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Running head: MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
IN DIGITAL BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 1
Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business
Environments
Yolanda McNeil
ENGL 602 Field Project: Final Product
Liberty University
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 2
Introduction
Background of the Research
Innovation plays a critical role in assisting businesses to sustain
and grow their market
shares. It takes place in dissimilar functions and parts of the
business and it is significant to
understand the best way to create and manage it effectively.
Digital technologies have been
regularly used in business and this has led to digitized
workplaces that demand the need to invent
to remain at the top in the market (Kay & Willman, 2018).
Digitizing places of work has played
a key role in changing the way business is usually managed and
this has similarly affected how
innovation must be managed and embraced in such a novel
business atmosphere. Therefore, the
best way to understand technological innovation in the digital
business atmosphere is the need to
understand how technology has been shaping the business
world.
The reason for choosing technological innovation in digital
business environments is that
business owners play a critical role in the identification and
application of new technologies. By
investing in initiatives that permit them to deliver efficient and
effective services and products,
they discover innovative solutions to complex challenges
(Camisón & Villar-López, 2014).
Successful technological innovation needs collaboration, expert
project management, planning,
and execution. Worldwide competition and rigorous demand to
bring commodities to market
very fast affect decisions.
Research Purpose
1
2
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:07:25-08:00
This wording seems a bit circular: "the best way to
understand...is the need to understand." Is there a clearer way
you could state this?
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:09:33-08:00
Even without the word "I," you're indirectly referring to
yourself here, which isn't necessary in this paper. You don't
need to explain why you chose your topic; instead, you should
explain why the topic is important in the field (which is exactly
what you did in this sentence--you just need to frame it
differently).
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 3
The purpose of this research is to explore the role and
importance of managing
technological innovation in the digital business environment.
Technological innovation strategies
that a firm pursues can either break or make the company. The
current business landscape is
increasingly multifaceted. For an organization to succeed in the
modern business environment, it
is critical that it adopts digital innovation which can assist to
attain its goals and remain at the top
in the competition (Camisón & Villar-López, 2014). Adopting
and managing technological
innovation in the digital business atmosphere can have many
benefits if a firm decides to do so.
Research Questions
digital business environment?
business environment?
globe?
Research Structure
This research has been organized by first providing the
background of the technological
innovation in digital business environments. Next would be to
provide a literature review based
on the previous researches that have so far been conducted.
Then literature review is followed by
research methodology, and data analysis then conclusion and
recommendations.
Literature Review
Importance of Investing in Technological Innovation
3
4
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:11:30-08:00
A running head should not exceed 50 characters and should not
extend to a second line. When your title is long, choose just a
key phrase to use as your running head.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:12:09-08:00
This word usually isn't made plural. "Studies" is the more
common term.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 4
According to Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018), an effectual
strategy that helps in
managing technology and innovation normally involves using
comprehensive analysis
instruments. These tools help to ensure that the group can
manage the risks to reduce negative
impact and utilize opportunities. they similarly use decision
support instruments like force field
analysis and impact analysis to assess possible results and
choose the best solution to the
problem.
The internet offers an opportunity for owners of the business to
easily link up with other
entrepreneurs and learn by sharing techniques, tricks, and tips.
Baker et al., (2014) explain that
using social media technologies like forums and blogs, the
innovators find the innovation to
solve problems. Based on this, managing technology and
innovation tends to be an iterative
procedure that needs input from talented people.
Being able to invest in digital technologies can be seen as a
tedious and expensive thing
for the businesses, however, in many instances, it could be a
highly gainful decision. Haddud,
McAllen & DeSouza (2018) found out that managing
technological innovation in the digital
world plays a critical role in streamlining the processes,
enhance production, increase efficiency
and effectiveness and save firms’ money. It may be hard to
adopt new technology, particularly
when the firm is presently performing optimally because the
reason could be “why to fix
something that is still intact?’ nevertheless, investing in digital
in short term can lead to long
term growth for businesses as well as competitive advantage
(Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012).
This option is mainly to continue with the business as normal,
which eventually leads to slow
growth and decline in case technology is adopted very fast.
5
6
7
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:13:09-08:00
What group are you talking about? You don't need to describe
the whole study, but you do need to give enough context to
make it understandable.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:14:00-08:00
Don't put a comma after "et al." unless there is a grammatical
necessary for it in the sentence.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:15:48-08:00
I'm not sure how the last part of this sentence relates to the rest
of it. Are you saying that if a company proceeds with business
as usual, but then suddenly breaks away from that pattern and
adopts a new technology, the sudden change can slow growth
and create decline? You may need to explain how that would
happen.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 5
Types of Technological Innovation
The innovation of technology is getting fast as the years go on.
Camisón & Villar-López,
(2014) discovered that different firms take advantage of an
individual’s interest with the best and
advanced technology nowadays. There is a big difference
between the early days and now
specifically on matters of technologies that are manufactured
and sold at the marketplace at a
particular price (Alegre & Chiva, 2013). Semi-radical
technology typically depends on the
existing information about technology (Damanpour, Szabat &
Evan, 1989). Nevertheless, it sues
knowledge in a way that is different from the past. Cellphones
were initially considered mobile
phones but work differently nowadays. It is now a personal
communication that has managed to
built-in desks for systems and works specially made for the
purpose of entertainment.
Disruptive technology is identified as disruptive because it
breaks conventional ones
which now provide new technologies and products that are more
accessible. According to
Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018), it is identified as
disruptive because it pushes the idea
about existing supply and business chains. For instance, digital
photography is ideal as it
minimalizes cameras and traditional films that make print media
irrelevant.
Incremental technologies, on the other hand, are smaller but
have valuable improvements
for a commodity and methods. It has the last version of word
processing program that permits all
users to make new types of the document with more effectual
tools that serve as the best example
of improving contemporary technology (Chen, Lin &
McDonough, 2012). These types of
innovative technologies are actually beneficial in market
platforms. The technological innovation
8
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:17:59-08:00
I'm having a hard time understanding your meaning in these
sentences, and I'm wondering if you are trying to paraphrase
your sources word-by-word instead of capturing the entire
meaning. Whenever you paraphrase, read back through what
you've written and check to make sure it flows and makes sense.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 6
thus speeds up work, increase profits, ensure quick access to
information and develop
communication.
Managing Technology and Innovation
Management of technology is becoming a recognized
management practice and in some
instances even the equivalent of present monetary management
practices. With the upsurge
insignificance of technology, it is becoming judicious for senior
managers to know the new
technologies (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan, 1989). Novel
technologies have the capability to
totally interrupt reputable businesses, and make most, if not
every, of their proficiencies
obsolete. Contrariwise, a definite technology recognized early
enough and advanced into a
marketplace leader might be tremendously profitable (Lendel,
Hittmár & Latka, 2015). The
technological management has been evolving as a prescribed
discipline for the past twenty years.
Compared to other disciplines of management it is in its early
stages. When looking at
innovation management it is even lesser developed as compared
to technology management as
an official discipline. Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018)
found out that many features are
hindering the fast acceptance of technology management in the
industry. One of these is the
strain of describing technology itself. The other one is finding
the value that technology
management adds to the organization. It is hard to describe the
value of an undefinable and
unquantifiable discipline. Because of the up-surged use of
technology at the place of work,
particularly information technology, technology management
shall in future years become
gradually significant (Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012). If the
discipline of technology
9
10
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:18:54-08:00
The subject of all the verbs in this sentence is "innovation," so
all the verbs should be in the same form: speeds, increases,
ensures, and develops.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:21:27-08:00
If you have three or more authors, put a comma before the last
author's name. Also, with three authors, after the first time you
cite them, you should use et al. instead of writing all of them
out.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 7
management is hard to compute so much more might be the
discipline of innovation
management.
Research Methodology
Systematic Literature Review
A systematic review of the literature was employed to answer
the key questions of the
study: What is the importance of technological innovation in the
digital business environment?
What is the impact of technology and innovation on the business
environment? How has digital
innovation transformed today’s business globe? The procedure
for review was introduced by
identifying and selecting some of the relevant articles. The
identification, as well as selection
procedure in the literature exploration, used keywords like
“technological innovation, digital
transformation” from three journal databases Emerald, EBSCO
together with Wiley Interscience.
Research Design
This project used a study action plan. The researcher performed
an initial evaluation of the
issue to assess the degree of the problem and thus developed an
intrusion strategy to collect
information to address the issue being investigated. In this case,
the investigator made appropriate
observations that were gathered from secondary sources that
contained information that was
pertinent in addressing the topic
Data Analysis Techniques
11
12
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:22:47-08:00
Most people would probably use the word "world" here.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:23:46-08:00
What does this mean? I have never heard of this as a research
strategy. It has become fairly common for researchers to
provide a brief definition of their methodology, so you should
do the same here.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 8
The information gotten from secondary sources was classified
into a different context for
reanalysis. The researcher gathered secondary information that
was redeveloped into content to
help in analyzing. The collected information was assembled for
importance to the issue, principally
the study questions.
Results And Analysis
Research question 1: What is the importance of technological
innovation in the digital business
environment?
To ensure business success, productivity and efficiency are
significant. As such,
technological innovation plays a key role in improving
communication, content management,
collaboration, access to analytics data as well as social
networking and customer and staff
experience as confirmed by Camisón & Villar-López, (2014).
Successful organizations are
embracing current technology in order to create a digital
workplace that enhances business
cohesion. Based on this, the topic ensures that no business is
left behind in choosing digital
technology that supports the ways in which a business wants to
operate.
If my company does not embrace technological innovation, then
there are higher chances
that it will fall behind other rivaling companies that do decide
to embrace it. This might lead to
low sales volume, decease in proceeds as well as downward
trend that may be hard to rectify,
specifically if my firm is left playing catch up to firms that did
embrace technology and are able
to see the benefit at the expense of my company as confirmed
Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza
(2018). Embracing and managing technological innovation in
the digital business environment
13
14
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:24:55-08:00
Also, for future reference, if you are doing a study that is purely
based on secondary sources, you probably don't need to do all
this methodology description. These sections of a paper are
more useful for empirical studies.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:25:44-08:00
Your topic can't really ensure that; it's up to the businesses to
choose their own technology.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 9
have created a bigger difference between the current status of
the company and in the future. For
example, some of the companies that ignored technological
innovation like Blackberry and
Blockbuster mobile devices performed dismally as compared to
their competitors. In other
words, failure to embrace and manage technological innovation
in the digital business
environment can lead to firms falling behind rivaling firms and
at some point, fail to revert the
situation.
Embracing and managing technological innovation in the digital
business environment is
a concern for several firms and thus some decide to do
something about it while others choose to
ignore it. Failing to do something due to fear of the complexity
of executing digital technology
can lastingly damage a firm’s capacity to succeed in the future
(Kay & Willman, 2018). If an
organization needs to grow or expand, then it’s crucial to keep
the firm updated with digital
technology. The term digital transformation means innovating
activities of the business to make
the opportunities presented by digital technology. Embracing
and managing technological
innovation can positively change the performance of the
business with concerns to increase
revenue, enhance the experience of the customers and reduce
costs.
Technological innovation is always at the heart of the
business’s strategy of going
forward. When changing business strategy there are always
risks, however, the rewards from
getting it right can help to drive business growth beyond some
of the competitors that fail to
embrace digital innovations (Kay & Willman, 2018). The fact is
that all technological innovator
wants their firm to continue succeeding therefore they have no
choice but to encourage all
workers to embrace and manage technological innovation as
soon as possible.
15
16
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:27:00-08:00
This definition and the following claim would be great at the
beginning of your paper!
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:27:54-08:00
Change this comma to a semicolon because you are joining two
complete sentence. You also need a semicolon before
"therefore" in the next sentence.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 10
Research question 2: What is the impact of technology and
innovation on the business
environment?
In the modern world, technology has become an integrative part
of life, both professional
and personal. Universally technology has become a global
facilitator and generator of value
assisting firms and individuals in their process of value
creation. Information technology has
become closely linked to the business globe. For firms to
succeed, companies should embrace
and improve technology. Camisón & Villar-López, (2014) found
out that organization, business
model, strategy as well as competencies are some of the things
that are influenced by technology
in the business environment. To execute that transformation, it
is important to apply the right
business as well as the managerial method. Based on this,
radical innovation norms are positively
related to the performance of the new products (Baker et al.,
2014). All this due to the fact that
technological innovation does not assure the success of the
business. New services or products
should be coupled with business models and described
strategies.
Cloud, data, business, as well as people, are all major elements
that belong to the digital
transformation. Individuals use technology and digital for
several reasons. Firms benefit from
technology to execute innovative procedures and processes
targeting to decrease costs and
increase profits (Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza, 2018). Things
that are considered to be smart
things include drones, autonomous vehicles, and several other
innovative technologies. Data
represent the business assets targeting to influence business
while cloud stands for the
technological infrastructure.
