Romanticism in the Lives and Works of Romantic Composers
Essential Question: How were the ideals of Romanticism evident in the lives and works of composers of the Romantic Era?
Ideals Being Expressed <ul><li>Fascination with exotic lands </li></ul><ul><li>A growing sense of nationalism </li></ul><u...
Exoticism in Music
F élicien David (1810-1876)
Origin and Travels Abroad <ul><li>Born in Cadenet on April 13 th , 1810 </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in music at a very yo...
Influential Works <ul><li>Le d ésert  (1844) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three movements describing a desert storm, a prayer to ...
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
Origin and Involvement in Italian Unification <ul><li>Born in Roncole on October 10 th , 1813 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always...
Influential Works <ul><li>Nabucodonsor  (1841) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First example of Verdi having non-Italian inspiration...
Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
Origin and Involvement in the Franco-Prussian War <ul><li>Born in Paris on October 25 th , 1838 </li></ul><ul><li>Won the ...
Influential Works <ul><li>Chants de Pyrénées </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About the Pyrenees mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Conclusions on Exoticism in Romantic Music <ul><li>Imperialistic desires to westernize foreign lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Nationalism in Music
Fr édéric Chopin (1810-1849)
Origin and Personality  <ul><li>Born in Zelazowa Wola on March 1 st , 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the greatest Polis...
Revolutionary Étude  (1831) <ul><li>The November Uprising in Warsaw in 1830 broke out three weeks after Chopin left Warsaw...
Revolutionary Étude  (1831) (continued) <ul><li>Chopin wanted to go back and protect his family and his country </li></ul>...
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
Origin and Personality <ul><li>Born in Votkinsk on May 7 th , 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>Studied at the St. Petersburg conserv...
Tchaikovsky’s Homosexuality <ul><li>Source of Tchaikovsky’s insecurity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was afraid anyone would find ...
Slavonic March  (1876) <ul><li>Tchaikovsky was asked to write a piece in memoriam of Christian slavs that had recently bee...
1812 Overture  (1880) <ul><li>Based on Russia’s defeat of Napoleon’s army at the Battle of Borodino </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Conclusions on Nationalism in Romantic Music <ul><li>Tragic events inspired composers to write pieces honoring the victims...
Individual Power and Revolutionary Fervor  in Music
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Origin and Personal Life <ul><li>Born in Bonn, baptized on December 17 th , 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Went to Vienna in 1787 ...
Sketchbook Method <ul><li>Beethoven was very meticulous when writing his music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote all his music i...
Beethoven vs. Aristocracy <ul><li>Beethoven relied heavily on noble patronage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These patrons were hor...
Beethoven vs. Aristocracy (continued) <ul><li>Frau von Bernhard, one of Beethoven’s piano students, had this to say about ...
Beethoven and Napoleon <ul><li>Beethoven admired many aspects of Napoleon’s traits and accomplishments including: </li></u...
Beethoven and Napoleon (continued) <ul><li>When asked in 1802 to write a sonata about the events and ideas of the French R...
Symphony No. 3:  Sinfonia Eroica  (1806) <ul><li>Originally dedicated to Napoleon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beethoven tore up ...
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Origin and Personal Beliefs <ul><li>Born in Leipzig on May 22 nd , 1813 </li></ul><ul><li>Had strong anti-Semitic opinions...
Hitler and Wagner’s Music Hitler would play some of Wagner’s music during his speeches to his Nazi followers
Involvement in Revolution: Student Revolt in Leipzig <ul><li>Wagner was obsessed with the French Revolution from reading h...
Involvement in Revolution: Uprisings of 1849 in Dresden <ul><li>An abandonment of a constitutional monarchy under Fredrich...
Wagner and Nietzsche <ul><li>Nietzsche admired Wagner, believing he embodied his “superman theory” (society reaching perfe...
Lohengrin  (1850) <ul><li>Opera based on an old medieval story of a knight of the holy grail named Lohengrin and his conqu...
Conclusions on Individualism in Romantic Music <ul><li>Obsession with revolutions affected the way in which composers oper...
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This powerpoint investigates the influences of the Romantic age as seen through music.

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  • Boynick, Matt. &amp;quot;Richard Wagner (1813-1883).&amp;quot; Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 &lt;http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html&gt;. Finney, Theodore M. A History of Music . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935. 485-498.
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  • Wagner, Richard. My Life . Ed. Mary Whittall. Trans. Andrew Gray. New York: Da Capo P, 1992. 391-404.
  • Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Company, 1941. 875-882.
  • Boynick, Matt. &amp;quot;Richard Wagner (1813-1883).&amp;quot; Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 &lt;http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html&gt;. Budapest Symphony Orchestra. Lohengrin: Prelude . Delta Music Inc, 1998. Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Company, 1941. 875-882.
  • Works Cited &amp;quot;A Classical Violin.&amp;quot; Cartoon. Webweaver&apos;s Free Clipart . 24 May 2007 &lt;http://www.webweaver.nu/clipart/img/entertainment/music/violin.png&gt;. Boynick, Matt. &amp;quot;Ludwig Can Beethoven (1770-1827).&amp;quot; Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 &lt;http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/beethoven.html&gt;. Boynick, Matt. &amp;quot;Richard Wagner (1813-1883).&amp;quot; Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 &lt;http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html&gt;. Budapest Symphony Orchestra. Lohengrin: Prelude . Delta Music Inc, 1998. Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 1812 Overture, Op. 49 . Rec. 7 Jan. 1956. John Pfeiffer. David. Napoleon At the St. Bernard Pass . 1803. Paintings to Go . 28 May 2007 &lt;http://www.paintingstogo.com/david/napoleon.jpg&gt;. Delacroix, Eugène. Liberty Leading the People . 1830. Art History Club . 29 May 2007 &lt;http://www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/upload/thumb/4/4e/400px-Liberty_Leading_the_People.jpg&gt;. Delacroix, Eugène. The Sultan of Morocco and His Entourage . 1845. ABC Gallery . 27 May 2007 &lt;http://www.abcgallery.com/D/delacroix/delacroix25.JPG&gt;. Einstein, Alfred. Music in the Romantic Era . New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Company, 1947. 14-317. Felicien-Cesar David . NNDB tracking the entire world . Soylent Communications. 1 June 2007 &lt;http://www.nndb.com/people/092/000096801/felicien-david-1-sized.jpg&gt;. Ferguson, Donald N. A History of Musical Thought . New York: F.S. Crofts and Company, 1935. 337-346. Finney, Theodore M. A History of Music . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935. 407-498. Georges Bizet . Composers . Naxos Digital Services. 29 May 2007 &lt;http://www.naxos.com/images/paintings/Bizet/Bizet1.jpg&gt;. Giuseppe Verdi . Italian Language and Culture for foreigners . Eurocentres. 2 June 2007 &lt;http://www.ecfi.it/corsi_speciali/verdi1.jpg&gt;. Hitler Speech . Opera Chic . University of San Diego. 4 June 2007 &lt;http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/filmnotes/images/triumph5.jpg&gt;. Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Celeste Aida . Rec. Dec.-Jan. 1999. Clive Bennet, 2000. Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Company, 1941. 750-951. Lockwood, Lewis. The Music and the Life of Beethoven . New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Company, 2003. 69-214. Ludwig Van Beethoven . Composers . Naxos Digital Services. 24 May 2007 &lt;http://www.naxos.com/images/paintings/Beethoven/Beethoven.jpg&gt;. Ludwig Van Beethoven, String Quartet Op. 132 in a Minor, Measure 1-12 . In Celebration of Ludwig van Beethoven’s 225th Birthday . Schiller Institute. 3 June 2007 &lt;http://www.schillerinstitute.org/graphics/fidelio/beethoven-225/fig1.jpg&gt;. Orchestra of the Theatre National De L&apos;Opera. L&apos;Amour Est Un Oiseau Rebelle . 0EMI Records Ltd, 1970. Philharmonia Baroque. Sinfonia Eroica . Rec. 2005. Portrait of Frederic Chopin . 18th &amp; 19th Century Western Art Music . Dartmouth College. 3 June 2007 &lt;http://www.dartmouth.edu/~music33/Mus33projects/nodes/Chopin/images/chopin4.jpg&gt;. &amp;quot;Revolutionary&amp;quot; Etude Op. 10, No. 12 . Rec. 1977. The Reader&apos;s Digest Association, Inc, 1977. Richard Wagner . Great Scores . Great Scores Ltd. 1 June 2007 &lt;http://www.greatscores.com/assets/Biographies/Richardwagner1.jpg&gt;. Schonberg, Harold C. The Lives of Great Composers . New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Company, 1970. 164-364. Tchaikovsky . The Concerto of Concerti . James Wegg &amp; Associates. 2 June 2007 &lt;http://www.jamesweggreview.org/images/liveperform/orchestra_2004_nsa_04_25_Tchaikowsky_image_04.jpg&gt;. Turner, Joseph M. The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken Up . 1839. Fine Art Prints on Demand . 3 June 2007 &lt;http://www.fineartprintsondemand.com/images/prints/400/444.jpg&gt;. Tyrrel, John, and Stanley Sadie, eds. &amp;quot;Felicien David.&amp;quot; The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 2nd ed. 29 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Tyrrel, John, and Stanley Sadie, eds. &amp;quot;Georges Bizet.&amp;quot; The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 29 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Tyrrel, John, and Stanley Sadie, eds. &amp;quot;Giuseppe Verdi.&amp;quot; The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 2nd ed. 29 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Wagner, Richard. My Life . Ed. Mary Whittall. Trans. Andrew Gray. New York: Da Capo P, 1992. 39-739.
