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Running Head: HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE
GLOBAL ECONOMY 1
HEATH INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE GLOBAL
ECONOMY 3
Health information system in the global economy
Student name
Professor
Course
Date of submission
The development of technology-aided tools has continuously
helped businesses, industries, and corporate organizations to
provide quality products and services effectively and
efficiently. Heath organization has also launched integrated
health information systems in their day to day activities. The
management system also aims at offering advanced patient care,
quality planning, and implementation of information application
that improves health activities. However, this strategy has to
follow ergonomics and heath working environment to meet the
competitive global economy. Heath informatics identifies
factors that foster development systems and their significance in
a heath set situation. The establishment of an information
scheme enables the management of healthcare data and a quick
collection and transmission of medical records using electronic
means. The integration of systems allows resource sharing,
which leverage and improves patient outcomes. In a typical
organization, the healthcare system influences policy-making,
research, and the decision-making process. As a result, there is
a primary concern of accessing, processing, and maintaining
large volumes of data within the organization (Bryant,2018).
Management systems come a log with security measures of
enhancing data security and privacy. Practice management
software enhances effective electronic monitoring of medical
and health record keeping. Heath system has indeed
transformed the healthcare organization in a significant way.
The latest technology has now enabled the automation of
services and medical events. Using the digital software heath
industry has automated administrative function, which has
replaced human interventions. This system is actively used to
offer global collaborative care through the access of common
heath care records. It is also used in population health
management after analyzing trends and clinical support systems.
In an economical scope, the use of technology in a health
facility creates efficiency and cost-saving. To sum HIS is a best
practice that increases integrity, accountability, and secures
sensitive data from malicious damage and illegal access. For a
fact, integration of the system has enabled global convince and
access to patient information(Chris,2019).
References
Bryant Joy. (2018). The Importance of Information Systems in
Healthcare. https://www.bryantstratton.edu/continuing-
education/healthcare/resources/information-systems
CHRIS BROOK. (2019, October 24). What is the Health
Information System? https://digitalguardian.com/blog/what-
health-information-system
The United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
(2017). The Management of Health Care Technology in Ten
Countries.
Dissertation Handbook
2019-2020
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 2
Table of Contents
Introduction 3
Doctoral Program and Dissertation Process 3
Purpose of Handbook 3
Dissertation Committee 3
Committee Members 3
Choosing committee members 3
Committee chair responsibilities 4
Responsibilities of other committee members 5
Candidate responsibilities 5
Dissertation Guidelines 6
Choosing a Research Topic 6
Dissertation Timeline 6
Dissertation Style 7
Quantitative Dissertations 7
Qualitative Dissertations 8
Final Document 9
Dissertation Research Approval Process 9
Oral Defense 10
Graduation 11
Appendix A: Quantitative Dissertation Information 12
Appendix B: Qualitative Dissertation Information 14
Appendix C: Dissertation Defense Rubric 19
Appendix D: Reporting Statistical Tests 20
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 3
Introduction
Doctoral Program and Dissertation Process
The Graduate School at the University of the Cumberlands
offers Doctor of Business
Administration, Doctor of Education, and Doctor of Philosophy
degrees. The doctoral
dissertation, designed to evaluate the candidate’s capabilities as
a scholar, is the final academic
requirement of the DBA, EdD, and PhD programs. Candidates
complete the dissertation during
professional research courses (LEAR 736, 839, 930, 931), which
are the last four courses taken
during the program. This handbook sets forth the guidelines for
completing the dissertation
process.
Purpose of Handbook
The purpose of this handbook is to guide candidates through
the dissertation process
including writing, defense, and final document submission.
Candidate and committee member
responsibilities are outlined, writing guidelines are detailed and
examples provided, required
sections for each chapter, and printing guidelines for the final
dissertation document are
included. The handbook is to be used by instructors,
dissertation chairs, and committee members
to ensure maintenance of high standards related to the form and
appearance of dissertations.
Dissertation Committee
Dissertation committees are made up of three members; the
dissertation chair and two
committee members. Each member has specific responsibilities
as outlined below.
Committee Members
Choosing committee members. While enrolled in LEAR 930,
the candidate and dissertation
chair will identify instructors to serve on his/her dissertation
committee. The dissertation course
instructor will serve as the dissertation chair. Other members
are to be instructors teaching at the
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 4
graduate level at University of the Cumberlands. These
members should be chosen based on
dissertation topic expertise and candidate needs. Dissertation
chairs will provide candidates with
a list of instructors available to serve on committees.