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18
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:29:48-08:00
This comma doesn't need to be here.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:30:42-08:00
Try not to overuse the vague term "things." There are usually
more precise words you can use in place of it.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 11
The digital transformation needs a methodological approach that
integrates business and
technology. The digital business must be predicated both on
technological and managerial
language (Kadar, Moise & Colomba, 2014). Data-driven value
propositions offer a greater
advantage over the old-style ones: the more they are utilized,
the more valued these become.
Digital data are precise, accurate, fresh, but most significant
offer real-time information
providing business with the likelihood to adapt and change the
value proposition to the
consumers’ changing needs (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan,
1989). When companies and their
mode of operation change from the conventional mode of
management and operation to the
contemporary and technology-oriented ways of operation, the
shifts are known as digital
transformation or interruption.
Due to the fact that change is just the only that that is constant,
digital transformation is
becoming important for all businesses, large, medium, small. Be
it retail, software, logistics or
automation- digital disruption is universal. Delivering premium
digital business experiences to
workers and clients needs the usage of new innovative business
applications (Lendel, Hittmár &
Latka, 2015). As such, companies must be capable of delivering
custom applications at the speed
of concepts. That is the only way a company can stay ahead of
the competition in the modern
world. Reducing operational expenses and improving client
experience is essential to digital
transformation.
Digital transformation does not solely rely on new technology,
it is about change in
organizational culture and thought. It is essential for the firms
to address the needed
transformation in business scenarios, dynamic business demands
and invent ways to quickly
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Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:32:09-08:00
You should cite a source or sources here. Who originally used
these terms in this context?
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:33:53-08:00
This is a good sentence because it's short and clear! Just one
thing: Change this hyphen to a dash (two hyphens together). A
hyphen is used to create compound words like "real-time." A
dash is used to create a strong pause in a sentence.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:35:14-08:00
You need a verb here. "Address" and "invent" are both verbs, so
in order for this list to be parallel, you need another verb--
perhaps "meet."
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 12
cater to some of the changing needs (Kadar, Moise & Colomba,
2014). managers and
information technology in any company must work closely in
order to meet business needs,
encourage innovation and march to constant improvement
(Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012).
This is what digital transformation entails – lower expenses,
accelerate activities of the business,
expedite time to market, bring about positive transformation in
people, processes, and
competency models.
Digital transformation is similarly at some point known as
business transformation. A
large number of people prefer to use digital business change,
which is somehow synced with
aspects of the business of the transformation (Kadar, Moise &
Colomba, 2014). Digital business
transformation is driven by major aspects like market demand,
customer behavior, and
innovative technology as well as ecological aspects.
Technological innovations lead to disruptions of the technology.
The processes of
business move away from legacy systems to adopt contemporary
technology such as cloud,
RAD, IoT, Big data (Kane, et al., 2015). These and several such
technology innovations are then
used and recognized enterprise-wide. They help to bring value
to the business, lower expenses
and effort, upsurge speed and deliver outcomes more
effectually.
Then there is another aspect known as customer behavior. In
most cases, customers’
expectations and demands are geared towards meeting business
needs. Camisón & Villar-López,
(2014) discovered that the demands of the customer increase
technological abilities mixed with
the desire to ease usage. As such, firms have a deal with outside
pressures like market
competition, changing economy as well as business partner
demands. What the consumers
22
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:36:43-08:00
You might need to explain what this term means in a business
context, since it's normally used in the natural sciences.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 13
demand and whether the technology is able to change to cater to
the demands of the business is
of great significance.
Research question 3: How has digital innovation transformed
today’s business globe?
Digital advancement has not only changed how business is
performed but also how
businesses are perceived. It meant a change from traditional
means of operation to the one
assisted by technology (Kane, et al., 2015). In the current
generation, each aspect of the business
from management to operations is run using digital instruments.
Such digital revolutions have
transformed every industry and revolutionized various ways of
serving the customers, improve
the level of competition among businesses and pushed for the
expansion of the worldwide
market.
Research by Coleman Parkes in their survey discovered that
82% of the participants have
adopted digital technology for redefining their businesses. This
total refurbishment with the
reinvention of business functions is influenced by the advent of
big data analytics, social, cloud
and mobile analytics (Kane, et al., 2015). Therefore, the
transcendence of the digital globe has
helped businesses to grow.
Initially, companies created websites as an avenue for offering
only information. With
interactivity as well as the inception of the mobile emergence,
apps and sites began to offer much
more (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan, 1989). They are used to
offer products and services right at
the entrance of clienteles. The usage of social media has
managed to improve the knowledge
about what the clienteles desire and what they try to seek
(Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012).
23
24
25
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:37:35-08:00
should be "are," since there are two parts to the subject
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:38:25-08:00
Give a brief explanation of who the participants were; this will
make the data more meaningful to readers.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:39:06-08:00
"Inception" and "emergence" mean basically the same thing;
you don't need both in this sentence.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 14
Businesses are able to use this medium to comprehend and tailor
modified experiences to offer
real value to their clientele.
Big Data analytics has managed to change how businesses or
firms acclimatize and
change. From making decisions to forecasting client preferences
as well as recruiting the right
sets of skills, big data analytics has appeared as the game-
changer for firms nowadays by
influencing the way they deal with their data (Kane, et al.,
2015). Rather than undertaking a
market survey, there is appropriate information that tells what is
not working in the marketplace
and what is working.
The competition- every business that tries to enter into a digital
change is not mainly
focusing on competition. Taking into consideration the new
generation of clients who have
everything, businesses have tried to remain on their toes to
deliver real-time and rich interactions
with personalization elements to keep their clients engaged
(Mohnen & Hall, 2013). Similarly,
the necessity to keep innovating and updating with respect to
competition has become a necessity
to save businesses from running into the ground.
Reach out- although the competition upsurges with the digital
change, firms have taken
advantage of the fact that nowadays they have reached out to a
worldwide audience. There is a
marketplace for the niche of services and products since
clienteles have means to access them
effortlessly (Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza, 2018). Similarly
embracing innovation has made
sure that the businesses are at the front of attaining a profitable
portion out of the industry.
26
27
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:41:11-08:00
You should either make this an APA formatted heading or
incorporate it into the grammar of the sentence as a transition.
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:42:05-08:00
Apply the above comment to all these phrases at the beginnings
of the next few paragraphs.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 15
Improved avenues- due to the fact that changing the business
into a digital space is not a
choice, businesses have started utilizing the advantages of such
a transformation. Persistent
digitization of products, as well as services, have been made to
make sure that no barriers exist
between the firms and their clientele as established by Camisón
& Villar-López, (2014).
Similarly, traditional corporations have begun to make efforts to
facelift or add novel services
that are digitally accessible to upsurge their proceeds.
Monetization from digital platforms as
well as collaborations with partners has further helped attain
better proceeds from an unexploited
source of purchaser relationships. In this sense, Alegre & Chiva
(2013) provide broader picture
that consists of two intermediate steps: the capacity of
organizational learning and innovation
performance. The authors also explain intra‐industry firm
performance variances by focusing on
business opportunities
Conclusion And Recommendation
Conclusion
In conclusion technology innovation moves very fast and does
not adhere to yearly
review as well as financing schedule that many companies put
into consideration. This makes it
hard for firms to make decisions that transformational
technology to adopt, how to incorporate
them and even replace the systems. However, successful
organizations are embracing current
technology in order to create a digital workplace that enhances
business cohesion. Embracing
and managing technological innovation in the digital business
environment have also created a
bigger difference between the current status of the company and
in the future. Therefore, digital
transformation entails lower expenses, acceleration of activities
of the business, expedite time to
28
29
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:43:29-08:00
"Exploit" almost always has a negative connotation. I would use
a similar but more neutral word like "untapped."
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:44:52-08:00
In the middle of this list, you shift from nouns (expenses,
acceleration) to verbs (expedite, bring). All the items on the list
should be the same part of speech.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 16
market products, bring about positive transformation in people,
processes, and competency
models.
Recommendation
gical innovation in the
digital business environment
which leads firms to remain ahead of the competing firms.
strategizes, implement and
manage technological innovation.
ace digital transformation which means
innovating activities of the
business to utilize the opportunities presented by digital
technology.
30
Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:45:38-08:00
All three of these verbs should be in the same form: strategizes,
implements, and manages.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 17
References
Alegre, J. & Chiva, R., (2013). Linking entrepreneurial
orientation and firm performance: the
role of organizational learning capability and innovation
performance. Journal of Small
Business Management, 51(4), pp. 491–507.
Baker, W. E., Sinkula, J. M., Grinstein, A., & Rosenzweig, S.
(2014). The effect of radical
innovation in/congruence on new product performance.
Industrial Marketing
Management, 43(8), 1314-1323.
Camisón, C. & Villar-López, A., (2014). Organizational
innovation as an enabler of
technological innovation capabilities and firm performance.
Journal of business
research, 67(1), pp. 2891–2902.
Chen, M.Y.C., Lin, C.Y.Y., Lin, H.E. & McDonough, E.F.,
(2012). Does transformational
leadership facilitate technological innovation? The moderating
roles of an innovative
culture and incentive compensation. Asia Pacific Journal of
Management, 29(2), pp. 239–
264.
Damanpour, F., Szabat, K. A., & Evan, W. M. (1989). The
relationship between types of
innovation and organizational performance. Journal of
Management Studies, 26, 587–
602.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENTS 18
Haddud, A., McAllen, D. K., & DeSouza, A. R. (2018).
Managing Technological Innovation in
Digital Business Environments. In Marktorientiertes Produkt-
und
Produktionsmanagement in digitalen Umwelten (pp. 47-60).
Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.
Kadar, M., Moise, I.A. & Colomba, C., (2014). Innovation
management in the globalized digital
society. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, pp.
1083–1089.
Kane, G.C., Palmer, D., Phillips, A.N. & Kiron, D., (2015). Is
your business ready for a digital
future?. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(4), pp. 37–44.
Kay, J., & Willman, P. (2018). Managing technological
innovation: Architecture, trust and
organizational relationships in the firm. In New Technologies
and the Firm (pp. 19-35).
Routledge.
Lendel, V., Hittmár, Š. & Latka, M., (2015). Application of
management of innovation processes
in enterprises: management approach, problems, and
recommendations. Procedia
Economics and Finance, 34, pp. 410–416.
Mohnen, P. & Hall, B.H., (2013). Innovation and productivity:
An update. Eurasian Business
Review, 3(1), pp. 47–65.
Comment Summary
Page 2
1. This wording seems a bit circular: "the best way to
understand...is the need to understand." Is there a clearer
way you could state this?
2. Even without the word "I," you're indirectly referring to
yourself here, which isn't necessary in this paper. You
don't need to explain why you chose your topic; instead, you
should explain why the topic is important in the
field (which is exactly what you did in this sentence--you just
need to frame it differently).
Page 3
3. A running head should not exceed 50 characters and should
not extend to a second line. When your title is long,
choose just a key phrase to use as your running head.
4. This word usually isn't made plural. "Studies" is the more
common term.
Page 4
5. What group are you talking about? You don't need to describe
the whole study, but you do need to give enough
context to make it understandable.
6. Don't put a comma after "et al." unless there is a grammatical
necessary for it in the sentence.
7. I'm not sure how the last part of this sentence relates to the
rest of it. Are you saying that if a company proceeds
with business as usual, but then suddenly breaks away from that
pattern and adopts a new technology, the
sudden change can slow growth and create decline? You may
need to explain how that would happen.
Page 5
8. I'm having a hard time understanding your meaning in these
sentences, and I'm wondering if you are trying to
paraphrase your sources word-by-word instead of capturing the
entire meaning. Whenever you paraphrase,
read back through what you've written and check to make sure it
flows and makes sense.
Page 6
9. The subject of all the verbs in this sentence is "innovation,"
so all the verbs should be in the same form: speeds,
increases, ensures, and develops.
10. If you have three or more authors, put a comma before the
last author's name. Also, with three authors, after the
first time you cite them, you should use et al. instead of writing
all of them out.
Page 7
11. Most people would probably use the word "world" here.
12. What does this mean? I have never heard of this as a
research strategy. It has become fairly common for
researchers to provide a brief definition of their methodology,
so you should do the same here.
Page 8
13. Also, for future reference, if you are doing a study that is
purely based on secondary sources, you probably don't
need to do all this methodology description. These sections of a
paper are more useful for empirical studies.
14. Your topic can't really ensure that; it's up to the businesses
to choose their own technology.
Page 9
15. This definition and the following claim would be great at
the beginning of your paper!
16. Change this comma to a semicolon because you are joining
two complete sentence. You also need a semicolon
before "therefore" in the next sentence.
Page 10
17. This comma doesn't need to be here.
18. Try not to overuse the vague term "things." There are
usually more precise words you can use in place of it.
Page 11
19. You should cite a source or sources here. Who originally
used these terms in this context?