  • Romantic composers samk

    1. 1. Romanticism in the Lives and Works of Romantic Composers
    2. 2. Essential Question: How were the ideals of Romanticism evident in the lives and works of composers of the Romantic Era?
    3. 3. Ideals Being Expressed <ul><li>Fascination with exotic lands </li></ul><ul><li>A growing sense of nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of an individual having unlimited power </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in emotion and drama in art </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of an artist as a true philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Obsession with the French Revolution and other political uprisings </li></ul>
    4. 4. Exoticism in Music
    5. 5. F élicien David (1810-1876)
    6. 6. Origin and Travels Abroad <ul><li>Born in Cadenet on April 13 th , 1810 </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in music at a very young age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very religious, first compositions were church music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined a French socialist group named the Saint-Simonians in 1831 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group was outlawed in 1832 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David went with some members to Egypt to preach Saint-Simonian gospel in 1833 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote piano music while abroad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Returned in June of 1835 with a fascination about the Middle East </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Influential Works <ul><li>Le d ésert (1844) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three movements describing a desert storm, a prayer to Allah, and a traveling caravan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A long repeated pedal note is used to represent the vast wastes of the desert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>La perle du Brésil (1851) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera about a storm off the coast of Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lalla-Roukh (1862) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera set in India </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
    9. 9. Origin and Involvement in Italian Unification <ul><li>Born in Roncole on October 10 th , 1813 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always spoke of his humble “peasant” beginnings in Roncole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became a member of the Chamber of Deputies (the newly formed Italian parliament) in 1862 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His fellow revolutionary, Count Camilo Benso di Cavour, dies in June of 1861 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pain of his friend’s death is too much to bear and he resigns from office in 1865 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cavour’s death makes Verdi turn back to music and change his focus away from Italy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Influential Works <ul><li>Nabucodonsor (1841) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First example of Verdi having non-Italian inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascinated by the chorus of the Hebrew exiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aida (1871) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for the first season of Khedvial Opera House in Cairo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT for the opening of the Suez canal as commonly thought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes aspects of old Egyptian images into major spectacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the pyramids, temple of Isis, gate of Thebes, and the Nile river as settings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapts Egyptian characters to an old Italian love story </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
    12. 12. Origin and Involvement in the Franco-Prussian War <ul><li>Born in Paris on October 25 th , 1838 </li></ul><ul><li>Won the Prix de Rome in 1857 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France’s highest honor in music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winner gets to study in Rome for 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlisted as a national guard during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up deserting the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happy that France was losing the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marks the beginning of Bizet’s search for inspiration outside of France </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Influential Works <ul><li>Chants de Pyrénées </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About the Pyrenees mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First sign of interest in Spanish culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carmen (1875) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera about a gypsy named Carmen that seduces a soldier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bizet refused to visit Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the harmonic, rhythmic, and instrumental procedures of flamenco music as well as old Spanish folk songs for musical inspiration as a substitution to visiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exotic aspects of the score were put in only for dramatic effect </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Conclusions on Exoticism in Romantic Music <ul><li>Imperialistic desires to westernize foreign lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F élicien David’s trip to Egypt to spread Saint-Simonian gospel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fascination with the newly colonized and explored regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verdi’s interest in the Middle East and desire to distance himself from his simple past </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Looking towards other places for inspiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bizet and Verdi’s desire to look away from their own respective countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapted these foreign stimuli to their own classic European operatic style </li></ul>
    15. 15. Nationalism in Music
    16. 16. Fr édéric Chopin (1810-1849)
