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Running Head: HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT 1
HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT 7
Health Needs Assessment
Student’s Name:
Course Number:
Course Title:
Professor’s Name:
Date:
Health Needs Assessment
Health assessment can be defined as a care program which
involves the identification of special needs of person or a group
of people and the way those needs are addressed by health
facilities or the entire health system. Health assessment also
involves the evaluation of the health status of an individual(s)
through the performance of a physical examination after
recording their health history. Health assessments are different
from diagnostic tests because the latter is carried out when a
person is already exhibiting the signs and/or symptoms of a
particular disease (Turnock, 2012).
Measure of Public Health
Measures used in assessing health are different and the first
measure of public health is mortality. Mortality is the rate of
deaths occurring in a particular population. It has been very
common for the numbers and rates of death to be used in
measuring public health. Globally, some diseases such as
cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and hypertension
among others have been observed to be the leading causes of
death. In order for policies to be formulated mortalities which
are specific on particular age groups are considered as they
provide more awareness on health status of that age group. The
same way, when mortality data is stratified on the basis of
ethnicity or race, the health disparities available are quantified
(Pennel, McLeroy, Burdine, Matarrita-Cascante & Wang, 2016).
Morbidity is the second measure that is used to measure public
health. It can literally be said to mean the rate of incidence of a
disease or illness in a specified group of individuals or a
population. This rate of morbidity can be estimated through use
of the rates of hospitalizations recorded among a group or a
population. This kind of measure is easy and advantageous in
that it is not difficult to get access to the rates of
hospitalizations. Although they are of very good use when
carrying out certain analyses, they can be biased indicators of
the health status (Turnock, 2012). For example, in cases where
there are increasing rates of outpatient treatment when handling
conditions which require hospitalization can adversely and
substantially affect the usefulness of the information or data
recorded for assessing health status.
Measuring disability is another dimension of morbidity that
looks into non-fatal health complications. Certain problems
such as pain in joints and bones often a result of arthritis can be
said to be main contributors of disability. Other chronic
conditions such as lung problems, heart disease, stroke, diabetes
etcetera are also known to be causers of disability. High rates of
disability could be taken to mean that the general health status
of the population is at risk diseases (Giger, 2016). Apart from
the mentioned three, the other measures that can be used to
assess the health of a group or population can be the functional
status and/or the quality of life. Mental, emotional, physical
functioning and well-being, energy, pain, general perceptions
about health and social functioning are also important aspects
used in the assessment of the health status. Quality of life as a
measure is used to determine health conditions that can lead to
significant pain and suffering but rarely death (Pennel,
McLeroy, Burdine, & Matarrita-Cascante, 2015).
Completed Needs Assessment
The first completed assessment selected was titled; “St. Mary’s
Community Health Needs Assessment 2016.” The data collected
in the needs assessment included; hospitalization, prevalence
and statistics regarding the incidences of health indicator
conditions and which had the greatest impact on the health of
the population in Northeast Georgia region. The data also
collected was concerning birth rates and maternal health, infant
mortality, demographic information, chronic diseases,
community level cancer data, death rates, discharge rates, risk
factors and prevalence of TB, HIV/AIDS and STD’s in addition
to other data compiled in the report (Broyard & Hui, 2016).
The second completed assessment which was selected had a
title; “Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment”. The assessment
was carried out to determine and help to improve the general
health of women and the well-being of children as well as
families. A thorough examination of the status of health of
women and children in Georgia. Data collected regarding the
needs assessment for analysis included; health related risk
behaviors such use of tobacco and alcohol use and etcetera,
chronic health conditions such as obesity and diabetes, the use
of preventive services such as screening on breast and cervical
cancer, hospital discharges information, family planning
programs, HIV/AIDS, maternal mortalities, disabilities and
STDs among other types of data (Gilmore, 2011).
Theories Influencing Needs Assessments
The “St. Mary’s Community Health Needs Assessment 2016”
was carried out using a comprehensive community development
approach. In the assessment, the approaches of community
building and community development were used and they
intended to put more emphasis on developing the capacity of the
community as well as its connections as a way of ensuring
better outcomes and results were realized such as health status,
safety and housing conditions, employment and economic
opportunities. Through the use of this approach, the health
interventions were coupled with strategies that contributed to
community building and the measures aimed at improving the
health status of the public.
Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment used an approach which
was policy centered. The aim of the program was to meet the
necessity of the “Title V Maternal and Child Health Services
Block Grant” to the states. The Title V Needs Assessment
created avenues for reassess capacity, identification of new
priorities and aligning the infrastructure that was existing to
satisfy and meet the needs of the population. The theory used
here depicted the use of community participation and which
involved awareness creation, changes in health behaviors,
health community organization and changes in community
processes. This approach attempted to involve the community
with the aim of reducing and cutting down disparities in the
health of mother and children.
Use of Results in Program Planning and Design
The outcomes obtained from the needs assessments were
important in that they were helpful in determining on whether
or not to delve into a health project. The assessment results in
both case studies were good in that they gave the projects
intended to be undertaken some desired impacts. Specific goals
were established from the assessment results. The outcomes also
advised and identified the required results in particular areas as
well as defining the existing disparities of the desired
situations. The results were also important in decision making
and they acted to provide relevant information which was useful
in making health decisions and the implementations of actions
become easy (Turnock, 2012).
The most pressing and critical health needs of the community
were identified and the actions required undertaken. Finally,
the results were important in getting the involved communities
engaged in the health activities and that they accepted the works
undertaken in the planned programs.
References
Broyard, F. & Hui, E. (2016). Community Health Needs
Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.stmarysathens.org/wp-
content/uploads/2014/01/2016-Community-Health-Needs-
Assessment.pdf
Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment, (2015). Georgia Five
Year Needs Assessment for the Maternal and Child Health
Services Title V Block Grant. Retrieved from
https://dph.georgia.gov/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/MCH/TitleV/
Ga_Five_Year_Needs_Assessment_DRAFT.pdf
Giger, J. N. (2016). Transcultural Nursing-E-Book: Assessment
and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Gilmore, G. D. (2011). Needs and capacity assessment
strategies for health education and health promotion. Jones &
Bartlett Publishers.
Pennel, C. L., McLeroy, K. R., Burdine, J. N., & Matarrita-
Cascante, D. (2015). Nonprofit hospitals’ approach to
community health needs assessment. American journal of public
health, 105(3), e103-e113.
Pennel, C. L., McLeroy, K. R., Burdine, J. N., Matarrita-
Cascante, D., & Wang, J. (2016). Community health needs
assessment: potential for population health
improvement. Population health management, 19(3), 178-186.
Turnock, B. (2012). Public health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Running head: PUBLIC HEALTH
1
PUBLIC HEALTH
2
Public Health
Institutional Affiliation
Insert the student’s name
Instructor’s name
Course
Date
Applications of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model
Predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling constructs in
educational diagnosis and evaluation (PRECEDE) and policy,
regulatory, and organizational constructs in educational and
environmental development (PROCEED) forms the PRECEDE-
PROCEED model. This is particular model is a widely used
planning model in health promotion and health education. It
covers various planning and evaluation techniques. The model
is divided into a number of phases. This paper will focus on the
educational and ecological assessment phase.
The health behavior selected for analysis is unprotected
intercourse among teens. The reports of an online survey
conducted on the TyraShow.com indicated that 52 percent of
survey respondents do not use protection when having sex.
Statistics have shown that many teens are still engaging in
unprotected sexual intercourse despite being aware of the
negative consequences. Centers for Disease Prevention and
Control (CDC) conducted a survey among U.S. high school
students in 2017. The results of this particular survey showed
that 46% of the respondents admitted having not used a condom
the last time they had sex. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model
may be applied in attempting to address this particular health
behavior.
Unprotected intercourse among teens is a health behavior which
is problematic. This is because of the negative consequences of
this particular behavior. Unprotected intercourse is one of the
sexual risk behaviors which put teens at risk for HIV infections,
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended early
pregnancy. Teens accounted for an estimated 21% of all new
HIV diagnoses and infections in the United States in 2017
according to report released by CDC. Among the teens
diagnosed with HIV, 87% were males while 13% were females.
More than half of the 20 million new STDs reported each year
were among the teens. CDC indicates that nearly 210,000 babies
were born to teen girls in the year 2016. Unprotected
intercourse is indeed problematic in that it is attributed to new
infections of HIV and STDs among teens. Early unintended
pregnancy is also another consequence of unprotected
intercourse. It is because of this particular reason that
unprotected intercourse among the teens need to be addressed.
Educational and Ecological Assessment
In this particular phase, a number of factors will be examined.
These are factors that if modified would most likely to result in
change in behavior and to sustain this particular change process.