20. This is a good sentence because it's short and clear! Just one
thing: Change this hyphen to a dash (two hyphens
together). A hyphen is used to create compound words like
"real-time." A dash is used to create a strong pause in
a sentence.
21. You need a verb here. "Address" and "invent" are both
verbs, so in order for this list to be parallel, you need
another verb--perhaps "meet."
Page 12
22. You might need to explain what this term means in a
business context, since it's normally used in the natural
sciences.
Page 13
23. should be "are," since there are two parts to the subject
24. Give a brief explanation of who the participants were; this
will make the data more meaningful to readers.
25. "Inception" and "emergence" mean basically the same thing;
you don't need both in this sentence.
Page 14
26. You should either make this an APA formatted heading or
incorporate it into the grammar of the sentence as a
transition.
27. Apply the above comment to all these phrases at the
beginnings of the next few paragraphs.
Page 15
28. "Exploit" almost always has a negative connotation. I would
use a similar but more neutral word like
"untapped."
29. In the middle of this list, you shift from nouns (expenses,
acceleration) to verbs (expedite, bring). All the items on
the list should be the same part of speech.
Page 16
30. All three of these verbs should be in the same form:
strategizes, implements, and manages.
Purpose: 25
Levels of Achievement:
Advanced 23 (11.50%) - 25 (12.50%)
The purpose for writing is clearly seen in the piece. If the genre
calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit
statement of purpose, it is included in the appropriate place.
Proficient 21 (10.50%) - 22 (11.00%)
The purpose for writing is discernible in the piece. If the genre
calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit
statement of purpose, it is included, though not necessarily in
the appropriate place.
Developing 1 (0.50%) - 20 (10.00%)
The purpose for writing is not clearly stated, but it is somewhat
discernible. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research
question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is missing or
difficult to identify.
Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%)
The purpose for writing is entirely unclear.
Feedback: clearly stated
Content: 45
Levels of Achievement:
Advanced 46 (23.00%) - 50 (25.00%)
Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to a strong
product that fulfills the purpose for writing.
Proficient 42 (21.00%) - 45 (22.50%)
Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to an
adequate product that mostly fulfills the purpose for writing.
Developing 1 (0.50%) - 41 (20.50%)
Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources may be lacking, but the
content at least partly fulfills the purpose for writing.
Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%)
The content is insufficient, illogical, and/or poorly supported,
and it does not fulfill the purpose for writing.
Feedback:
Impressive research! The only additional thing I would suggest
doing is to define key terms.
Organization: 22
Levels of Achievement:
Advanced 37 (18.50%) - 40 (20.00%)
Information is organized in a way that is logical and readable
and that conforms to the expectations of the genre. The project
is 8–11 pages.
Proficient 34 (17.00%) - 36 (18.00%)
Information is organized in a way that is, overall, logical and
readable and that mostly conforms to the expectations of the
genre. The project is 8–11 pages or very close to that range.
Developing 1 (0.50%) - 33 (16.50%)
The organization of the piece may be confusing or somewhat
illogical, but it can be discerned. It shows an inadequate attempt
to conform to the expectations of the genre. The piece may be
more than a page outside the required range.
Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%)
The piece has no discernible organizational scheme, OR it is
significantly under 8 or over 11 pages.
Feedback:
I'm deducting some points here because your paper is several
pages over the limit. Part of the assignment was to present your
research concisely enough to fit into a relatively small page
range. In a paper like this, based only on secondary sources,
you probably don't need to describe your methodology in detail.
Also, I noticed some repetition. Creating an outline might help
you avoid saying the same thing in more than one place.
Style and mechanics: 18
Levels of Achievement:
Advanced 28 (14.00%) - 30 (15.00%)
The writing is professional in tone and style, with few to no
errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. “Professional” is
defined according to the field and the context (e.g., it may be
appropriate for a pastor to use an informal tone in a sermon).
Proficient 25 (12.50%) - 27 (13.50%)
The writing is mostly professional in tone and style, with some
errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
Developing 1 (0.50%) - 24 (12.00%)
The writing is somewhat unprofessional in tone and style, with
frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%)
The tone and style are entirely unprofessional, OR errors are
frequent and significant enough to seriously impede readability.
Feedback:
See my notes on grammar. Also, the writing style of your paper
was sometimes difficult for me to decipher. Sometimes you used
an unusual word where you could have used a simpler word, and
I wondered if it was because you were trying not to plagiarize
your sources. Of course, this is an admirable goal, but if
avoiding the words your source used is going to make your
prose awkward, it might be better to quote.
Documentation: 25
Levels of Achievement:
Advanced 28 (14.00%) - 30 (15.00%)
At least 8 sources are used and cited correctly (in-text and at
the end) in the documentation style most commonly used in the
field.
Proficient 25 (12.50%) - 27 (13.50%)
Five to seven sources are used, and some errors in citation may
be present.
Developing 1 (0.50%) - 24 (12.00%)
Fewer than five sources are used, and errors in citation may be
frequent.
Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%)
No sources are cited in-text and/or at the end.
Feedback:
Again, you have an impressive list of sources! Your APA
documentation is all correct except that you need to italicize
journal titles (not article titles) and volume numbers.
Formatting: 20
Levels of Achievement:
Advanced 23 (11.50%) - 25 (12.50%)
The document is formatted according to the conventions of the
chosen genre. This category may include spacing, font,
headings, the absence or presence of special sections such as a
title page or table of contents, etc.
Proficient 21 (10.50%) - 22 (11.00%)
The document is mostly formatted according to the conventions
of the chosen genre.
Developing 1 (0.50%) - 20 (10.00%)
A recognizable attempt is made to conform to the formatting
conventions of the chosen genre.
Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%)
The document formatting is entirely inappropriate to the genre.
Feedback:
See my note about the running head.
Raw Total: 155.00 (of 200)
Research Quick Guide to English Step one: Determining
Research Needs
Type of Research: Is the topic literary in nature? Are you doing
an analysis of previous work? This list is endless. To determine
the type of research you need to conduct, you can start by
asking yourself these questions:
1. Am I creating original research? Or am I simply reviewing
another’s work?
2. Do I need to perform an experiment to figure results?
3. Am I attempting to establish a connection between two or
more things?
4. Does this topic require the use of rare or old resources?
Extent: Research varies in the extent that needs to be conducted.
If you are simply reviewing a piece of research or book, you
will need fewer resources and likely less time. However, if for
archival research, the process will be much more elaborate and
take more time. You can determine the extent by:
1. Determining audience/outlet
2. Looking for similar research conducted previouslyStep two:
Where to Look and What to Look For
Library: Your local or collegiate library is a great place to
begin your search for sources. Books, of course, are found here,
but there is a plethora of other sources available as well, such
as: journals, various media (film, audiobook, photographs),
newspapers, and magazines.
Online Database: Online sources are abundant and can provide
access to sources that likely would be out of reach otherwise.
Some great online databases to consider for English related
topics are:
1. Gale: go.galegroup.com
2. EEBO (Early English Books Online): eeebo.chadwyck.com
3. JSTOR: jstor.org
Non-Traditional Sources: Not all research requires the
exclusive use of scholarly or peer-reviewed sources. You may
decide to include some of the following into your research:
Interviews, social media, surveys, and more.Step three:
Evaluating Resources
Credibility: Look for words like “scholarly” and “peer-
reviewed”. “.org” and “.gov” websites tend to be safe to use, as
well as sources located through online databases such as the
ones listed above.
Relevancy: Does it apply to your topic? Will it strengthen your
argument or points? Is it current and up-to-date? (If that’s of
importance)
Appropriate: Is this source too elementary or advanced for my
research? Would this source be accepted within the field of this
research topic? Step four: Common Citations in MLA Format
Books:
Standard format:
Last name, First name. Title of book. Publisher,
Publication date.
Example:
Clare, Cassandra. City of Bones. McElderry, 2007.
Articles:
Standard format (for scholarly journal):
Author(s). “Article Title”. Journal Title, Volume, Issue,
Year, Pages.
Example:
Jarvis, Christine. “Becoming a Woman Through Wicca: Witches
and
Wiccans in Contemporary Teen Fiction.” Children’s
Literature in
Education, vol. 39, no. 1, 2008, pp. 43-52.Online Sources:
Standard format (for online article):
Author(s). “Article Title”. Journal Title. Vol., Issue,
Publication Date, Pages.
Database, Doi. Access Date.
Example:
Berger, Helen A., and Douglas Ezzy. “Mass Media and
Religious Identity: A Case
Study of Young Witches.” Journal for the Scientific Study
of Religion, vol.
48, no. 3, 2009, pp. 501–514. JSTOR,
www.jstor.org/stable/40405642.
Accessed 25 Sep. 2017.
Credits:
MLA Handbook. 8th Edition. Modern Language Association,
2016.
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at
Purdue and Purdue U, 2017,
owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 4 Oct. 2017.
The research quick guide is an unusual assignment, so let me
clarify a few things. You will be creating a brief guide to
research for a student or practitioner in your field. (If you
work, study, and/or are interested in multiple fields, just pick
one.) Keep this fairly general--it is not a guide to doing
research on a particular topic, but a guide to doing research in a
particular field (though there may be exceptional cases in which
you need to go a bit narrower--email me if you think one of
those cases may be yours). Think of it as something you might
want to laminate and keep on your desk so that you can consult
it whenever you are starting or working on a research project--
or something you might share with new practitioners in your
field. For example, you might list a few go-to journals and/or
databases in your field. You should also include examples for
citing sources in your field's primary documentation style.
Make sure you follow the instructions, but you can get creative
on this assignment. It should not be in traditional academic
paper format. One last comment: Read the instructions
carefully. I'll be looking to see if you included all the required
components. Pay attention to design as well. Organize the text
in a manner that's both attractive and easy to navigate.
I've attached an example created by a student a few years ago
who gave me permission to share her guide. Your guide doesn't
need to (shouldn't, in fact) look exactly like hers, but it should
give you an idea of what to include.
"SAMPLE Research Quick Guide to English"
ENGL 602
Research Quick Guide Instructions
For this assignment, you will create a 2-2.5 page guide to doing
research in your field. A generalized guide to research in any
field would be too broad; a guide to doing research on your
specific project topic would be too narrow. Ideally, you will
create a resource that you will be able to use in the future and
perhaps share with others who are new to research in your field.
This guide must take the form of a handout or fact sheet that
can be quickly accessed and visually scanned for
answers/advice. The document layout is up to you—think about
what you would want a guide like this to look like—but you will
be graded on its readability and user-friendliness. You can use
text-boxes, bullet points, or graphics; just be mindful of space
limitations. You may want to organize the information in
chronological order (the research process, start to finish) or by
categories; again, this is up to you. At minimum, your topics
must include the following: determining your research needs,
finding sources (where to look), evaluating sources (how do you
know if a source is credible, relevant, and appropriate), and
citing common types of sources in the documentation style most
common in your field (examples would be very helpful). You
can also include any information that doesn’t fit under these
headings but that you think would be helpful. But remember
that you’re limited to two pages and that you want to keep the
information readable.
At the bottom of the last page, preferably in small print so it
does not take up too much space (this is the only part of the
guide that should be in tiny print!), list any sources that you
consulted in creating this resource. You can call this section
“Sources Consulted,” “Credits,” or another term that you like.
At minimum, this list must include the documentation manual
for your field. If that is the only source, that is okay, but you
might also want to supplement your personal experience by
looking at existing research guides online, etc. The crucial thing
is to make this information your own—do not just copy
something you find.
Before you submit your proposal, use the rubric as a checklist
to make sure you have addressed all necessary parts of the
assignment.
ENGL 602
Research Quick Guide Grading Rubric
Criteria
Levels of Achievement
Content 70%
Advanced
Proficient
Developing
Not Present
Points Earned
Determining Research Needs
28 to 30 points
Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for assessing
a task to determine the extent and type of research that needs to
be done.
25 to 27 points
Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for assessing
a task to determine the extent and type of research that needs to
be done.
1 to 24 points
Extent and type of research are mentioned, but insufficient
and/or poorly articulated advice on these topics is given.
0 points
Extent and type of research are not mentioned.
Finding Sources
28 to 30 points
Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for where
and how to locate sources.
25 to 27 points
Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for where
and how to locate sources.
1 to 24 points
Where and how to locate sources is mentioned, but insufficient
and/or poorly articulated advice on this topic is given.
0 points
Where and how to locate sources is not mentioned.
Evaluating Sources
28 to 30 points
Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for how to
evaluate a source based on credibility, relevance,
appropriateness, and any other criteria the student deems
important.
25 to 27 points
Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for how to
evaluate a source based on credibility, relevance,
appropriateness, and any other criteria the student deems
important.
1 to 24 points
Evaluation of sources is mentioned, but credibility, relevance,
and appropriateness may not all be addressed, and the advice
may be insufficient or poorly articulated.