    17. 17. Origin and Personality <ul><li>Born in Zelazowa Wola on March 1 st , 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the greatest Polish nationalist composer but was half French </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t want to be showy and only performed for small audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in constant misery due to a lifelong chronic lung condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary composer Hector Berlioz said that Chopin was, “dying all his life” (213). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had a long, turbulent relationship with author Aurore Duderant née Dupin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended in pain and made his work more intense </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Revolutionary Étude (1831) <ul><li>The November Uprising in Warsaw in 1830 broke out three weeks after Chopin left Warsaw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The November Uprising was in response to Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich ignoring Polish Constitution by agreeing to help put down revolts in France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polish government took over the region and declared war on Russia in 1831 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war ended in disaster with the deaths of thousands of Poles and no improvement in the situation with Russia </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Revolutionary Étude (1831) (continued) <ul><li>Chopin wanted to go back and protect his family and his country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t because of his lung condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instead, he used music to support the efforts in Warsaw </li></ul><ul><li>The piece caused many in Poland to join the cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary composer and music critic Robert Schumann said that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Beneath the flowers in Chopin’s work, there are hidden cannons” (217). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the nationalistic passion this piece evoked in its listeners </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
    21. 21. Origin and Personality <ul><li>Born in Votkinsk on May 7 th , 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>Studied at the St. Petersburg conservatory for 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Had trouble interacting with people and got upset easily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tchaikovsky was quoted saying: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> “ Every new acquaintance, every fresh meeting with someone unknown, has always been for me a source of suffering” (354). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was a very shy person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t conduct his own works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let his music speak for him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closet homosexual </li></ul>
    22. 22. Tchaikovsky’s Homosexuality <ul><li>Source of Tchaikovsky’s insecurity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was afraid anyone would find out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Married Antonia Ivanova Miliukova in 1877 to try to hide his homosexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angst from trying to hide his homosexuality led to a failed suicide attempt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tchaikovsky’s homosexuality comes out in his music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His ballets are very aesthetically pleasing and delicate </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Slavonic March (1876) <ul><li>Tchaikovsky was asked to write a piece in memoriam of Christian slavs that had recently been murdered by Turkish soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Only took five days to write </li></ul><ul><li>Tchaikovsky uses Serbian folk songs as inspiration for different movements </li></ul><ul><li>The Slavonic March unified a nation over a tragedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This sense of nationalism is foretelling of the Russo-Turkish war of the following year </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 1812 Overture (1880) <ul><li>Based on Russia’s defeat of Napoleon’s army at the Battle of Borodino </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle occurred on September 7 th , 1812 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s army had lost its supply lines and was unable to defeat Russia troops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The piece follows a story, starting with the battle and ending with the return of the troops </li></ul><ul><li>Tchaikovsky scored parts of the piece for a cannon to simulate the feeling of being on the battlefield </li></ul>
    25. 25. Conclusions on Nationalism in Romantic Music <ul><li>Tragic events inspired composers to write pieces honoring the victims and rallying their country of origin to stop any injustice present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chopin’s Revolutionary Étude and Tchaikovsky’s Slavonic March </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Painful personal lives made their music have even more passion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chopin’s lung condition and Tchaikovsky’s insecurity about his homosexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let their music express their opinions </li></ul>
    26. 26. Individual Power and Revolutionary Fervor in Music
    27. 27. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
    28. 28. Origin and Personal Life <ul><li>Born in Bonn, baptized on December 17 th , 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Went to Vienna in 1787 to pursue his music career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left immediately to tend to his ailing mother </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had trouble with women and never married </li></ul><ul><li>Began going deaf in 1802 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote a will-like manuscript thinking that he was going to die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along with his naturally belligerent personality, going deaf made him focus more on his music </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Sketchbook Method <ul><li>Beethoven was very meticulous when writing his music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote all his music in sketchbooks where he would constantly cross out work, making him work into the wee hours of the night and lengthening the composition process by a significant amount </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Beethoven vs. Aristocracy <ul><li>Beethoven relied heavily on noble patronage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These patrons were horrible people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resented the nobles because he felt that he was more talented and more deserving of their wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knew he would never reach their status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Would do many things to disrespect his benefactors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made them beg him to play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dressed and acted inappropriately </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Beethoven vs. Aristocracy (continued) <ul><li>Frau von Bernhard, one of Beethoven’s piano students, had this to say about an encounter between Beethoven and one of his patrons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I myself saw the mother of Princess Lichnowsky, countess Thun [one of Beethoven’s patrons] go down on her knees to him as he lolled on the sofa, begging him to play something. But Beethoven did not…”(78) </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Beethoven and Napoleon <ul><li>Beethoven admired many aspects of Napoleon’s traits and accomplishments including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His endorsement of the merit system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His talent, determination, and strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His belief in equality and democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beethoven felt hurt and betrayed when Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France in 1804 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This act dissolved all of Napoleon’s positive qualities that Beethoven admired </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beethoven’s work output dramatically decreased with the exile and eventual death of Napoleon </li></ul>
