Chapter 17                                                 Evolution of                                                   ...
Protists are a diverse group Protist – refers to mostly unicellular eukaryotes  that are not animals, fungi or plants Us...
Protists are a diverse group Different modes of nutrition   Heterotrophic:   Autotrophic: Protists are of great ecolog...
Figure 17.2A Protist diversity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display....
Figure 17.2A Protist diversity (Cont.)                Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for ...
Figure 17.2A Protist diversity (Cont.)                                                              Copyright © The McGraw...
Protists that move via flagella Flagella = long tail used for locomotion Ex: Euglena spp.     Freshwater unicellular or...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
 Parasitic flagellates    Ex: Trypanosomes       Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly,        ...
Amoebas move by pseudopods Pseudopods – extensions that form when  cytoplasm streams in a particular direction Ex: Amoeb...
Figure 17.4A Amoeba proteus, an amoeboid              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for ...
Figure 17.4B Foraminiferans, such as Globigerina, built the WhiteCliffs of Dover, England                                 ...
Figure 17.4C Radiolarian tests                                 17-13
Ciliates Ciliates   Approximately 8,000 species of unicellular protists   Move by means of cilia   Most structurally c...
Figure 17.5A Paramecium, a ciliate                       Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required f...
Figure 17.5C Stentor, a ciliate              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduct...
Apicomplexans are nonmotile Apicomplexans   Have an apical complex of microtubules   3900 species of nonmotile, parasit...
Figure 17.6 Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, the cause of one type ofmalaria                              Copyright © The M...
17.7 The diversity of protists includes      slime molds and water molds Plasmodial Slime Molds   Exist as a plasmodium,...
Figure 17.7 Life cycle of a plasmodial slime mold             Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission requi...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
17.7 The diversity of protists includes      slime molds and water molds Water Molds   Usually live in water      Form ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
17.8 Aquatic Algae Examples Diatoms   Most numerous unicellular algae in the oceans and    freshwater environments   Si...
Figure 17.8A Cyclotella, a diatom. Diatoms live in “glass houses”because the outer visible valve, which fits over the smal...
Aquatic Algae Exs., cont. Dinoflagellates   Typically, the organism has two flagella   Important source of food for sma...
Figure 17.8B Gonyaulax, a dinoflagellate. This dinoflagellate isresponsible for the poisonous “red tide” that sometimes oc...
 Red algae   Some grow attached to rocks in the intertidal zone   Produce agar, a gelatin-like product used    commerci...
Figure 17.9A Chondrus crispus, a red alga                                            17-29
 Brown algae   Range from small forms with simple filaments to    large, multicellular forms that may reach 100 m in    ...
Figure 17.9B Fucus, orCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.        ...
 Green algae   Not plants – do not develop from a protected embryo   Not always green      Some have an orange, red, o...
Figure 17.10B Cell anatomy and conjugation in Spirogyra, afilamentous green alga  Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, I...
Figure 17.10C Volvox, a colonial green alga   Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduc...
Figure 17.10D Ulva, a multicellular alga      Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduc...
Figure 17.10E Chara, a stonewort                                                                            Stonewort    ...
Connecting the Concepts:           Chapter 17 The protists are a diverse collection of  eukaryotes. All possible forms o...