0 points
Evaluation of sources is not mentioned..
Document Layout
14 to 15 points
Headings, white space, bulleting, and other document features
are used to organize the information in a way that is easily
navigable. The document is 2-2.5 pages.
13 to 13 points
The document may be slightly under 1 or over 2 pages. The
document layout is effective overall, though there may be room
for improvement in some areas.
1 to 12 points
The document may be somewhat under 1 or over 2 pages. The
document layout is adequate but is not user-friendly.
0 points
The document is significantly under 1 or over 2 pages, OR the
document layout seriously impedes usability.
Structure 30%
Advanced
Proficient
Developing
Not Present
Points Earned
Citing Sources
28 to 30 points
Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for how to
cite sources in the field’s documentation style. Examples of two
or more source types are included.
25 to 27 points
Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for how to
cite sources in the field’s documentation style. At least one
example is included.
1 to 24 points
Documentation is mentioned, but the advice may be insufficient
or poorly articulated, and examples may not be provided.
0 points
Documentation is not mentioned.
Works Consulted
14 to 15 points
At the end of the document, a correctly-formatted list of sources
consulted in the creation of the quick guide is provided. This
list includes the style manual for the field.
13 to 13 points
t the end of the document, a list of sources consulted in the
creation of the quick guide is provided. This list includes the
style manual for the field. The list may contain a few formatting
errors.
1 to 12 points
At the end of the document, a list of sources consulted in the
creation of the quick guide is provided. This list may not
include the style manual for the field. The list may contain
numerous and/or significant formatting errors.
0 points
No Works Consulted list is present.
Total
/150
Instructor's Comments:
Page 2 of 2
ENGL 602
Writing in Your Field Project Final Grading Rubric
Criteria
Levels of Achievement
Content 70%
Advanced
Proficient
Developing
Not Present
Points Earned
Purpose
23 to 25 points
The purpose for writing is clearly seen in the piece. If the genre
calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit
statement of purpose, it is included in the appropriate place.
21 to 22 points
The purpose for writing is discernible in the piece. If the genre
calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit
statement of purpose, it is included, though not necessarily in
the appropriate place.
1 to 20 points
The purpose for writing is not clearly stated, but it is somewhat
discernible. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research
question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is missing or
difficult to identify.
0 points
The purpose for writing is entirely unclear.
Content
46 to 50 points
Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to a strong
product that fulfills the purpose for writing.
42 to 45 points
Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to an
adequate product that mostly fulfills the purpose for writing.
1 to 41 points
Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources may be lacking, but the
content at least partly fulfills the purpose for writing.
0 points
The content is insufficient, illogical, and/or poorly supported,
and it does not fulfill the purpose for writing.
Organization
37 to 40 points
Information is organized in a way that is logical and readable
and that conforms to the expectations of the genre. The project
is 11-13 pages.
34 to 36 points
Information is organized in a way that is, overall, logical and
readable and that mostly conforms to the expectations of the
genre. The project is 11-13 pages or very close to that range.
1 to 33 points
The organization of the piece may be confusing or somewhat
illogical, but it can be discerned. It shows an inadequate attempt
to conform to the expectations of the genre. The piece may be
more than a page outside the required range.
0 points
The piece has no discernible organizational scheme, OR it is
significantly under 11 or over 13 pages.
Formatting
23 to 25 points
The document is formatted according to the conventions of the
chosen genre. This category may include spacing, font,
headings, the absence or presence of special sections such as a
title page or table of contents, etc.
21 to 22 points
The document is mostly formatted according to the conventions
of the chosen genre.
1 to 20 points
A recognizable attempt is made to conform to the formatting
conventions of the chosen genre.
0 points
The document formatting is entirely inappropriate to the genre.
Structure 30%
Advanced
Proficient
Developing
Not Present
Points Earned
Style and Mechanics
28 to 30 points
The writing is professional in tone and style, with few to no
errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. “Professional” is
defined according to the field and the context (e.g., it may be
appropriate for a pastor to use an informal tone in a sermon).
25 to 27 points
The writing is mostly professional in tone and style, with some
errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
1 to 24 points
The writing is somewhat unprofessional in tone and style, with
frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
0 points
The tone and style are entirely unprofessional, OR errors are
frequent and significant enough to seriously impede readability.
Documentation
28 to 30 points
At least 8 sources are used and cited correctly (in-text and at
the end) in the documentation style most commonly used in the
field.
25 to 27 points
Five to seven sources are used, and some errors in citation may
be present.
1 to 24 points
Fewer than five sources are used, and errors in citation may be
frequent.
0 points
No sources are cited in-text and/or at the end.
Total
/200
Instructor's Comments:
Page 1 of 2
ENGL 602
Annotated Bibliography Instructions
This is step 2 of the process that will culminate in the Writing
in Your Field Project (final product). Before you start this
assignment, read the feedback on your Writing in Your Field
Project: Proposal that you received from your instructor (in the
rubric and other grading comments, as well as any feedback you
may have received by email) and your classmates (in Discussion
Board Forum 2). (Feedback is already added in the Question
Post)
Feedback:I'm a little confused about your genre, since you
identified it as "descriptive copywriting" in the first paragraph
but as a research paper in the last paragraph.
For this assignment, you are required to cite at least 15 sources
that you plan to use in the Writing in Your Field Project. (Of
course, you may add or delete sources between this assignment
and the final project, but at this stage you should be trying your
best to find sources that will be useful in the final project.)
Organize the sources in alphabetical order. For each Annotated
Bibliography entry, first cite the source the way you would cite
it in the reference list or its equivalent in your field. (Even
though this assignment is called a bibliography, use reference
list formatting if you’re using APA and works cited formatting
if you’re using MLA.) Then write a half-page paragraph (200-
250 words) that briefly 1) summarizes the source (the summary
should be the shortest part of the paragraph, no more than 2
sentences), 2) evaluates it (considering factors such as
credibility, timeliness, and acceptability in the field), and 3)
explains how you plan to use the source in your project. You do
not need a separate reference list at the end of the assignment.
There are no restrictions on the types of sources you can use;
instead, think about the kinds of sources that will best help you
accomplish your research goal and that would be accepted in the
field you chose. These will not necessarily always be academic,
peer-reviewed sources. You might use newspaper reports,
popular non-fiction books, interviews, personal correspondence,
or tweets. If you are not sure how to cite some of these less-
common sources and cannot find information in the most recent
manual of the documentation style you are using, talk to your
instructor.
Before you submit your proposal, use the rubric as a checklist
to make sure you have addressed all necessary parts of the
assignment.
ENGL 602
Annotated Bibliography Grading Rubric
Criteria
Levels of Achievement
Content 70%
Advanced
Proficient
Developing
Not Present
Points Earned
Number of Citations
14 to 15 points
At least 15 sources are cited.
13 to 13 points
Eight to 12 sources are cited.
1 to 12 points
One to five sources are cited.
0 points
No sources are cited.
Correct Citations
28 to 30 points
The sources are correctly cited according to the documentation
style of the chosen field.
25 to 27 points
The student has made a recognizable attempt to cite the sources
according to the chosen documentation style, but some errors
are present.
1 to 24 points
Errors are serious enough that it is difficult to identify the
documentation style.
0 points
The sources are not cited in any consistent manner.
Summary
28 to 30 points
Each source is very briefly summarized. This summary is no
more than 2 sentences.
25 to 27 points
The summary is too long in comparison to the rest of the
annotation.
1 to 24 points
The summary is inadequate or misses the point.
0 points
The sources have not been summarized.
Evaluation
28 to 30 points
Each source is evaluated, considering credibility, timeliness,
and acceptability in the field, among other relevant factors. The
evaluation is longer than the summary.
25 to 27 points
The article is evaluated, but credibility, timeliness, and
acceptability in the field are not all addressed.
1 to 24 points
The evaluation is shallow or ignores all three of the listed
factors (credibility, timeliness, and acceptability in the field)
and other relevant factors.
0 points
The sources have not been evaluated.
Structure 30%
Advanced
Proficient
Developing
Not Present
Points Earned
Explanation of Use
28 to 30 points
How this source may be used in the final project is described in
one to two sentences of specific detail.
25 to 27 points
How this source may be used in the final project is described
vaguely or inadequately.
1 to 24 points
The student mentions that the source will be useful in the final
project but does not explain how.
0 points
The source's use in the final project is not mentioned.
Style and Mechanics
14 to 15 points
The writing is professional in tone and style, with few to no
errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
13 to 13 points
There are some errors and/or inappropriate tone choices.
1 to 12 points
There are significant errors and/or inappropriate tone choices.
0 points
Either the tone of the writing is entirely inappropriate to the
task or there are so many errors as to seriously impede
readability.
Total
/150
Instructor's Comments:
Page 2 of 2
ENGL 602
Writing in Your Field Project: Final Product Instructions
This is the assignment that the Project Proposal and Annotated
Bibliography have been leading to. Before you start writing it,
read your instructor’s grading feedback on the Annotated
Bibliography, along with any other feedback your instructor
may have given by email, etc. In addition, since this is a
lengthy assignment, you should not wait long to begin
composing it.
You will produce an 11-13-page piece of research-based writing
in a genre commonly used in the workplace in a field you are
either currently working in or planning to enter. This product
can be in any genre that involves research and could logically
fit within the limits of 11-13 pages of writing: empirical article,
lesson plan, sermon, case study, proposal, SWOT analysis,
literature review, report, journalistic article, grant application,
observational narrative, presentation script, or any other genre
approved by the instructor. The project may include tables,
figures, embedded videos, and other media appropriate to the
genre. However, at least 75% (a rough estimate) of the
document must consist of written text.
Some genres typically call for a thesis statement, research
question, or hypothesis at the beginning of the piece; others do
not. Regardless of the genre you are writing in, the instructor
should be able to discover your purpose for writing (even if this
does not appear until the end of the piece) and evaluate whether
or not you have fulfilled this purpose.
You are required to use (quote, paraphrase, summarize, or
otherwise use ideas from) at least 8 sources (which means you
do not have to use all 15 of the sources in the Annotated
Bibliography). Although many of the above-listed genres (such
as a sermon) normally do not provide visible citations of
sources, in this assignment you are required to show your
research by citing sources both in-text (through parenthetical
citations, footnotes, etc.) and in a reference
list/bibliography/works cited page at the end, according to the
documentation style most commonly used in the field in which
you are writing. However, you do not need to follow the
formatting requirements (e.g., spacing, title pages, etc.) for an
academic paper in that documentation style. Rather, follow the
formatting conventions typically used for the genre you are
writing in. If you don’t know what those conventions are, look
for a guide or template online. Ask your instructor if you need
help.
Please note that the range of 11-13 pages applies only to the
body of the paper. The reference list/bibliography/works cited
does not count toward the page total, nor does any “front
matter” (title page, abstract, etc.).
Before you submit your proposal, use the rubric as a checklist
to make sure you have addressed all necessary parts of the
assignment.
Running head: MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS
1
MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS
2
Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business
Environments
Name
Institution
The topic of my choice is managing technological innovation in
digital business environments. I have chosen this topic because
I intend to get an employment in one of the busy organizations
where I can manage technological innovation. The genre style
for my writing will be descriptive copywriting. One way to do
this is by describing, succinctly and briefly. It creates a vivid
picture more powerful than bare facts, and assists the make
important led- buying decision.
Innovation play a critical role in assisting businesses to sustain
and grow their market shares. It takes place in dissimilar
functions and parts of the business and it is significant to
understand the best way to create and manage it effectively.
Digital technologies have been regularly used in business and
this has led to digitized workplace that demand the need to
invent to remain at the top in market (Kay & Willman, 2018).
Digitizing places of work has played key role in changing the
way business is usually managed and this has similarly affected
how innovation must be managed and embraced in such a novel
business atmosphere. Therefore, the best way to understand
technological innovation in digital business atmosphere I need
to understand how technology has been shaping business world.
The reason for choosing technological innovation in digital
business environments is that business owners play a critical
role in the identification and application of new technologies.
By investing in initiatives that permit them to deliver efficient
and effective services and products, they discover innovative
solutions to complex challenges. Successful innovation using
the technology needs collaboration, expert project management,
planning and execution. Worldwide competition and rigorous
demand to bring commodities to market very fast affect
decisions.
This research will be organized by first providing the
background of the technological innovation in digital business
environments. Technology innovation moves very fast and does
not adhere to yearly review as well as financing schedule that
many companies. This makes it hard for firms to make decisions
which transformational technology to adopt, how to incorporate
them and even replace the systems. Next would be to provide
literature review based on the previous researches that have so
far been conducted. Then literature review is followed by
research methodology, and data analysis them conclusion and
recommendations. According to Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza
(2018), an effectual strategy that helps in managing technology
and innovation normally involves using comprehensive analysis
instruments. These tools help to ensure that the group can
manage the risks to reduce negative impact and utilize
opportunities. they similarly use decision support instruments
like force field analysis and impact analysis to assess possible
results and choose the best solution to the problem.