    33. 33. Beethoven and Napoleon (continued) <ul><li>When asked in 1802 to write a sonata about the events and ideas of the French Revolution, Beethoven said: </li></ul><ul><li>“… you suggest I should compose such a sonata? …Well, perhaps at the time of the revolutionary fever… [but] now that Bonaparte has concluded his Concordat with the Pope…to write sonata of this kind? …you won’t get anything from me” (184). </li></ul><ul><li>Shows his frustration and disappointment with his once beloved Napoleon </li></ul>
    34. 34. Symphony No. 3: Sinfonia Eroica (1806) <ul><li>Originally dedicated to Napoleon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beethoven tore up the dedication when Napoleon crowned himself emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subtitle of the symphony was, “composed to celebrate the memory of a great man” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written as a funeral march </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supposed to symbolize the death of the egalitarian Napoleon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beethoven wanted it to seem like Napoleon sealed his own fate by crowning himself emperor </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
    36. 36. Origin and Personal Beliefs <ul><li>Born in Leipzig on May 22 nd , 1813 </li></ul><ul><li>Had strong anti-Semitic opinions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said to be rooted in his relationship with composer and benefactor Giacomo Meyerbeer, who was Jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meyerbeer’s career flourished while Wagner suffered in political refuge in Z ϋ rich </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote a pamphlet entitled Des Judenthum in der Musik (Judaism in Music) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote it under a pseudonym </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talks about the excessive control Jews had over the music scene during that time </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Hitler and Wagner’s Music Hitler would play some of Wagner’s music during his speeches to his Nazi followers
    38. 38. Involvement in Revolution: Student Revolt in Leipzig <ul><li>Wagner was obsessed with the French Revolution from reading history books </li></ul><ul><li>This student uprising in Leipzig was inspired by the July Revolution that was occurring in Paris at the same time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jumped at the chance to participate in his own revolt and joined the Leipzig students on a march to the city hall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In his autobiography, Wagner said that, “the world of history came alive for me from that day on; and naturally I became a fervent partisan of the revolution” (39). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows his obsession with revolutions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Involvement in Revolution: Uprisings of 1849 in Dresden <ul><li>An abandonment of a constitutional monarchy under Fredrich Wilhelm IV caused riots all over Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>Almost got arrested and had to flee to Z ϋ rich for ten years </li></ul><ul><li>Wagner was even more involved this time around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would lead people into the town square screaming, “To the barricades!” (393) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put up anti-government propaganda posters all around Dresden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran through gun fire to be able to watch battles from atop a tower </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Wagner and Nietzsche <ul><li>Nietzsche admired Wagner, believing he embodied his “superman theory” (society reaching perfection under a gifted leader) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed this because of Wagner’s ability to evoke emotion amongst those around him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually lost respect for Wagner, realizing that his dramatic personality was superficial, later saying that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ [when] viewed from close proximity and without bias, Wagner’s life appears in many ways as a …grotesque comedy” (878). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wagner’s anti-Semitism as well as his connection to Nietzsche’s “superman theory” would later be used by Hitler and the Nazis </li></ul>
    41. 41. Lohengrin (1850) <ul><li>Opera based on an old medieval story of a knight of the holy grail named Lohengrin and his conquests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous for its Bridal Chorus (“Here comes the bride”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The knight is supposed to symbolize the rise to power of one man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some compared the knight and his conquests to Bismark and his efforts towards German unification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another example of Nietzsche’s “superman theory” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible explanation for the 2 nd Reich’s superiority complex </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Conclusions on Individualism in Romantic Music <ul><li>Obsession with revolutions affected the way in which composers operated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beethoven’s belief in Napoleon’s merit system when dealing with aristocracy and Wagner’s confidence from participation in revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contradictory idea of individual power mixed with an assimilation with a mob </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wagner’s integration with the process of German unification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal opinion more present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beethoven’s Sinfonia Eroica and Wagner’s Judenthum in der Musik (Judaism in Music) </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. The End

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