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Bio 100 Chapter 17

  1. 1. Chapter 17 Evolution of Protists Lecture OutlineCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Protists are a diverse group Protist – refers to mostly unicellular eukaryotes that are not animals, fungi or plants Usually aquatic but can live in moist locations in land Size ranges from microscopic to 200 meters Asexual reproduction by mitosis is common among protists, but there are exceptions 17-2
  3. 3. Protists are a diverse group Different modes of nutrition  Heterotrophic:  Autotrophic: Protists are of great ecological importance  Major component of plankton  Recycle nutrients 17-3
  4. 4. Figure 17.2A Protist diversity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display. Nonionina, a foraminiferan (foraminiferan): © Astrid & Hanns-Frieder Michler/Photo Researchers, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.contractile vacuole Bossiella, a coralline red alga (red alga): © Daniel V. Gotschall/Visuals Unlimited digestive vacuolesBlepharisma, a ciliate with visible vacuoles (ciliate): © Eric Grave/Photo Researchers, Inc 17-4
  5. 5. Figure 17.2A Protist diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Assorted fossilized diatoms (diatoms): © M.I. Walker/Photo Researchers, Inc 17-5
  6. 6. Figure 17.2A Protist diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display. contractile vacuole Ceratium, an armored dinoflagellate digestive vacuoles (dinoflagellate): © D.P. Wilson/Photo Researchers, Inc Amoeba proteus, a protozoan Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display. (protozoan): © Michael Abbey/Visuals Unlimited Acetabularia, a single-celled green alga (green alga): © Linda L. Sims/Visuals Unlimited 17-6
  7. 7. Protists that move via flagella Flagella = long tail used for locomotion Ex: Euglena spp.  Freshwater unicellular organisms  1/3 have chloroplasts  2 flagella  Eyespot – photoreceptor  Contractile vacuole 17-7
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 17.3 long flagellum Euglena, ashort flagellum eyespot photoreceptor flagellatecontractile carbohydratevacuole granule nucleolus nucleus pellicle band pyrenoid chloroplast eyespot contractile vacuole long flagellum nucleus LM 200× 17-8 (Bottom): © Michael Abbey/Visuals Unlimited
  9. 9.  Parasitic flagellates  Ex: Trypanosomes  Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, is the cause of African sleeping sickness in humans  Trypanosoma cruzi, causes Chagas disease in humans in Central and South America  Leishmaniasis, characterized by skin sores and in some cases damage to the internal organs, is caused by a trypanosome transmitted by sand flies  Giardia lamblia cysts transmitted by contaminated water causing severe diarrhea  Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted flagellate – most common cause of vaginitis in the US 17-9
  10. 10. Amoebas move by pseudopods Pseudopods – extensions that form when cytoplasm streams in a particular direction Ex: Amoeboas  Part of zooplankton  Use pseudopods to move and to engulf their food  Phagocytize their prey  Digestion occurs in food vacuole  Reproduce asexually  Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery in humans 17-10
  11. 11. Figure 17.4A Amoeba proteus, an amoeboid Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. food vacuole nucleolus nucleus contractile vacuole mitochondrion cytoplasm plasma membrane pseudopod 17-11
  12. 12. Figure 17.4B Foraminiferans, such as Globigerina, built the WhiteCliffs of Dover, England 17-12
  13. 13. Figure 17.4C Radiolarian tests 17-13
  14. 14. Ciliates Ciliates  Approximately 8,000 species of unicellular protists  Move by means of cilia  Most structurally complex and specialized of all protozoans  Majority are free-living  Ex: Paramecium 17-14
  15. 15. Figure 17.5A Paramecium, a ciliate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. trichocyst contractile cilia vacuole (partially full) food vacuole macronucleus oral groove micronucleus anal pore gullet contractile vacuole (full) pellicle © CABISCO/Phototake 17-15
  16. 16. Figure 17.5C Stentor, a ciliate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. oral groove contractile vacuole food vacuoles cilia 17-16 200 µm © Eric Grave/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  17. 17. Apicomplexans are nonmotile Apicomplexans  Have an apical complex of microtubules  3900 species of nonmotile, parasitic, sporeforming protozoans  Pneumocystis carinii causes the type of pneumonia seen primarily in AIDS patients  Malaria kills 1 million people each year  4 parasites in genus Plasmodium  Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, particularly in cats, but also in people  In pregnant women, the parasite can infect the fetus and cause birth defects 17-17
  18. 18. Figure 17.6 Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, the cause of one type ofmalaria Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. female gamete male gamete food canal Sexual phase in mosquito zygote sporozoite 1 In the gut of a female Anopheles mosquito, gametes fuse, and the zygote undergoes many divisions salivary to produce sporozoites, which glands migrate to her salivary gland. 2 When the mosquito bites a human, the sporozoites pass from the mosquito salivary glands into the bloodstream and then the liver of the host. 3 Asexual spores 6 Some merozoites (merozoites) produced become gametocytes, in liver cells which enter the blood- enter the blood- liver stream. If taken up stream and then the cell by a mosquito, they red blood cells, where become gametes. gametocytes they feed as trophozoites. Asexual phase in humans 4 When the red blood 5 Merozoites and cells rupture, merozoites toxins pour invade and reproduce into the blood- asexually inside stream when new red blood the red blood cells. cells rupture. 17-18