Betz (2003) states that the internet offers an opportunity for
owners of the business to easily link up with other
entrepreneurs and learn by sharing techniques, tricks and tips.
Using social media technologies like forums and blogs, the
innovators find the innovation to solve problems. Based on
this, managing technology and innovation tends to be an
iterative procedure that need input from talented people.
The types of sources that I intend to use would come from
online and local libraries. The use of books, published theses,
scholarly journals, peer reviews on the subject matter would be
the greatest place to start. I also found primary resources like
Apple Inc company, Unilever that makes reference practical. If
I get enough resources and time, I would visit the two firms to
identify current technological innovations. Lastly, this research
will be used or presented as a research paper.
References
Betz, F. (2003). Managing technological innovation:
competitive advantage from change. John Wiley & Sons.
Haddud, A., McAllen, D. K., & DeSouza, A. R. (2018).
Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business
Environments. In Marktorientiertes Produkt-und
Produktionsmanagement in digitalen Umwelten (pp. 47-60).
Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.
Kay, J., & Willman, P. (2018). Managing technological
innovation: Architecture, trust and organizational relationships
in the firm. In New Technologies and the Firm (pp. 19-35).
Routledge.

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Running head MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUS.docx

  • 1. Running head: MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 1 Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business Environments Yolanda McNeil ENGL 602 Field Project: Final Product Liberty University MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 2
  • 2. Introduction Background of the Research Innovation plays a critical role in assisting businesses to sustain and grow their market shares. It takes place in dissimilar functions and parts of the business and it is significant to understand the best way to create and manage it effectively. Digital technologies have been regularly used in business and this has led to digitized workplaces that demand the need to invent to remain at the top in the market (Kay & Willman, 2018). Digitizing places of work has played a key role in changing the way business is usually managed and this has similarly affected how innovation must be managed and embraced in such a novel business atmosphere. Therefore, the best way to understand technological innovation in the digital business atmosphere is the need to understand how technology has been shaping the business world. The reason for choosing technological innovation in digital business environments is that
  • 3. business owners play a critical role in the identification and application of new technologies. By investing in initiatives that permit them to deliver efficient and effective services and products, they discover innovative solutions to complex challenges (Camisón & Villar-López, 2014). Successful technological innovation needs collaboration, expert project management, planning, and execution. Worldwide competition and rigorous demand to bring commodities to market very fast affect decisions. Research Purpose 1 2 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:07:25-08:00 This wording seems a bit circular: "the best way to understand...is the need to understand." Is there a clearer way you could state this? Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:09:33-08:00 Even without the word "I," you're indirectly referring to yourself here, which isn't necessary in this paper. You don't need to explain why you chose your topic; instead, you should explain why the topic is important in the field (which is exactly what you did in this sentence--you just need to frame it differently).
  • 4. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 3 The purpose of this research is to explore the role and importance of managing technological innovation in the digital business environment. Technological innovation strategies that a firm pursues can either break or make the company. The current business landscape is increasingly multifaceted. For an organization to succeed in the modern business environment, it is critical that it adopts digital innovation which can assist to attain its goals and remain at the top in the competition (Camisón & Villar-López, 2014). Adopting and managing technological innovation in the digital business atmosphere can have many benefits if a firm decides to do so. Research Questions digital business environment? business environment?
  • 5. globe? Research Structure This research has been organized by first providing the background of the technological innovation in digital business environments. Next would be to provide a literature review based on the previous researches that have so far been conducted. Then literature review is followed by research methodology, and data analysis then conclusion and recommendations. Literature Review Importance of Investing in Technological Innovation 3 4 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:11:30-08:00 A running head should not exceed 50 characters and should not extend to a second line. When your title is long, choose just a key phrase to use as your running head. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:12:09-08:00 This word usually isn't made plural. "Studies" is the more common term.
  • 6. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 4 According to Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018), an effectual strategy that helps in managing technology and innovation normally involves using comprehensive analysis instruments. These tools help to ensure that the group can manage the risks to reduce negative impact and utilize opportunities. they similarly use decision support instruments like force field analysis and impact analysis to assess possible results and choose the best solution to the problem. The internet offers an opportunity for owners of the business to easily link up with other entrepreneurs and learn by sharing techniques, tricks, and tips. Baker et al., (2014) explain that using social media technologies like forums and blogs, the innovators find the innovation to solve problems. Based on this, managing technology and innovation tends to be an iterative procedure that needs input from talented people.
  • 7. Being able to invest in digital technologies can be seen as a tedious and expensive thing for the businesses, however, in many instances, it could be a highly gainful decision. Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018) found out that managing technological innovation in the digital world plays a critical role in streamlining the processes, enhance production, increase efficiency and effectiveness and save firms’ money. It may be hard to adopt new technology, particularly when the firm is presently performing optimally because the reason could be “why to fix something that is still intact?’ nevertheless, investing in digital in short term can lead to long term growth for businesses as well as competitive advantage (Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012). This option is mainly to continue with the business as normal, which eventually leads to slow growth and decline in case technology is adopted very fast. 5 6 7
  • 8. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:13:09-08:00 What group are you talking about? You don't need to describe the whole study, but you do need to give enough context to make it understandable. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:14:00-08:00 Don't put a comma after "et al." unless there is a grammatical necessary for it in the sentence. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:15:48-08:00 I'm not sure how the last part of this sentence relates to the rest of it. Are you saying that if a company proceeds with business as usual, but then suddenly breaks away from that pattern and adopts a new technology, the sudden change can slow growth and create decline? You may need to explain how that would happen. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 5 Types of Technological Innovation The innovation of technology is getting fast as the years go on. Camisón & Villar-López, (2014) discovered that different firms take advantage of an individual’s interest with the best and advanced technology nowadays. There is a big difference between the early days and now specifically on matters of technologies that are manufactured and sold at the marketplace at a
  • 9. particular price (Alegre & Chiva, 2013). Semi-radical technology typically depends on the existing information about technology (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan, 1989). Nevertheless, it sues knowledge in a way that is different from the past. Cellphones were initially considered mobile phones but work differently nowadays. It is now a personal communication that has managed to built-in desks for systems and works specially made for the purpose of entertainment. Disruptive technology is identified as disruptive because it breaks conventional ones which now provide new technologies and products that are more accessible. According to Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018), it is identified as disruptive because it pushes the idea about existing supply and business chains. For instance, digital photography is ideal as it minimalizes cameras and traditional films that make print media irrelevant. Incremental technologies, on the other hand, are smaller but have valuable improvements for a commodity and methods. It has the last version of word processing program that permits all
  • 10. users to make new types of the document with more effectual tools that serve as the best example of improving contemporary technology (Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012). These types of innovative technologies are actually beneficial in market platforms. The technological innovation 8 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:17:59-08:00 I'm having a hard time understanding your meaning in these sentences, and I'm wondering if you are trying to paraphrase your sources word-by-word instead of capturing the entire meaning. Whenever you paraphrase, read back through what you've written and check to make sure it flows and makes sense. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 6 thus speeds up work, increase profits, ensure quick access to information and develop communication. Managing Technology and Innovation Management of technology is becoming a recognized management practice and in some
  • 11. instances even the equivalent of present monetary management practices. With the upsurge insignificance of technology, it is becoming judicious for senior managers to know the new technologies (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan, 1989). Novel technologies have the capability to totally interrupt reputable businesses, and make most, if not every, of their proficiencies obsolete. Contrariwise, a definite technology recognized early enough and advanced into a marketplace leader might be tremendously profitable (Lendel, Hittmár & Latka, 2015). The technological management has been evolving as a prescribed discipline for the past twenty years. Compared to other disciplines of management it is in its early stages. When looking at innovation management it is even lesser developed as compared to technology management as an official discipline. Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018) found out that many features are hindering the fast acceptance of technology management in the industry. One of these is the strain of describing technology itself. The other one is finding the value that technology
  • 12. management adds to the organization. It is hard to describe the value of an undefinable and unquantifiable discipline. Because of the up-surged use of technology at the place of work, particularly information technology, technology management shall in future years become gradually significant (Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012). If the discipline of technology 9 10 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:18:54-08:00 The subject of all the verbs in this sentence is "innovation," so all the verbs should be in the same form: speeds, increases, ensures, and develops. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:21:27-08:00 If you have three or more authors, put a comma before the last author's name. Also, with three authors, after the first time you cite them, you should use et al. instead of writing all of them out. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 7 management is hard to compute so much more might be the discipline of innovation
  • 13. management. Research Methodology Systematic Literature Review A systematic review of the literature was employed to answer the key questions of the study: What is the importance of technological innovation in the digital business environment? What is the impact of technology and innovation on the business environment? How has digital innovation transformed today’s business globe? The procedure for review was introduced by identifying and selecting some of the relevant articles. The identification, as well as selection procedure in the literature exploration, used keywords like “technological innovation, digital transformation” from three journal databases Emerald, EBSCO together with Wiley Interscience. Research Design This project used a study action plan. The researcher performed an initial evaluation of the issue to assess the degree of the problem and thus developed an intrusion strategy to collect
  • 14. information to address the issue being investigated. In this case, the investigator made appropriate observations that were gathered from secondary sources that contained information that was pertinent in addressing the topic Data Analysis Techniques 11 12 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:22:47-08:00 Most people would probably use the word "world" here. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:23:46-08:00 What does this mean? I have never heard of this as a research strategy. It has become fairly common for researchers to provide a brief definition of their methodology, so you should do the same here. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 8 The information gotten from secondary sources was classified into a different context for reanalysis. The researcher gathered secondary information that was redeveloped into content to
  • 15. help in analyzing. The collected information was assembled for importance to the issue, principally the study questions. Results And Analysis Research question 1: What is the importance of technological innovation in the digital business environment? To ensure business success, productivity and efficiency are significant. As such, technological innovation plays a key role in improving communication, content management, collaboration, access to analytics data as well as social networking and customer and staff experience as confirmed by Camisón & Villar-López, (2014). Successful organizations are embracing current technology in order to create a digital workplace that enhances business cohesion. Based on this, the topic ensures that no business is left behind in choosing digital technology that supports the ways in which a business wants to operate. If my company does not embrace technological innovation, then there are higher chances
  • 16. that it will fall behind other rivaling companies that do decide to embrace it. This might lead to low sales volume, decease in proceeds as well as downward trend that may be hard to rectify, specifically if my firm is left playing catch up to firms that did embrace technology and are able to see the benefit at the expense of my company as confirmed Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018). Embracing and managing technological innovation in the digital business environment 13 14 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:24:55-08:00 Also, for future reference, if you are doing a study that is purely based on secondary sources, you probably don't need to do all this methodology description. These sections of a paper are more useful for empirical studies. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:25:44-08:00 Your topic can't really ensure that; it's up to the businesses to choose their own technology. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 9
  • 17. have created a bigger difference between the current status of the company and in the future. For example, some of the companies that ignored technological innovation like Blackberry and Blockbuster mobile devices performed dismally as compared to their competitors. In other words, failure to embrace and manage technological innovation in the digital business environment can lead to firms falling behind rivaling firms and at some point, fail to revert the situation. Embracing and managing technological innovation in the digital business environment is a concern for several firms and thus some decide to do something about it while others choose to ignore it. Failing to do something due to fear of the complexity of executing digital technology can lastingly damage a firm’s capacity to succeed in the future (Kay & Willman, 2018). If an organization needs to grow or expand, then it’s crucial to keep the firm updated with digital technology. The term digital transformation means innovating activities of the business to make the opportunities presented by digital technology. Embracing
  • 18. and managing technological innovation can positively change the performance of the business with concerns to increase revenue, enhance the experience of the customers and reduce costs. Technological innovation is always at the heart of the business’s strategy of going forward. When changing business strategy there are always risks, however, the rewards from getting it right can help to drive business growth beyond some of the competitors that fail to embrace digital innovations (Kay & Willman, 2018). The fact is that all technological innovator wants their firm to continue succeeding therefore they have no choice but to encourage all workers to embrace and manage technological innovation as soon as possible. 15 16 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:27:00-08:00 This definition and the following claim would be great at the beginning of your paper! Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:27:54-08:00