Committee chair responsibilities. Responsibilities of the
committee chair include:
itional
committee members.
of the dissertation.
process.
and ethical quality in the
dissertation research.
methods/procedures for data collection and
analysis.
committee and communicate
such with committee members. The candidate should avoid
consulting the full committee
for feedback without prior approval of the chair.
defense.
the department chair of the date, time, and location
of all dissertation defense
meetings.
members to the department chair
in a timely manner after the defense.
-ready copy of the dissertation to the
department chair prior to the
anticipated graduation date of the candidate.
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 5
Responsibilities of other committee members. Responsibilities
of other committee members
include:
g subject matter expertise as requested by the chair
or candidate.
clarification and resolution of
methodological issues during the dissertation process.
major flaws that are likely
to result in a candidate’s unsuccessful defense are identified.
manner.
Candidate Responsibilities
Responsibilities of the dissertation candidate include:
members based on expertise
in the dissertation topic area. The candidate is encouraged to
select at least one member
with expertise in data collection and analysis.
before collecting data.
read drafts of materials to
the chair, preparing
adequately for consultations, and communicating on a regular
basis with the chair.
personal or professional
situation which may interfere with program completion.
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 6
-free, print-ready copy of dissertation as a
pdf document to the
dissertation chair and the Graduate School office in a timely
manner after a successful
defense.
-sided copies using white, 24
lb. résumé paper.
to program office prior to the
end of the semester.
Dissertation Guidelines
Choosing a Research Topic
Candidates begin thinking about dissertation topics when
applying for admission to the program.
The dissertation topics must be grounded in theory, related to
program goals, and have specific
implications for practitioners. Candidates are encouraged to
choose research topics of personal
relevance and significance. When opportunities arise in
coursework, candidates should begin
researching these topics in the form of literature reviews and
other assignments that allow for
research. The research topic will be narrowed to a research
study and approved by the
department chair/director when candidates enroll in the first
dissertation course, LEAR 736. The
link for topic approval is provided through the Graduate School.
Dissertation Timeline
The dissertation topic is approved by the Graduate School and
department when candidates are
enrolled in LEAR 736. The review of literature is completed
while enrolled in LEAR 736, and
Chapter Two of the dissertation is written. This is a
requirement for enrolling in LEAR 839.
While enrolled in LEAR 839, candidates complete Chapter One,
the introduction to the study,
and Chapter Three, the methodology section. Candidates must
get approval for their research
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 7
from the Institutional Review Board while enrolled in LEAR
839, before collecting any data. A
completed Chapter One and Chapter Three and IRB approval are
required before candidates
enroll in LEAR 930. Candidates complete Chapter Four, which
presents their research findings,
while enrolled in LEAR 930. Once enrolled in LEAR 931,
candidates complete Chapter Five.
In Chapter Five, candidates interpret their findings, discuss
implications of those findings,
present recommendations for further study and action, and
discuss how their study fills a gap in
the literature and contributes to leadership. The final step in
the dissertation process is the oral
defense, which is completed in LEAR 931-935. Once the study
is successfully defended,
candidates submit printed copies of the dissertation to the
department chair. At that time, the
department chair recommends the candidate for graduation.
The DBA, EdD, and PhD programs are designed for
dissertations to be completed in four
courses. Candidates needing additional time may enroll in
additional courses providing the total
time in the program does not exceed five years. Enrollment in
courses beyond LEAR 931 must
be approved by the department chair.
Dissertation Style
The dissertation, a scholarly document, is written for
professionals in the field. The
dissertation may include a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed
methods study.
Quantitative Dissertations
While there is no set number of pages, a dissertation typically
includes approximately
100 pages for quantitative studies. The quantitative dissertation
follows a five chapter format
and deductive approach (see Appendix A). The sixth edition of
the Publication Manual of the
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 8
American Psychological Association (APA) is the style manual
to be used in writing the
dissertation. All APA guidelines should be followed.
Qualitative Dissertations
Unlike the EdD and Quantitative PhD dissertations, which
follow a five-chapter format,
the qualitative dissertation is not bound by those requirements.
Rather, the qualitative
dissertation should be approximately 45,000 words. This word
requirement applies to the text of
the dissertation only; it does not cover the title page,
acknowledgements, table of contents, or
other non-content related pages. Thus, with a small indulgence
in tautology, the dissertation,
should be as long as it needs to be, as long it meets the
minimum word requirement.