In this particular situation, the behavior that is intended to be
changed is unprotected intercourse among teens. The factors
examined in this particular phase are classified as predisposing,
enabling, and reinforcing (PRE) factors. These factors influence
the likelihood that a behavioral and environmental change will
be realized.
Predisposing Factors
These are antecedents to behavior and may provide a rationale
or motivation for the health behavior. They include person’s
skills, self-efficacy, age, gender, education, ethnicity, attitudes,
values, and knowledge that might influence perceptions of the
need and use of protection during intercourse. These factors are
derived from the educational level of individuals and their
environment.
Reinforcing factors
These are factors that will provide continuing reward or
incentive for the persistence or repetition of positive behavior
change. Examples of these factors include social support,
praise, vicarious reinforcement, positive peer influence and
advice from other people. These factors are derived from the
ecological environment in which teens are exposed to.
Enabling Factors
These are antecedents to behavioral or environmental change
that will allow a motivation or certain policy to be achieved.
They include services, resources (health personnel, peer
counselors and peer educational materials), teen educational
projects, programs, friends, and family. Teens should know how
to access and use the protective contraceptives (condoms) and
where to get these contraceptives. These factors are derived
from the environment in which teens live.
Possible interventions based on the PRE factors
The change theories that will be used for designing the
intervention after this particular assessment include individual,
interpersonal, and community-level theories. The intervention
to address the predisposing factors will be to assess the skills
which the teens have with regard to use of protection. The
interventions aimed at addressing enabling factors will be to
assess the existing programs and resources which may help to
reduce the rate of unprotected intercourse among the teens.
Another intervention based on reinforcing factors is to analyze
the impact of advice and social support in reducing the rate of
unprotected intercourse among the teens.
Conclusion
The application of PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model will
be useful to teens in improving the rate of unprotected
intercourse. This particular model is significant in doing away
with the problem of unprotected intercourse among the teens. If
the discussed interventions are implemented then it will lead to
positive improvement.
References
CDC. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, (2017).
MMWR Surveill Summ 2018;67(No. SS-8).
Porter, C. M. (2016). Revisiting Precede–Proceed: A leading
model for ecological and ethical health promotion. Health
Education Journal, 75(6), 753-764.
Survey: Unprotected sex common among teens (2008) retrieved
at https://www.today.com/parents/survey-unprotected-sex-
common-among-teens-wbna27706917
Tapley, H., & Patel, R. (2016). Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED
model and service-learning to teach health promotion and
wellness: An innovative approach for physical therapist
professional education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education,
30(1), 47-59.

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Running Head HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT1HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMEN.docx

  • 1. Running Head: HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT 1 HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT 7 Health Needs Assessment Student’s Name: Course Number: Course Title: Professor’s Name: Date: Health Needs Assessment Health assessment can be defined as a care program which involves the identification of special needs of person or a group of people and the way those needs are addressed by health facilities or the entire health system. Health assessment also involves the evaluation of the health status of an individual(s) through the performance of a physical examination after recording their health history. Health assessments are different from diagnostic tests because the latter is carried out when a person is already exhibiting the signs and/or symptoms of a particular disease (Turnock, 2012). Measure of Public Health Measures used in assessing health are different and the first measure of public health is mortality. Mortality is the rate of
  • 2. deaths occurring in a particular population. It has been very common for the numbers and rates of death to be used in measuring public health. Globally, some diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and hypertension among others have been observed to be the leading causes of death. In order for policies to be formulated mortalities which are specific on particular age groups are considered as they provide more awareness on health status of that age group. The same way, when mortality data is stratified on the basis of ethnicity or race, the health disparities available are quantified (Pennel, McLeroy, Burdine, Matarrita-Cascante & Wang, 2016). Morbidity is the second measure that is used to measure public health. It can literally be said to mean the rate of incidence of a disease or illness in a specified group of individuals or a population. This rate of morbidity can be estimated through use of the rates of hospitalizations recorded among a group or a population. This kind of measure is easy and advantageous in that it is not difficult to get access to the rates of hospitalizations. Although they are of very good use when carrying out certain analyses, they can be biased indicators of the health status (Turnock, 2012). For example, in cases where there are increasing rates of outpatient treatment when handling conditions which require hospitalization can adversely and substantially affect the usefulness of the information or data recorded for assessing health status. Measuring disability is another dimension of morbidity that looks into non-fatal health complications. Certain problems such as pain in joints and bones often a result of arthritis can be said to be main contributors of disability. Other chronic conditions such as lung problems, heart disease, stroke, diabetes etcetera are also known to be causers of disability. High rates of disability could be taken to mean that the general health status of the population is at risk diseases (Giger, 2016). Apart from the mentioned three, the other measures that can be used to assess the health of a group or population can be the functional status and/or the quality of life. Mental, emotional, physical