  • 19. Change this comma to a semicolon because you are joining two complete sentence. You also need a semicolon before "therefore" in the next sentence. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 10 Research question 2: What is the impact of technology and innovation on the business environment? In the modern world, technology has become an integrative part of life, both professional and personal. Universally technology has become a global facilitator and generator of value assisting firms and individuals in their process of value creation. Information technology has become closely linked to the business globe. For firms to succeed, companies should embrace and improve technology. Camisón & Villar-López, (2014) found out that organization, business model, strategy as well as competencies are some of the things that are influenced by technology in the business environment. To execute that transformation, it is important to apply the right
  • 20. business as well as the managerial method. Based on this, radical innovation norms are positively related to the performance of the new products (Baker et al., 2014). All this due to the fact that technological innovation does not assure the success of the business. New services or products should be coupled with business models and described strategies. Cloud, data, business, as well as people, are all major elements that belong to the digital transformation. Individuals use technology and digital for several reasons. Firms benefit from technology to execute innovative procedures and processes targeting to decrease costs and increase profits (Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza, 2018). Things that are considered to be smart things include drones, autonomous vehicles, and several other innovative technologies. Data represent the business assets targeting to influence business while cloud stands for the technological infrastructure. 17 18
  • 21. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:29:48-08:00 This comma doesn't need to be here. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:30:42-08:00 Try not to overuse the vague term "things." There are usually more precise words you can use in place of it. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 11 The digital transformation needs a methodological approach that integrates business and technology. The digital business must be predicated both on technological and managerial language (Kadar, Moise & Colomba, 2014). Data-driven value propositions offer a greater advantage over the old-style ones: the more they are utilized, the more valued these become. Digital data are precise, accurate, fresh, but most significant offer real-time information providing business with the likelihood to adapt and change the value proposition to the consumers’ changing needs (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan, 1989). When companies and their mode of operation change from the conventional mode of
  • 22. management and operation to the contemporary and technology-oriented ways of operation, the shifts are known as digital transformation or interruption. Due to the fact that change is just the only that that is constant, digital transformation is becoming important for all businesses, large, medium, small. Be it retail, software, logistics or automation- digital disruption is universal. Delivering premium digital business experiences to workers and clients needs the usage of new innovative business applications (Lendel, Hittmár & Latka, 2015). As such, companies must be capable of delivering custom applications at the speed of concepts. That is the only way a company can stay ahead of the competition in the modern world. Reducing operational expenses and improving client experience is essential to digital transformation. Digital transformation does not solely rely on new technology, it is about change in organizational culture and thought. It is essential for the firms to address the needed
  • 23. transformation in business scenarios, dynamic business demands and invent ways to quickly 19 20 21 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:32:09-08:00 You should cite a source or sources here. Who originally used these terms in this context? Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:33:53-08:00 This is a good sentence because it's short and clear! Just one thing: Change this hyphen to a dash (two hyphens together). A hyphen is used to create compound words like "real-time." A dash is used to create a strong pause in a sentence. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:35:14-08:00 You need a verb here. "Address" and "invent" are both verbs, so in order for this list to be parallel, you need another verb-- perhaps "meet." MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 12 cater to some of the changing needs (Kadar, Moise & Colomba, 2014). managers and information technology in any company must work closely in order to meet business needs,
  • 24. encourage innovation and march to constant improvement (Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012). This is what digital transformation entails – lower expenses, accelerate activities of the business, expedite time to market, bring about positive transformation in people, processes, and competency models. Digital transformation is similarly at some point known as business transformation. A large number of people prefer to use digital business change, which is somehow synced with aspects of the business of the transformation (Kadar, Moise & Colomba, 2014). Digital business transformation is driven by major aspects like market demand, customer behavior, and innovative technology as well as ecological aspects. Technological innovations lead to disruptions of the technology. The processes of business move away from legacy systems to adopt contemporary technology such as cloud, RAD, IoT, Big data (Kane, et al., 2015). These and several such technology innovations are then used and recognized enterprise-wide. They help to bring value
  • 25. to the business, lower expenses and effort, upsurge speed and deliver outcomes more effectually. Then there is another aspect known as customer behavior. In most cases, customers’ expectations and demands are geared towards meeting business needs. Camisón & Villar-López, (2014) discovered that the demands of the customer increase technological abilities mixed with the desire to ease usage. As such, firms have a deal with outside pressures like market competition, changing economy as well as business partner demands. What the consumers 22 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:36:43-08:00 You might need to explain what this term means in a business context, since it's normally used in the natural sciences. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 13 demand and whether the technology is able to change to cater to the demands of the business is
  • 26. of great significance. Research question 3: How has digital innovation transformed today’s business globe? Digital advancement has not only changed how business is performed but also how businesses are perceived. It meant a change from traditional means of operation to the one assisted by technology (Kane, et al., 2015). In the current generation, each aspect of the business from management to operations is run using digital instruments. Such digital revolutions have transformed every industry and revolutionized various ways of serving the customers, improve the level of competition among businesses and pushed for the expansion of the worldwide market. Research by Coleman Parkes in their survey discovered that 82% of the participants have adopted digital technology for redefining their businesses. This total refurbishment with the reinvention of business functions is influenced by the advent of big data analytics, social, cloud and mobile analytics (Kane, et al., 2015). Therefore, the transcendence of the digital globe has
  • 27. helped businesses to grow. Initially, companies created websites as an avenue for offering only information. With interactivity as well as the inception of the mobile emergence, apps and sites began to offer much more (Damanpour, Szabat & Evan, 1989). They are used to offer products and services right at the entrance of clienteles. The usage of social media has managed to improve the knowledge about what the clienteles desire and what they try to seek (Chen, Lin & McDonough, 2012). 23 24 25 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:37:35-08:00 should be "are," since there are two parts to the subject Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:38:25-08:00 Give a brief explanation of who the participants were; this will make the data more meaningful to readers. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:39:06-08:00 "Inception" and "emergence" mean basically the same thing; you don't need both in this sentence.
  • 28. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 14 Businesses are able to use this medium to comprehend and tailor modified experiences to offer real value to their clientele. Big Data analytics has managed to change how businesses or firms acclimatize and change. From making decisions to forecasting client preferences as well as recruiting the right sets of skills, big data analytics has appeared as the game- changer for firms nowadays by influencing the way they deal with their data (Kane, et al., 2015). Rather than undertaking a market survey, there is appropriate information that tells what is not working in the marketplace and what is working. The competition- every business that tries to enter into a digital change is not mainly focusing on competition. Taking into consideration the new generation of clients who have everything, businesses have tried to remain on their toes to deliver real-time and rich interactions
  • 29. with personalization elements to keep their clients engaged (Mohnen & Hall, 2013). Similarly, the necessity to keep innovating and updating with respect to competition has become a necessity to save businesses from running into the ground. Reach out- although the competition upsurges with the digital change, firms have taken advantage of the fact that nowadays they have reached out to a worldwide audience. There is a marketplace for the niche of services and products since clienteles have means to access them effortlessly (Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza, 2018). Similarly embracing innovation has made sure that the businesses are at the front of attaining a profitable portion out of the industry. 26 27 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:41:11-08:00 You should either make this an APA formatted heading or incorporate it into the grammar of the sentence as a transition. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:42:05-08:00 Apply the above comment to all these phrases at the beginnings of the next few paragraphs.
  • 30. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 15 Improved avenues- due to the fact that changing the business into a digital space is not a choice, businesses have started utilizing the advantages of such a transformation. Persistent digitization of products, as well as services, have been made to make sure that no barriers exist between the firms and their clientele as established by Camisón & Villar-López, (2014). Similarly, traditional corporations have begun to make efforts to facelift or add novel services that are digitally accessible to upsurge their proceeds. Monetization from digital platforms as well as collaborations with partners has further helped attain better proceeds from an unexploited source of purchaser relationships. In this sense, Alegre & Chiva (2013) provide broader picture that consists of two intermediate steps: the capacity of organizational learning and innovation performance. The authors also explain intra‐industry firm performance variances by focusing on
  • 31. business opportunities Conclusion And Recommendation Conclusion In conclusion technology innovation moves very fast and does not adhere to yearly review as well as financing schedule that many companies put into consideration. This makes it hard for firms to make decisions that transformational technology to adopt, how to incorporate them and even replace the systems. However, successful organizations are embracing current technology in order to create a digital workplace that enhances business cohesion. Embracing and managing technological innovation in the digital business environment have also created a bigger difference between the current status of the company and in the future. Therefore, digital transformation entails lower expenses, acceleration of activities of the business, expedite time to 28 29
  • 32. Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:43:29-08:00 "Exploit" almost always has a negative connotation. I would use a similar but more neutral word like "untapped." Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:44:52-08:00 In the middle of this list, you shift from nouns (expenses, acceleration) to verbs (expedite, bring). All the items on the list should be the same part of speech. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 16 market products, bring about positive transformation in people, processes, and competency models. Recommendation gical innovation in the digital business environment which leads firms to remain ahead of the competing firms. strategizes, implement and manage technological innovation. ace digital transformation which means innovating activities of the business to utilize the opportunities presented by digital
  • 33. technology. 30 Tess Stockslager @ 2020-03-06T10:45:38-08:00 All three of these verbs should be in the same form: strategizes, implements, and manages. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 17 References Alegre, J. & Chiva, R., (2013). Linking entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: the role of organizational learning capability and innovation performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(4), pp. 491–507. Baker, W. E., Sinkula, J. M., Grinstein, A., & Rosenzweig, S. (2014). The effect of radical
  • 34. innovation in/congruence on new product performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(8), 1314-1323. Camisón, C. & Villar-López, A., (2014). Organizational innovation as an enabler of technological innovation capabilities and firm performance. Journal of business research, 67(1), pp. 2891–2902. Chen, M.Y.C., Lin, C.Y.Y., Lin, H.E. & McDonough, E.F., (2012). Does transformational leadership facilitate technological innovation? The moderating roles of an innovative culture and incentive compensation. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), pp. 239– 264. Damanpour, F., Szabat, K. A., & Evan, W. M. (1989). The relationship between types of innovation and organizational performance. Journal of Management Studies, 26, 587– 602. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL
  • 35. BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 18 Haddud, A., McAllen, D. K., & DeSouza, A. R. (2018). Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business Environments. In Marktorientiertes Produkt- und Produktionsmanagement in digitalen Umwelten (pp. 47-60). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden. Kadar, M., Moise, I.A. & Colomba, C., (2014). Innovation management in the globalized digital society. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, pp. 1083–1089. Kane, G.C., Palmer, D., Phillips, A.N. & Kiron, D., (2015). Is your business ready for a digital future?. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(4), pp. 37–44. Kay, J., & Willman, P. (2018). Managing technological innovation: Architecture, trust and organizational relationships in the firm. In New Technologies and the Firm (pp. 19-35). Routledge. Lendel, V., Hittmár, Š. & Latka, M., (2015). Application of management of innovation processes in enterprises: management approach, problems, and
  • 36. recommendations. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34, pp. 410–416. Mohnen, P. & Hall, B.H., (2013). Innovation and productivity: An update. Eurasian Business Review, 3(1), pp. 47–65. Comment Summary Page 2 1. This wording seems a bit circular: "the best way to understand...is the need to understand." Is there a clearer way you could state this? 2. Even without the word "I," you're indirectly referring to yourself here, which isn't necessary in this paper. You don't need to explain why you chose your topic; instead, you should explain why the topic is important in the field (which is exactly what you did in this sentence--you just need to frame it differently). Page 3 3. A running head should not exceed 50 characters and should not extend to a second line. When your title is long, choose just a key phrase to use as your running head. 4. This word usually isn't made plural. "Studies" is the more common term. Page 4
  • 37. 5. What group are you talking about? You don't need to describe the whole study, but you do need to give enough context to make it understandable. 6. Don't put a comma after "et al." unless there is a grammatical necessary for it in the sentence. 7. I'm not sure how the last part of this sentence relates to the rest of it. Are you saying that if a company proceeds with business as usual, but then suddenly breaks away from that pattern and adopts a new technology, the sudden change can slow growth and create decline? You may need to explain how that would happen. Page 5 8. I'm having a hard time understanding your meaning in these sentences, and I'm wondering if you are trying to paraphrase your sources word-by-word instead of capturing the entire meaning. Whenever you paraphrase, read back through what you've written and check to make sure it flows and makes sense. Page 6 9. The subject of all the verbs in this sentence is "innovation," so all the verbs should be in the same form: speeds, increases, ensures, and develops. 10. If you have three or more authors, put a comma before the last author's name. Also, with three authors, after the first time you cite them, you should use et al. instead of writing all of them out. Page 7 11. Most people would probably use the word "world" here.