The Graduate School requires the use of footnotes (when
necessary), citations, and references for
all qualitative dissertations. All qualitative dissertations should
be double-spaced, typed in 12pt,
Times New Roman with 1” margins. Footnotes must be in 10pt
Times New Roman with a
double space between notes, but a single space inside the note
itself. The acknowledgements and
other non-textual pages at the beginning of the dissertation
should be in roman numerals at the
bottom-center of the page, and they should be continuous. The
title page does not have a page
number. When quoting, place punctuation marks inside the
quotation marks. For visual examples
of the title page, bibliography, and general formatting, please
refer to the Chicago Manual of
Style, 17th Edition and Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers
of Research Papers, Theses, and
Dissertations (8th ed.).
Final Document
The final dissertation document must be submitted while
enrolled in the last research
course, typically LEAR 931. The final document is submitted
after the successful oral defense is
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 9
presented and all committee member recommended edits have
been made. An error-free, print-
ready copy of dissertation is submitted as a pdf document after
a successful defense. The copy is
to be submitted electronically to the dissertation chair and the
Graduate School. Candidates print
a minimum of two one-sided copies using white, 24 lb. resume
paper. Candidates then submit a
minimum of two printed copies of the dissertation to the
program office prior to the designated
semester deadline. After having those copies bound, the UC
Binding Department will return the
two copies to the candidate. If the candidate wishes to keep
more than two bound copies,
he/should submit the number desired. The Binding Department
will bill the student for the
additional copies at a minimal cost per copy.
Dissertation Research Approval Process
Approval for conducting the dissertation research must be
obtained while enrolled in
LEAR 839 and is a pre-requisite to enrolling in LEAR 930. The
Institutional Review Board
application to conduct research and all supporting documents
must be submitted in LEAR 839.
The dissertation chair will review the document, and then the
student should submit the
documents to the Department of study (Leadership Studies,
Counseling, Business, or IT).
Candidates will receive an IRB Approval Letter once the
research has been approved. No
research is to be executed until IRB approval is granted and all
necessary consents (adults) and
assents (minors) are secured from participants. The IRB
Approval Letter is to be placed in the
dissertation as Appendix A.
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 10
Oral Defense
While enrolled in the final dissertation course, the candidate
must present an oral defense
of her/his research. This oral defense is presented after the
committee chair and all committee
members have given feedback and all edits have been made to
the dissertation document. The
Department of Leadership Studies will schedule the defense
session. All three committee
members must be present for the oral defense. The oral defense
session normally takes 45-60
minutes. The committee members and chair will ask questions
and offer comments. The
candidate will then be dismissed for committee deliberation.
Once the committee and chair have
deliberated and reached a decision, the candidate will be invited
to re-join the group for the
committee decision. The committee will make one of the
following decisions:
dissertation.
If one of the first two decisions is made, the committee chair
will work with the candidate to get
the final document ready to send to the department chair for
review. If the committee decision
requires major revisions or a new dissertation, the candidate
will enroll in another research
course to complete the revisions or rewrite.
The defense must be successfully completed by the department
defense deadline for the
semester. The dissertation chair and committee will evaluate
the candidate using the department
rubric (see Appendix C).
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 11
Graduation
Candidates should apply for graduation at the beginning of the
semester in which they
plan to graduate. The application for graduation is located at
https://inside.ucumberlands.edu/academics/registrar/graduation_
application.php. Once the
research has been successfully defended and copies of the
dissertation are received by the
department chair, the department chair will notify the registrar
that the candidate has completed
all program requirements and is eligible to graduate.
Graduation exercises are held in May.
Candidates are hooded during the graduation exercise.
https://inside.ucumberlands.edu/academics/registrar/graduation_
application.php
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 12
Appendix A
Quantitative Dissertation Format
Title Page
Signature Page
Acknowledgements
Abstract (150 words maximum)
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Chapter One (Introduction)
Overview
Background and Problem Statement
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Theoretical Framework
Limitations of the Study
Assumptions
Definitions
Summary
Chapter Two (Review of Literature)
Introduction
Subsections based on a deductive approach
Summary
Chapter Three (Procedures and Methodology)
Introduction
Research Paradigm (qualitative or quantitative)
Research Design
Sampling Procedures and or/
Data Collection Sources (reference Informed Consent and IRB
approval placed in Appendices)
Statistical Tests
Summary
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 13
Chapter Four (Research Findings)
Introduction
Participants and Research Setting
Analyses of Research Questions (one at a time)
Supplementary Findings (if any)
Summary
Chapter Five (Summary, Discussion, and Implications)
Introduction
Practical Assessment of Research Question(s)
Limitations of the Study
Implications for Future Study
Summary
References
Appendices (This section contains any tables, figures and
possible data sources that could not
be placed in the text of the paper due to its size, as well as
copies of consent forms and IRB
letters.)