  • 3. functioning and well-being, energy, pain, general perceptions about health and social functioning are also important aspects used in the assessment of the health status. Quality of life as a measure is used to determine health conditions that can lead to significant pain and suffering but rarely death (Pennel, McLeroy, Burdine, & Matarrita-Cascante, 2015). Completed Needs Assessment The first completed assessment selected was titled; “St. Mary’s Community Health Needs Assessment 2016.” The data collected in the needs assessment included; hospitalization, prevalence and statistics regarding the incidences of health indicator conditions and which had the greatest impact on the health of the population in Northeast Georgia region. The data also collected was concerning birth rates and maternal health, infant mortality, demographic information, chronic diseases, community level cancer data, death rates, discharge rates, risk factors and prevalence of TB, HIV/AIDS and STD’s in addition to other data compiled in the report (Broyard & Hui, 2016). The second completed assessment which was selected had a title; “Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment”. The assessment was carried out to determine and help to improve the general health of women and the well-being of children as well as families. A thorough examination of the status of health of women and children in Georgia. Data collected regarding the needs assessment for analysis included; health related risk behaviors such use of tobacco and alcohol use and etcetera, chronic health conditions such as obesity and diabetes, the use of preventive services such as screening on breast and cervical cancer, hospital discharges information, family planning programs, HIV/AIDS, maternal mortalities, disabilities and STDs among other types of data (Gilmore, 2011). Theories Influencing Needs Assessments The “St. Mary’s Community Health Needs Assessment 2016” was carried out using a comprehensive community development approach. In the assessment, the approaches of community building and community development were used and they
  • 4. intended to put more emphasis on developing the capacity of the community as well as its connections as a way of ensuring better outcomes and results were realized such as health status, safety and housing conditions, employment and economic opportunities. Through the use of this approach, the health interventions were coupled with strategies that contributed to community building and the measures aimed at improving the health status of the public. Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment used an approach which was policy centered. The aim of the program was to meet the necessity of the “Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant” to the states. The Title V Needs Assessment created avenues for reassess capacity, identification of new priorities and aligning the infrastructure that was existing to satisfy and meet the needs of the population. The theory used here depicted the use of community participation and which involved awareness creation, changes in health behaviors, health community organization and changes in community processes. This approach attempted to involve the community with the aim of reducing and cutting down disparities in the health of mother and children. Use of Results in Program Planning and Design The outcomes obtained from the needs assessments were important in that they were helpful in determining on whether or not to delve into a health project. The assessment results in both case studies were good in that they gave the projects intended to be undertaken some desired impacts. Specific goals were established from the assessment results. The outcomes also advised and identified the required results in particular areas as well as defining the existing disparities of the desired situations. The results were also important in decision making and they acted to provide relevant information which was useful in making health decisions and the implementations of actions become easy (Turnock, 2012). The most pressing and critical health needs of the community were identified and the actions required undertaken. Finally,
  • 5. the results were important in getting the involved communities engaged in the health activities and that they accepted the works undertaken in the planned programs. References Broyard, F. & Hui, E. (2016). Community Health Needs Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.stmarysathens.org/wp- content/uploads/2014/01/2016-Community-Health-Needs- Assessment.pdf Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment, (2015). Georgia Five Year Needs Assessment for the Maternal and Child Health Services Title V Block Grant. Retrieved from https://dph.georgia.gov/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/MCH/TitleV/ Ga_Five_Year_Needs_Assessment_DRAFT.pdf Giger, J. N. (2016). Transcultural Nursing-E-Book: Assessment and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. Gilmore, G. D. (2011). Needs and capacity assessment strategies for health education and health promotion. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Pennel, C. L., McLeroy, K. R., Burdine, J. N., & Matarrita- Cascante, D. (2015). Nonprofit hospitals’ approach to community health needs assessment. American journal of public health, 105(3), e103-e113. Pennel, C. L., McLeroy, K. R., Burdine, J. N., Matarrita-