  • 38. 12. What does this mean? I have never heard of this as a research strategy. It has become fairly common for researchers to provide a brief definition of their methodology, so you should do the same here. Page 8 13. Also, for future reference, if you are doing a study that is purely based on secondary sources, you probably don't need to do all this methodology description. These sections of a paper are more useful for empirical studies. 14. Your topic can't really ensure that; it's up to the businesses to choose their own technology. Page 9 15. This definition and the following claim would be great at the beginning of your paper! 16. Change this comma to a semicolon because you are joining two complete sentence. You also need a semicolon before "therefore" in the next sentence. Page 10 17. This comma doesn't need to be here. 18. Try not to overuse the vague term "things." There are usually more precise words you can use in place of it. Page 11 19. You should cite a source or sources here. Who originally used these terms in this context? 20. This is a good sentence because it's short and clear! Just one thing: Change this hyphen to a dash (two hyphens together). A hyphen is used to create compound words like "real-time." A dash is used to create a strong pause in
  • 39. a sentence. 21. You need a verb here. "Address" and "invent" are both verbs, so in order for this list to be parallel, you need another verb--perhaps "meet." Page 12 22. You might need to explain what this term means in a business context, since it's normally used in the natural sciences. Page 13 23. should be "are," since there are two parts to the subject 24. Give a brief explanation of who the participants were; this will make the data more meaningful to readers. 25. "Inception" and "emergence" mean basically the same thing; you don't need both in this sentence. Page 14 26. You should either make this an APA formatted heading or incorporate it into the grammar of the sentence as a transition. 27. Apply the above comment to all these phrases at the beginnings of the next few paragraphs. Page 15 28. "Exploit" almost always has a negative connotation. I would use a similar but more neutral word like "untapped." 29. In the middle of this list, you shift from nouns (expenses, acceleration) to verbs (expedite, bring). All the items on
  • 40. the list should be the same part of speech. Page 16 30. All three of these verbs should be in the same form: strategizes, implements, and manages. Purpose: 25 Levels of Achievement: Advanced 23 (11.50%) - 25 (12.50%) The purpose for writing is clearly seen in the piece. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is included in the appropriate place. Proficient 21 (10.50%) - 22 (11.00%) The purpose for writing is discernible in the piece. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is included, though not necessarily in the appropriate place. Developing 1 (0.50%) - 20 (10.00%) The purpose for writing is not clearly stated, but it is somewhat discernible. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is missing or difficult to identify. Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%) The purpose for writing is entirely unclear. Feedback: clearly stated Content: 45 Levels of Achievement: Advanced 46 (23.00%) - 50 (25.00%) Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to a strong
  • 41. product that fulfills the purpose for writing. Proficient 42 (21.00%) - 45 (22.50%) Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to an adequate product that mostly fulfills the purpose for writing. Developing 1 (0.50%) - 41 (20.50%) Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources may be lacking, but the content at least partly fulfills the purpose for writing. Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%) The content is insufficient, illogical, and/or poorly supported, and it does not fulfill the purpose for writing. Feedback: Impressive research! The only additional thing I would suggest doing is to define key terms. Organization: 22 Levels of Achievement: Advanced 37 (18.50%) - 40 (20.00%) Information is organized in a way that is logical and readable and that conforms to the expectations of the genre. The project is 8–11 pages. Proficient 34 (17.00%) - 36 (18.00%) Information is organized in a way that is, overall, logical and readable and that mostly conforms to the expectations of the genre. The project is 8–11 pages or very close to that range. Developing 1 (0.50%) - 33 (16.50%) The organization of the piece may be confusing or somewhat illogical, but it can be discerned. It shows an inadequate attempt to conform to the expectations of the genre. The piece may be more than a page outside the required range. Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%) The piece has no discernible organizational scheme, OR it is significantly under 8 or over 11 pages. Feedback:
  • 42. I'm deducting some points here because your paper is several pages over the limit. Part of the assignment was to present your research concisely enough to fit into a relatively small page range. In a paper like this, based only on secondary sources, you probably don't need to describe your methodology in detail. Also, I noticed some repetition. Creating an outline might help you avoid saying the same thing in more than one place. Style and mechanics: 18 Levels of Achievement: Advanced 28 (14.00%) - 30 (15.00%) The writing is professional in tone and style, with few to no errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. “Professional” is defined according to the field and the context (e.g., it may be appropriate for a pastor to use an informal tone in a sermon). Proficient 25 (12.50%) - 27 (13.50%) The writing is mostly professional in tone and style, with some errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Developing 1 (0.50%) - 24 (12.00%) The writing is somewhat unprofessional in tone and style, with frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%) The tone and style are entirely unprofessional, OR errors are frequent and significant enough to seriously impede readability. Feedback: See my notes on grammar. Also, the writing style of your paper was sometimes difficult for me to decipher. Sometimes you used an unusual word where you could have used a simpler word, and I wondered if it was because you were trying not to plagiarize your sources. Of course, this is an admirable goal, but if avoiding the words your source used is going to make your prose awkward, it might be better to quote. Documentation: 25
  • 43. Levels of Achievement: Advanced 28 (14.00%) - 30 (15.00%) At least 8 sources are used and cited correctly (in-text and at the end) in the documentation style most commonly used in the field. Proficient 25 (12.50%) - 27 (13.50%) Five to seven sources are used, and some errors in citation may be present. Developing 1 (0.50%) - 24 (12.00%) Fewer than five sources are used, and errors in citation may be frequent. Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%) No sources are cited in-text and/or at the end. Feedback: Again, you have an impressive list of sources! Your APA documentation is all correct except that you need to italicize journal titles (not article titles) and volume numbers. Formatting: 20 Levels of Achievement: Advanced 23 (11.50%) - 25 (12.50%) The document is formatted according to the conventions of the chosen genre. This category may include spacing, font, headings, the absence or presence of special sections such as a title page or table of contents, etc. Proficient 21 (10.50%) - 22 (11.00%) The document is mostly formatted according to the conventions of the chosen genre. Developing 1 (0.50%) - 20 (10.00%) A recognizable attempt is made to conform to the formatting conventions of the chosen genre. Not Present 0 (0.00%) - 0 (0.00%) The document formatting is entirely inappropriate to the genre. Feedback: See my note about the running head.
  • 44. Raw Total: 155.00 (of 200) Research Quick Guide to English Step one: Determining Research Needs Type of Research: Is the topic literary in nature? Are you doing an analysis of previous work? This list is endless. To determine the type of research you need to conduct, you can start by asking yourself these questions: 1. Am I creating original research? Or am I simply reviewing another’s work? 2. Do I need to perform an experiment to figure results? 3. Am I attempting to establish a connection between two or more things? 4. Does this topic require the use of rare or old resources? Extent: Research varies in the extent that needs to be conducted. If you are simply reviewing a piece of research or book, you will need fewer resources and likely less time. However, if for archival research, the process will be much more elaborate and take more time. You can determine the extent by: 1. Determining audience/outlet 2. Looking for similar research conducted previouslyStep two: Where to Look and What to Look For Library: Your local or collegiate library is a great place to begin your search for sources. Books, of course, are found here, but there is a plethora of other sources available as well, such as: journals, various media (film, audiobook, photographs), newspapers, and magazines. Online Database: Online sources are abundant and can provide access to sources that likely would be out of reach otherwise. Some great online databases to consider for English related topics are: 1. Gale: go.galegroup.com 2. EEBO (Early English Books Online): eeebo.chadwyck.com 3. JSTOR: jstor.org Non-Traditional Sources: Not all research requires the exclusive use of scholarly or peer-reviewed sources. You may
  • 45. decide to include some of the following into your research: Interviews, social media, surveys, and more.Step three: Evaluating Resources Credibility: Look for words like “scholarly” and “peer- reviewed”. “.org” and “.gov” websites tend to be safe to use, as well as sources located through online databases such as the ones listed above. Relevancy: Does it apply to your topic? Will it strengthen your argument or points? Is it current and up-to-date? (If that’s of importance) Appropriate: Is this source too elementary or advanced for my research? Would this source be accepted within the field of this research topic? Step four: Common Citations in MLA Format Books: Standard format: Last name, First name. Title of book. Publisher, Publication date. Example: Clare, Cassandra. City of Bones. McElderry, 2007. Articles: Standard format (for scholarly journal): Author(s). “Article Title”. Journal Title, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages. Example: Jarvis, Christine. “Becoming a Woman Through Wicca: Witches and Wiccans in Contemporary Teen Fiction.” Children’s Literature in Education, vol. 39, no. 1, 2008, pp. 43-52.Online Sources: Standard format (for online article): Author(s). “Article Title”. Journal Title. Vol., Issue, Publication Date, Pages. Database, Doi. Access Date. Example: Berger, Helen A., and Douglas Ezzy. “Mass Media and Religious Identity: A Case
  • 46. Study of Young Witches.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, vol. 48, no. 3, 2009, pp. 501–514. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40405642. Accessed 25 Sep. 2017. Credits: MLA Handbook. 8th Edition. Modern Language Association, 2016. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2017, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 4 Oct. 2017. The research quick guide is an unusual assignment, so let me clarify a few things. You will be creating a brief guide to research for a student or practitioner in your field. (If you work, study, and/or are interested in multiple fields, just pick one.) Keep this fairly general--it is not a guide to doing research on a particular topic, but a guide to doing research in a particular field (though there may be exceptional cases in which you need to go a bit narrower--email me if you think one of those cases may be yours). Think of it as something you might want to laminate and keep on your desk so that you can consult it whenever you are starting or working on a research project-- or something you might share with new practitioners in your field. For example, you might list a few go-to journals and/or databases in your field. You should also include examples for citing sources in your field's primary documentation style. Make sure you follow the instructions, but you can get creative on this assignment. It should not be in traditional academic paper format. One last comment: Read the instructions carefully. I'll be looking to see if you included all the required components. Pay attention to design as well. Organize the text
  • 47. in a manner that's both attractive and easy to navigate. I've attached an example created by a student a few years ago who gave me permission to share her guide. Your guide doesn't need to (shouldn't, in fact) look exactly like hers, but it should give you an idea of what to include. "SAMPLE Research Quick Guide to English" ENGL 602 Research Quick Guide Instructions For this assignment, you will create a 2-2.5 page guide to doing research in your field. A generalized guide to research in any field would be too broad; a guide to doing research on your specific project topic would be too narrow. Ideally, you will create a resource that you will be able to use in the future and perhaps share with others who are new to research in your field. This guide must take the form of a handout or fact sheet that can be quickly accessed and visually scanned for answers/advice. The document layout is up to you—think about what you would want a guide like this to look like—but you will be graded on its readability and user-friendliness. You can use text-boxes, bullet points, or graphics; just be mindful of space limitations. You may want to organize the information in chronological order (the research process, start to finish) or by categories; again, this is up to you. At minimum, your topics must include the following: determining your research needs, finding sources (where to look), evaluating sources (how do you know if a source is credible, relevant, and appropriate), and citing common types of sources in the documentation style most common in your field (examples would be very helpful). You can also include any information that doesn’t fit under these headings but that you think would be helpful. But remember
  • 48. that you’re limited to two pages and that you want to keep the information readable. At the bottom of the last page, preferably in small print so it does not take up too much space (this is the only part of the guide that should be in tiny print!), list any sources that you consulted in creating this resource. You can call this section “Sources Consulted,” “Credits,” or another term that you like. At minimum, this list must include the documentation manual for your field. If that is the only source, that is okay, but you might also want to supplement your personal experience by looking at existing research guides online, etc. The crucial thing is to make this information your own—do not just copy something you find. Before you submit your proposal, use the rubric as a checklist to make sure you have addressed all necessary parts of the assignment. ENGL 602 Research Quick Guide Grading Rubric Criteria Levels of Achievement Content 70% Advanced Proficient Developing Not Present Points Earned Determining Research Needs 28 to 30 points Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for assessing a task to determine the extent and type of research that needs to be done. 25 to 27 points Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for assessing
  • 49. a task to determine the extent and type of research that needs to be done. 1 to 24 points Extent and type of research are mentioned, but insufficient and/or poorly articulated advice on these topics is given. 0 points Extent and type of research are not mentioned. Finding Sources 28 to 30 points Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for where and how to locate sources. 25 to 27 points Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for where and how to locate sources. 1 to 24 points Where and how to locate sources is mentioned, but insufficient and/or poorly articulated advice on this topic is given. 0 points Where and how to locate sources is not mentioned. Evaluating Sources 28 to 30 points Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for how to evaluate a source based on credibility, relevance, appropriateness, and any other criteria the student deems important. 25 to 27 points Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for how to evaluate a source based on credibility, relevance, appropriateness, and any other criteria the student deems important. 1 to 24 points Evaluation of sources is mentioned, but credibility, relevance,
  • 50. and appropriateness may not all be addressed, and the advice may be insufficient or poorly articulated. 0 points Evaluation of sources is not mentioned.. Document Layout 14 to 15 points Headings, white space, bulleting, and other document features are used to organize the information in a way that is easily navigable. The document is 2-2.5 pages. 13 to 13 points The document may be slightly under 1 or over 2 pages. The document layout is effective overall, though there may be room for improvement in some areas. 1 to 12 points The document may be somewhat under 1 or over 2 pages. The document layout is adequate but is not user-friendly. 0 points The document is significantly under 1 or over 2 pages, OR the document layout seriously impedes usability. Structure 30% Advanced Proficient Developing Not Present Points Earned Citing Sources 28 to 30 points Well-articulated and substantial advice is provided for how to cite sources in the field’s documentation style. Examples of two or more source types are included. 25 to 27 points Adequately clear and sufficient advice is provided for how to