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 14
Appendix B
Qualitative Dissertation Information
Title Page
Signature Page
Acknowledgements
Abstract (150 words maximum)
Table of Contents
Introduction (Example):
Title of Your Project
Overview
The introduction is where you will establish for your readers the
overall scope of your project. You will
establish the topic, the thesis, and general thesis map. It is in
the Introduction where you “hook” your readers into
wanting to know more about your topic and argument. In many
ways, this your chance to show off your writing,
thinking, and expertise on the subject as the Introduction serves
as your place to show the readers why your project
is important and worthwhile.
Please note several things regarding the format. First, at the
top-center, you note the Introduction, Chapter,
Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, or Dedication, placing a
colon at the end. Second, for the Introduction and
Chapters, you will then space one line down, and place the title
of each chapter. The exceptions are Introduction
where you will place the dissertation’s title and Chapter 1,
which you will title “Literature Review.” From there,
double-space between the chapter title and the start of the text.
Please note: unlike this example, the page number at
the start of the Introduction and each chapter must be bottom-
center.
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 15
Despite the open-ended nature of the qualitative dissertation,
each dissertation must start with an
Introduction. In the “Introduction,” the author must present his
or her research project, the overall scope of the work,
and produce the general thesis of the work as well a thesis map
elaborating the sub-topics/extent of each chapter.
The thesis map should logically support the thesis statement.
The introduction of each chapter should be the only
place where an outright thesis statement and map are used. The
thesis can (and probably should) be referred to
throughout the work, but it should be done in a more subtle,
literary style. Allow the introduction to be the place
where you state the thesis in a bold, upfront, and “in your face”
manner.
Chapter One
After the Introductory chapter, Chapter One of the dissertation
should be your Literature Review. Here, you
will elaborate and engage what the secondary literature says
about the general topic you are writing about. You are
expected to discuss and analyze both the seminal works – those
writings which have had an important and lasting
impact on how a topic is understood – on the topic as well
lesser-known contributions. You should make special
note of potential trends, how understanding of the topic has
changed over time, and any potential paradigms that
might have emerged and been influential on the writings on
your topic. This does not mean, however, you must
cover everything ever written on the topic or even talk about
them in glowing terms. Remember, be critical and set
your perspective and work apart from the other pieces on the
subject. For many topics, it would take a lifetime or
more to master that literature. Rather, a good-faith effort to
master the literature is what is expected.
After the Introduction and Chapter One, the rest is up to you.
You will spend the next chapters (however
many) elaborating your contribution and understanding of the
topic. These chapters need to be primary source-
driven. The last element of the textual part of the dissertation
must be a Conclusion. In it, you must provide a
general overview of the literature, what your work just argued,
and offer suggestive questions for future researchers
on the topic.
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 16
Appendix C
Dissertation Evaluation Rubric
Standard Score 4 3 2 1 Score
I.
Demonstrates
critical and
reflective thinking
capable of
facilitating
institutional,
informational
technology, or
business related
problem-solving or
school/ college
improvement.
Accurately assesses
two issues affecting
an institution’s
effectiveness as well
as offers a
convincing
argument for
improvement.
Accurately assesses
two issues affecting
an institution’s
effectiveness.
Accurately assesses
one issue affecting
an institution’s
performance.
No evidence is
presented.
II.
Demonstrates
consideration for the
impact of
leadership,
information
technology, or
business on
institutional
constituents.
Shows balance
between the needs
of two or more
constituent groups
while maintaining
organizational goals.
Shows realistic
consideration for the
needs of two or
more constituent
groups.
Shows realistic
consideration for the
needs of one
constituent group.
No evidence is
presented.
III. Demonstrates
effective analytical
and communication
skills.
Demonstrates a
professional level of
skills associated
with formatting,
grammar, spelling,
syntax, and use of
numbers.
Demonstrates
acceptable skills
associated with
formatting,
grammar, spelling,
syntax, and use of
numbers.
Needs minor
improvement in
skills associated
with formatting,
grammar, spelling,
syntax, and use of
numbers.
Needs significant
improvement in
skills associated
formatting,
grammar, spelling,
syntax, and use of
numbers.
IV.