  19. 19. 17.7 The diversity of protists includes slime molds and water molds Plasmodial Slime Molds  Exist as a plasmodium, a diploid, multinucleated, cytoplasmic mass Ex: Physarum spp. 17-19
  20. 20. Figure 17.7 Life cycle of a plasmodial slime mold Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Plasmodium, Physarum Sporangia, Hemitrichia 1 mm (plasmodium): © CABISCO/Visuals Unlimited; (sporangia): © V. Duran/Visuals Unlimited 17-20
  21. 21. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 17.7 Life cycle of a plasmodial slime mold (cont.) mature zygote plasmodium sporangia formation begins diploid (2n)FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS haploid (n) amoeboid cells germinating or spore flagellated cells 17-21
  22. 22. 17.7 The diversity of protists includes slime molds and water molds Water Molds  Usually live in water  Form furry growths when they parasitize fishes or insects and decompose remains  Some water molds live on land and parasitize insects and plants  Water mold Phytophthora infestans was responsible for the 1840s potato famine in Ireland  Water molds have a filamentous body as do fungi  But their cell walls are largely composed of cellulose 17-22
  23. 23. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. dead insect filaments of water mold © James Richardson/Visuals Unlimited 17-23
  24. 24. 17.8 Aquatic Algae Examples Diatoms  Most numerous unicellular algae in the oceans and freshwater environments  Significant part of the phytoplankton  Photosynthetic organisms suspended in the water  Serve as an important source of food and oxygen for heterotrophs 17-24
  25. 25. Figure 17.8A Cyclotella, a diatom. Diatoms live in “glass houses”because the outer visible valve, which fits over the smaller inner valve,contains silica 17-25
  26. 26. Aquatic Algae Exs., cont. Dinoflagellates  Typically, the organism has two flagella  Important source of food for small animals in the ocean  Some are symbionts in the bodies of invertebrates  Corals usually contain dinoflagellates  Some undergo a population explosion and cause “red tides” 17-26
  27. 27. Figure 17.8B Gonyaulax, a dinoflagellate. This dinoflagellate isresponsible for the poisonous “red tide” that sometimes occurs alongthe coasts Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. cellulose plate transverse flagellum longitudinal flagellum 2 µm © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc. 17-27
  28. 28.  Red algae  Some grow attached to rocks in the intertidal zone  Produce agar, a gelatin-like product used commercially and in the laboratory  Carrageenan is an emulsifying agent (causes fat to disperse in water) for the production of chocolate and cosmetics 17-28
  29. 29. Figure 17.9A Chondrus crispus, a red alga 17-29
  30. 30.  Brown algae  Range from small forms with simple filaments to large, multicellular forms that may reach 100 m in length Multicellular forms of green, red, and brown algae are called seaweeds, a common term for any large, complex alga 17-30
  31. 31. Figure 17.9B Fucus, orCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. rockweed, a brown alga blade air bladder stipe holdfast © Walter Hodge/Peter Arnold/Photolibrary 17-31
  32. 32.  Green algae  Not plants – do not develop from a protected embryo  Not always green  Some have an orange, red, or rust color  Inhabit a variety of environments  Oceans, freshwater, snowbanks, bark of trees, backs of turtles  Lichen-symbiotic algal relationship with fungi 17-32
  33. 33. Figure 17.10B Cell anatomy and conjugation in Spirogyra, afilamentous green alga Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.  Spirogyra  Filamentaous cell wall green alga chloroplast  Filament – vacuole end-to-end chain of cells nucleus zygote  During sexual cytoplasm reproduction pyrenoid undergoes conjugation Conjugation 20 mm © M.I. Walker/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. 17-33
  34. 34. Figure 17.10C Volvox, a colonial green alga Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.  Volvox  Colony  Loose association of independent cells  Cells cooperate in beating of flagella  Some cells specialized for reproduction 40 mm  Daughter colonies 15 mm daughter colony Vegetative cells (lower right): © Cabisco/Visuals Unlimited 17-34
  35. 35. Figure 17.10D Ulva, a multicellular alga Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.  Ulva  Multicellular green alga  Sea lettuce  Thallus (body) is two cells thick  Alternation of generations life cycleUlva,several individuals One individuals © William E. Ferguson 17-35
  36. 36. Figure 17.10E Chara, a stonewort  Stonewort Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.  Encrusted with calcium carbonate deposits  Main axis a branch single file of cells  Haploid life main axis cycle  DNA suggests node these areChara,several individuals One individual most closely © Dr. John D. Cunningham/Visuals Unlimited to plants 17-36
  37. 37. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 17 The protists are a diverse collection of eukaryotes. All possible forms of reproduction and nutrition are present among the protists. Each groups of protists specializes in a particular type of reproduction and a particular method of acquiring needed nutrients 17-37

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