  • 51. cite sources in the field’s documentation style. At least one example is included. 1 to 24 points Documentation is mentioned, but the advice may be insufficient or poorly articulated, and examples may not be provided. 0 points Documentation is not mentioned. Works Consulted 14 to 15 points At the end of the document, a correctly-formatted list of sources consulted in the creation of the quick guide is provided. This list includes the style manual for the field. 13 to 13 points t the end of the document, a list of sources consulted in the creation of the quick guide is provided. This list includes the style manual for the field. The list may contain a few formatting errors. 1 to 12 points At the end of the document, a list of sources consulted in the creation of the quick guide is provided. This list may not include the style manual for the field. The list may contain numerous and/or significant formatting errors. 0 points No Works Consulted list is present. Total /150 Instructor's Comments: Page 2 of 2 ENGL 602 Writing in Your Field Project Final Grading Rubric Criteria Levels of Achievement
  • 52. Content 70% Advanced Proficient Developing Not Present Points Earned Purpose 23 to 25 points The purpose for writing is clearly seen in the piece. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is included in the appropriate place. 21 to 22 points The purpose for writing is discernible in the piece. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is included, though not necessarily in the appropriate place. 1 to 20 points The purpose for writing is not clearly stated, but it is somewhat discernible. If the genre calls for a thesis statement, research question, or other explicit statement of purpose, it is missing or difficult to identify. 0 points The purpose for writing is entirely unclear. Content 46 to 50 points Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to a strong product that fulfills the purpose for writing. 42 to 45 points Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources all contribute to an adequate product that mostly fulfills the purpose for writing. 1 to 41 points Ideas, reasoning, and use of sources may be lacking, but the content at least partly fulfills the purpose for writing. 0 points The content is insufficient, illogical, and/or poorly supported,
  • 53. and it does not fulfill the purpose for writing. Organization 37 to 40 points Information is organized in a way that is logical and readable and that conforms to the expectations of the genre. The project is 11-13 pages. 34 to 36 points Information is organized in a way that is, overall, logical and readable and that mostly conforms to the expectations of the genre. The project is 11-13 pages or very close to that range. 1 to 33 points The organization of the piece may be confusing or somewhat illogical, but it can be discerned. It shows an inadequate attempt to conform to the expectations of the genre. The piece may be more than a page outside the required range. 0 points The piece has no discernible organizational scheme, OR it is significantly under 11 or over 13 pages. Formatting 23 to 25 points The document is formatted according to the conventions of the chosen genre. This category may include spacing, font, headings, the absence or presence of special sections such as a title page or table of contents, etc. 21 to 22 points The document is mostly formatted according to the conventions of the chosen genre. 1 to 20 points A recognizable attempt is made to conform to the formatting conventions of the chosen genre. 0 points The document formatting is entirely inappropriate to the genre. Structure 30%
  • 54. Advanced Proficient Developing Not Present Points Earned Style and Mechanics 28 to 30 points The writing is professional in tone and style, with few to no errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. “Professional” is defined according to the field and the context (e.g., it may be appropriate for a pastor to use an informal tone in a sermon). 25 to 27 points The writing is mostly professional in tone and style, with some errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. 1 to 24 points The writing is somewhat unprofessional in tone and style, with frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. 0 points The tone and style are entirely unprofessional, OR errors are frequent and significant enough to seriously impede readability. Documentation 28 to 30 points At least 8 sources are used and cited correctly (in-text and at the end) in the documentation style most commonly used in the field. 25 to 27 points Five to seven sources are used, and some errors in citation may be present. 1 to 24 points Fewer than five sources are used, and errors in citation may be frequent. 0 points No sources are cited in-text and/or at the end. Total
  • 55. /200 Instructor's Comments: Page 1 of 2 ENGL 602 Annotated Bibliography Instructions This is step 2 of the process that will culminate in the Writing in Your Field Project (final product). Before you start this assignment, read the feedback on your Writing in Your Field Project: Proposal that you received from your instructor (in the rubric and other grading comments, as well as any feedback you may have received by email) and your classmates (in Discussion Board Forum 2). (Feedback is already added in the Question Post) Feedback:I'm a little confused about your genre, since you identified it as "descriptive copywriting" in the first paragraph but as a research paper in the last paragraph. For this assignment, you are required to cite at least 15 sources that you plan to use in the Writing in Your Field Project. (Of course, you may add or delete sources between this assignment and the final project, but at this stage you should be trying your best to find sources that will be useful in the final project.) Organize the sources in alphabetical order. For each Annotated Bibliography entry, first cite the source the way you would cite it in the reference list or its equivalent in your field. (Even though this assignment is called a bibliography, use reference list formatting if you’re using APA and works cited formatting if you’re using MLA.) Then write a half-page paragraph (200- 250 words) that briefly 1) summarizes the source (the summary should be the shortest part of the paragraph, no more than 2 sentences), 2) evaluates it (considering factors such as credibility, timeliness, and acceptability in the field), and 3) explains how you plan to use the source in your project. You do
  • 56. not need a separate reference list at the end of the assignment. There are no restrictions on the types of sources you can use; instead, think about the kinds of sources that will best help you accomplish your research goal and that would be accepted in the field you chose. These will not necessarily always be academic, peer-reviewed sources. You might use newspaper reports, popular non-fiction books, interviews, personal correspondence, or tweets. If you are not sure how to cite some of these less- common sources and cannot find information in the most recent manual of the documentation style you are using, talk to your instructor. Before you submit your proposal, use the rubric as a checklist to make sure you have addressed all necessary parts of the assignment. ENGL 602 Annotated Bibliography Grading Rubric Criteria Levels of Achievement Content 70% Advanced Proficient Developing Not Present Points Earned Number of Citations 14 to 15 points At least 15 sources are cited. 13 to 13 points Eight to 12 sources are cited. 1 to 12 points One to five sources are cited. 0 points
  • 57. No sources are cited. Correct Citations 28 to 30 points The sources are correctly cited according to the documentation style of the chosen field. 25 to 27 points The student has made a recognizable attempt to cite the sources according to the chosen documentation style, but some errors are present. 1 to 24 points Errors are serious enough that it is difficult to identify the documentation style. 0 points The sources are not cited in any consistent manner. Summary 28 to 30 points Each source is very briefly summarized. This summary is no more than 2 sentences. 25 to 27 points The summary is too long in comparison to the rest of the annotation. 1 to 24 points The summary is inadequate or misses the point. 0 points The sources have not been summarized. Evaluation 28 to 30 points Each source is evaluated, considering credibility, timeliness, and acceptability in the field, among other relevant factors. The evaluation is longer than the summary. 25 to 27 points The article is evaluated, but credibility, timeliness, and acceptability in the field are not all addressed.
  • 58. 1 to 24 points The evaluation is shallow or ignores all three of the listed factors (credibility, timeliness, and acceptability in the field) and other relevant factors. 0 points The sources have not been evaluated. Structure 30% Advanced Proficient Developing Not Present Points Earned Explanation of Use 28 to 30 points How this source may be used in the final project is described in one to two sentences of specific detail. 25 to 27 points How this source may be used in the final project is described vaguely or inadequately. 1 to 24 points The student mentions that the source will be useful in the final project but does not explain how. 0 points The source's use in the final project is not mentioned. Style and Mechanics 14 to 15 points The writing is professional in tone and style, with few to no errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. 13 to 13 points There are some errors and/or inappropriate tone choices. 1 to 12 points There are significant errors and/or inappropriate tone choices. 0 points
  • 59. Either the tone of the writing is entirely inappropriate to the task or there are so many errors as to seriously impede readability. Total /150 Instructor's Comments: Page 2 of 2 ENGL 602 Writing in Your Field Project: Final Product Instructions This is the assignment that the Project Proposal and Annotated Bibliography have been leading to. Before you start writing it, read your instructor’s grading feedback on the Annotated Bibliography, along with any other feedback your instructor may have given by email, etc. In addition, since this is a lengthy assignment, you should not wait long to begin composing it. You will produce an 11-13-page piece of research-based writing in a genre commonly used in the workplace in a field you are either currently working in or planning to enter. This product can be in any genre that involves research and could logically fit within the limits of 11-13 pages of writing: empirical article, lesson plan, sermon, case study, proposal, SWOT analysis, literature review, report, journalistic article, grant application, observational narrative, presentation script, or any other genre approved by the instructor. The project may include tables, figures, embedded videos, and other media appropriate to the genre. However, at least 75% (a rough estimate) of the document must consist of written text. Some genres typically call for a thesis statement, research question, or hypothesis at the beginning of the piece; others do
  • 60. not. Regardless of the genre you are writing in, the instructor should be able to discover your purpose for writing (even if this does not appear until the end of the piece) and evaluate whether or not you have fulfilled this purpose. You are required to use (quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise use ideas from) at least 8 sources (which means you do not have to use all 15 of the sources in the Annotated Bibliography). Although many of the above-listed genres (such as a sermon) normally do not provide visible citations of sources, in this assignment you are required to show your research by citing sources both in-text (through parenthetical citations, footnotes, etc.) and in a reference list/bibliography/works cited page at the end, according to the documentation style most commonly used in the field in which you are writing. However, you do not need to follow the formatting requirements (e.g., spacing, title pages, etc.) for an academic paper in that documentation style. Rather, follow the formatting conventions typically used for the genre you are writing in. If you don’t know what those conventions are, look for a guide or template online. Ask your instructor if you need help. Please note that the range of 11-13 pages applies only to the body of the paper. The reference list/bibliography/works cited does not count toward the page total, nor does any “front matter” (title page, abstract, etc.). Before you submit your proposal, use the rubric as a checklist to make sure you have addressed all necessary parts of the assignment. Running head: MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS
  • 61. 1 MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS 2 Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business Environments Name Institution The topic of my choice is managing technological innovation in digital business environments. I have chosen this topic because I intend to get an employment in one of the busy organizations where I can manage technological innovation. The genre style for my writing will be descriptive copywriting. One way to do this is by describing, succinctly and briefly. It creates a vivid picture more powerful than bare facts, and assists the make important led- buying decision. Innovation play a critical role in assisting businesses to sustain and grow their market shares. It takes place in dissimilar functions and parts of the business and it is significant to understand the best way to create and manage it effectively. Digital technologies have been regularly used in business and this has led to digitized workplace that demand the need to invent to remain at the top in market (Kay & Willman, 2018). Digitizing places of work has played key role in changing the way business is usually managed and this has similarly affected how innovation must be managed and embraced in such a novel business atmosphere. Therefore, the best way to understand technological innovation in digital business atmosphere I need
  • 62. to understand how technology has been shaping business world. The reason for choosing technological innovation in digital business environments is that business owners play a critical role in the identification and application of new technologies. By investing in initiatives that permit them to deliver efficient and effective services and products, they discover innovative solutions to complex challenges. Successful innovation using the technology needs collaboration, expert project management, planning and execution. Worldwide competition and rigorous demand to bring commodities to market very fast affect decisions. This research will be organized by first providing the background of the technological innovation in digital business environments. Technology innovation moves very fast and does not adhere to yearly review as well as financing schedule that many companies. This makes it hard for firms to make decisions which transformational technology to adopt, how to incorporate them and even replace the systems. Next would be to provide literature review based on the previous researches that have so far been conducted. Then literature review is followed by research methodology, and data analysis them conclusion and recommendations. According to Haddud, McAllen & DeSouza (2018), an effectual strategy that helps in managing technology and innovation normally involves using comprehensive analysis instruments. These tools help to ensure that the group can manage the risks to reduce negative impact and utilize opportunities. they similarly use decision support instruments like force field analysis and impact analysis to assess possible results and choose the best solution to the problem. Betz (2003) states that the internet offers an opportunity for owners of the business to easily link up with other entrepreneurs and learn by sharing techniques, tricks and tips. Using social media technologies like forums and blogs, the innovators find the innovation to solve problems. Based on this, managing technology and innovation tends to be an iterative procedure that need input from talented people.
  • 63. The types of sources that I intend to use would come from online and local libraries. The use of books, published theses, scholarly journals, peer reviews on the subject matter would be the greatest place to start. I also found primary resources like Apple Inc company, Unilever that makes reference practical. If I get enough resources and time, I would visit the two firms to identify current technological innovations. Lastly, this research will be used or presented as a research paper. References Betz, F. (2003). Managing technological innovation: competitive advantage from change. John Wiley & Sons. Haddud, A., McAllen, D. K., & DeSouza, A. R. (2018). Managing Technological Innovation in Digital Business Environments. In Marktorientiertes Produkt-und Produktionsmanagement in digitalen Umwelten (pp. 47-60). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden. Kay, J., & Willman, P. (2018). Managing technological innovation: Architecture, trust and organizational relationships in the firm. In New Technologies and the Firm (pp. 19-35). Routledge.