleas are eudicots Eudicots have flower parts in fours or fives (p = petal; s = sepal) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. p3 p2 carpel stamen p4 petal p1 p5 b. a: © Farley Bridges; b: © Pat Pendarvis 24-7
  • 8. Figure 24.1D A corn plant is monoecious (flowers that are only male or only female a. The staminate flowers produce pollen that is carried by wind to b. the carpellate flowers, where ears of corn develop. 24-8
  • 9. Figure 24B Butterflies, birds, and bats are adapted for acquiring nectar from certain flowers. Flowers that attract beetles produce much pollen and those that attract flies have 24-9 the smell of rotting flesh
  • 10.  Sexual reproduction involves 1. Production of pollen grains (male gametophytes) in the anthers of stamens 2. Production of an embryo sac (female gametophyte) in an ovule located within the ovary of a carpel  Pollination  Pollen transferred from anther to stigma so an egg within female gametophyte is fertilized  Most angiosperms use animals to carry out pollination 24-10
  • 11. Figure 24.2A Life cycle of flowering plants Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stamen Carpel anther stigma filament style ovary ovule Mitosis Sporophyte stigma Carpel fruit (mature ovary) style seed Anther (mature ovule) ovary seedcoat Ovule pollen sac embryo endosperm (3n) microspore megaspore Seed mother cell mothe rcell diploid (2n) MEIOSIS MEIOSIS 24-11
  • 12. Figure 24.2A Life cycle of flowering plants (cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. MEIOSIS haploid (n) Pollen grain Microspores Mi tos (all survive) is Megaspores sperm and pollen POLLINATION (one survives) polar nuclei tube fuse sperm generative cell sperm and (mature male egg fuse gametophyte) degenerating egg megaspores DOUBLE FERTILIZATION Mi Ovule tos is Embryosac (mature female gametophyte) 24-12
  • 13. Figure 24.2B Wind pollination of a grass, with SEM of pollen grains 24-13
  • 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. nectar guides As we see it As a bee sees it (both): © Heather Angel/Natural Visions  Coevolution  As one species changes, the other changes too, so that in the end, the two species are suited to one another 24-14
  • 15.  Double fertilization is unique in angiosperms  Results in not only a zygote but also a food source for the developing zygote  Endosperm – nutritive tissue developing embryonic sporophyte uses as energy source  Mature seed contains  Embryo – will develop into the plant  Stored food – endosperm  Seed coat – develops from ovule wall for protection 24-15
  • 16. Figure 24.2D The parts of a bean seed, a eudicot Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Seed coat immature leaves Embryo hypocotyl radicle Cotyledon (stored food) (right): © Dwight Kuhn 24-16
  • 17. 24.4 The ovary becomes a fruit, which assists in sporophyte dispersal  Fruit = a ripened ovary  Protects and helps disperse the plant (“marketing for the seeds”) 24-17
  • 18. 24.4 The ovary becomes a fruit, which assists in sporophyte dispersal  Fleshy Versus Dry Fruits  Dry fruits  Exs: peas, maples  Fleshy fruits  Exs: apples, strawberries, tomatoes, corn 24-18
  • 19. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. pea flower pea pod pericarp stigma (fruit wall) ovary wall seed ovule 1 Pea pods are a dry, dehiscent (can open to reveal seeds) fruit. 24-19
  • 20. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. seed covered by pericarp wing 2 Maple tree fruits are dry, in dehiscent. © James Mauseth 24-20
  • 21.  Simple Versus Aggregate & Multiple Fruits  Simple fruits are derived from the simple ovary of a single carpel Exs: grapes, tomatoes  Accessory fruits form from other flower parts in addition to ovary Exs: strawberry, apple  Aggregate and multiple fruits are examples of compound fruits derived from several individual ovaries  Strawberry – aggregate fruit, each ovary becomes a one- seeded fruit called an achene  Pineapple – a multiple fruit derived from many individual flowers, each with its own carpel 24-21
  • 22. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. one fruit flesh is from receptacle 3 Strawberries are a fleshy aggregate fruit. © Corbis RF 24-22
  • 23. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. one fruit fruits from ovaries of one flower 4 Raspberries are an aggregate fruit. © C Squared Studios/Getty RF 24-23
  • 24. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. fruits from ovaries of many flowers one fruit 5 Pineapple is a multiple fruit. 24-24 © BJ Miller/Biological Photo Service
  • 25.  Germination – seeds form into a seedling  Doesn’t usually take place until there is sufficient water, warmth, and oxygen to sustain growth  For seeds, dormancy is the time during which no growth occurs, even though conditions may be favorable for growth 24-25
  • 26. Figure 24.5A Structure and germination of a common bean seed Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Embryo: epicotyl- plumule Cotyledon (two) hypocotyl radicle Seed coat Cotyledon (stored food) Bean seed 24-26 (right): © Ed Reschke
  • 27. Figure 24.5A Structure and germination of a common bean seed (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. first true leaves (primary leaves) epicotyl with red cotyledons seed cotyledons coat (two) hypocotyl hypocotyl secondary root primary primary root root 24-27
  • 28. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 24.5B Structure and pericarp germination of a Seed coat corn kernel endosperm cotyledon (one) coleoptile Embryo: plumule radicle coleorhiza Corn kernel true leaf first leaf coleoptile prop root coleoptile radicle adventitious root primary root coleorhiza 24-28 (Top right): © James Mauseth
  • 29. 24.6 Plants have various ways of reproducing asexually  Also called vegetative reproduction  Type of cloning – offspring exactly like parent  Plants can grow from axillary buds of above or below ground stems  Rhizome – underground horizontal stem (iris, many grasses)  Tuber – enlarged portion of rhizome (potato)  Corm – bulbous underground stems (onion) 24-29
  • 30. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. stolon Asexually produced offspring © G.I. Bernard/Animals Animals Figure 24.6 Asexual reproduction in plants 24-30
  • 31. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Rhizome Tuber Corm rhizome branch papery axillary leaves adventitious roots bud corm axillary bud rhizome tuber adventitious roots Figure 24.6 Asexual reproduction in plants (cont.) 24-31
  • 32. 24.7 Cloning of plants in tissue culture assists agriculture  Tissue culture  Growth of a tissue in an artificial liquid or on agar  3 methods  Somatic embryogenesis – technique that uses hormones to cause plant tissues to generate small masses of cells  Meristem tissue culture – many new shoot tips from a single shoot tip  Anther tissue culture – produces haploid plantlets or chromosomal doubling chemically induced 24-32
  • 33. Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a. Protoplasts, naked cells b. Cell wall regeneration (both): Courtesy Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Koop, from Plant Cell Reports, 17:601-604 24-33
  • 34. Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. c. Aggregates of cells d. Callus, undifferentiated mass (both): Courtesy Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Koop, from Plant Cell Reports, 17:601-604 24-34
  • 35. Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. e. Somatic embryo f. Plantlet (both): Courtesy Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Koop, from Plant Cell Reports, 17:601-604 24-35
  • 36. Figure 24.7B Producing whole plants from meristem tissue 24-36
  • 37. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 24  Life, as we know it, would not be possible without vascular plants  Although we now live in an industrialized society, we are still dependent on plants and have put them to many more uses  We grow plants for food, shelter, beauty and substances for industry  Half of all pharmaceutical drugs have their origin in plants 24-37