  • 6. Cascante, D., & Wang, J. (2016). Community health needs assessment: potential for population health improvement. Population health management, 19(3), 178-186. Turnock, B. (2012). Public health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Running head: PUBLIC HEALTH 1 PUBLIC HEALTH 2 Public Health Institutional Affiliation Insert the student’s name Instructor’s name Course Date Applications of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model Predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling constructs in educational diagnosis and evaluation (PRECEDE) and policy, regulatory, and organizational constructs in educational and environmental development (PROCEED) forms the PRECEDE- PROCEED model. This is particular model is a widely used planning model in health promotion and health education. It covers various planning and evaluation techniques. The model is divided into a number of phases. This paper will focus on the educational and ecological assessment phase. The health behavior selected for analysis is unprotected intercourse among teens. The reports of an online survey conducted on the TyraShow.com indicated that 52 percent of survey respondents do not use protection when having sex. Statistics have shown that many teens are still engaging in
  • 7. unprotected sexual intercourse despite being aware of the negative consequences. Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) conducted a survey among U.S. high school students in 2017. The results of this particular survey showed that 46% of the respondents admitted having not used a condom the last time they had sex. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model may be applied in attempting to address this particular health behavior. Unprotected intercourse among teens is a health behavior which is problematic. This is because of the negative consequences of this particular behavior. Unprotected intercourse is one of the sexual risk behaviors which put teens at risk for HIV infections, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended early pregnancy. Teens accounted for an estimated 21% of all new HIV diagnoses and infections in the United States in 2017 according to report released by CDC. Among the teens diagnosed with HIV, 87% were males while 13% were females. More than half of the 20 million new STDs reported each year were among the teens. CDC indicates that nearly 210,000 babies were born to teen girls in the year 2016. Unprotected intercourse is indeed problematic in that it is attributed to new infections of HIV and STDs among teens. Early unintended pregnancy is also another consequence of unprotected intercourse. It is because of this particular reason that unprotected intercourse among the teens need to be addressed. Educational and Ecological Assessment In this particular phase, a number of factors will be examined. These are factors that if modified would most likely to result in change in behavior and to sustain this particular change process. In this particular situation, the behavior that is intended to be changed is unprotected intercourse among teens. The factors examined in this particular phase are classified as predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing (PRE) factors. These factors influence the likelihood that a behavioral and environmental change will be realized.
  • 8. Predisposing Factors These are antecedents to behavior and may provide a rationale or motivation for the health behavior. They include person’s skills, self-efficacy, age, gender, education, ethnicity, attitudes, values, and knowledge that might influence perceptions of the need and use of protection during intercourse. These factors are derived from the educational level of individuals and their environment. Reinforcing factors These are factors that will provide continuing reward or incentive for the persistence or repetition of positive behavior change. Examples of these factors include social support, praise, vicarious reinforcement, positive peer influence and advice from other people. These factors are derived from the ecological environment in which teens are exposed to. Enabling Factors These are antecedents to behavioral or environmental change that will allow a motivation or certain policy to be achieved. They include services, resources (health personnel, peer counselors and peer educational materials), teen educational projects, programs, friends, and family. Teens should know how to access and use the protective contraceptives (condoms) and where to get these contraceptives. These factors are derived from the environment in which teens live. Possible interventions based on the PRE factors The change theories that will be used for designing the intervention after this particular assessment include individual, interpersonal, and community-level theories. The intervention to address the predisposing factors will be to assess the skills which the teens have with regard to use of protection. The interventions aimed at addressing enabling factors will be to assess the existing programs and resources which may help to reduce the rate of unprotected intercourse among the teens.
  • 9. Another intervention based on reinforcing factors is to analyze the impact of advice and social support in reducing the rate of unprotected intercourse among the teens. Conclusion The application of PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model will be useful to teens in improving the rate of unprotected intercourse. This particular model is significant in doing away with the problem of unprotected intercourse among the teens. If the discussed interventions are implemented then it will lead to positive improvement. References CDC. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, (2017). MMWR Surveill Summ 2018;67(No. SS-8). Porter, C. M. (2016). Revisiting Precede–Proceed: A leading model for ecological and ethical health promotion. Health Education Journal, 75(6), 753-764. Survey: Unprotected sex common among teens (2008) retrieved at https://www.today.com/parents/survey-unprotected-sex- common-among-teens-wbna27706917 Tapley, H., & Patel, R. (2016). Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and service-learning to teach health promotion and wellness: An innovative approach for physical therapist professional education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 30(1), 47-59.