Demonstrates
knowledge of
genres, paradigms,
theories or trends in
business, criminal
justice, education,
English, health
sciences, history,
information
technology, math,
nursing, psychology,
religion, or student
personnel services.
Subject is identified,
realistic, and
grounded in a
recognized genre,
paradigm, theory, or
trend.
Subject is identified
and is realistic, but it
lacks grounding in a
recognized genre,
paradigm, theory, or
trend.
Subject is identified
but is not realistic or
grounded in a
recognized genre,
paradigm, theory, or
trend.
Subject area is not
established.
Score
DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 17
Appendix D
Reporting Statistical Tests
For quantitative dissertations, the statistical tests are reported
in the abstract and Chapter
Four. The alpha should be set at .05. Some common examples
of tests used in quantitative
analysis are listed below as examples. All statistical symbols
are italicized. For all tests listed
below, report the degrees of freedom (except the Spearman’s rs,
where you report the number of
pairs).
Symbol Report findings Null hypothesis
Chi-Square Test X
2
(X
2
[df, N = ] = result, p < or >
.05)
The variables are independent.
Spearman’s rs rs (rs [number of pairs] = result, p
< or > .05)
There is no relationship between the
ranked data.
t-test
(Independent and
paired samples)
t (t [df] = result, p < or > .05) There is no difference in the
means.
ANOVA F F [df] = result, p < or > .05) There is no difference
in the means.
(If the null hypothesis is rejected,
then run post-hoc testing).
Regression or
Pearson Product
moment
correlation
coefficient r
r r [df] = result, p < or > .05) There is no relationship between
the
variables.
*For additional tests, please follow current APA guidelines.
Public Administration and Information
Technology
Volume 10
Series Editor
Christopher G. Reddick
San Antonio, Texas, USA
More information about this series at
http://www.springer.com/series/10796
Marijn Janssen • Maria A. Wimmer
Ameneh Deljoo
Editors
Policy Practice and Digital
Science
Integrating Complex Systems, Social
Simulation and Public Administration
in Policy Research
2123
Editors
Marijn Janssen Ameneh Deljoo
Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Faculty of Technology,
Policy, and
Management Management
Delft University of Technology Delft University of Technology
Delft Delft
The Netherlands The Netherlands
Maria A. Wimmer
Institute for Information Systems Research
University of Koblenz-Landau
Koblenz
Germany
ISBN 978-3-319-12783-5 ISBN 978-3-319-12784-2 (eBook)
Public Administration and Information Technology
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014956771
Springer Cham Heidelberg New York London
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the
Publisher, whether the whole or part of the
material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation,
reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation,
broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other
physical way, and transmission or information
storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software,
or by similar or dissimilar methodology
now known or hereafter developed.
The use of general descriptive names, registered names,
trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication
does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that
such names are exempt from the relevant
protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general
use.
The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume
that the advice and information in this book
are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication.
Neither the publisher nor the authors or the
editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the
material contained herein or for any errors
or omissions that may have been made.
Printed on acid-free paper
Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media
(www.springer.com)
Preface
The last economic and financial crisis has heavily threatened
European and other
economies around the globe. Also, the Eurozone crisis, the
energy and climate
change crises, challenges of demographic change with high
unemployment rates,
and the most recent conflicts in the Ukraine and the near East or
the Ebola virus
disease in Africa threaten the wealth of our societies in
different ways. The inability
to predict or rapidly deal with dramatic changes and negative
trends in our economies
and societies can seriously hamper the wealth and prosperity of
the European Union
and its Member States as well as the global networks. These
societal and economic
challenges demonstrate an urgent need for more effective and
efficient processes of
governance and policymaking, therewith specifically addressing
crisis management
and economic/welfare impact reduction.
Therefore, investing in the exploitation of innovative
information and commu-
nication technology (ICT) in the support of good governance
and policy modeling
has become a major effort of the European Union to position
itself and its Member
States well in the global digital economy. In this realm, the
European Union has
laid out clear strategic policy objectives for 2020 in the Europe
2020 strategy1: In
a changing world, we want the EU to become a smart,
sustainable, and inclusive
economy. These three mutually reinforcing priorities should
help the EU and the
Member States deliver high levels of employment, productivity,
and social cohesion.
Concretely, the Union has set five ambitious objectives—on
employment, innovation,
education, social inclusion, and climate/energy—to be reached
by 2020. Along with
this, Europe 2020 has established four priority areas—smart
growth, sustainable
growth, inclusive growth, and later added: A strong and
effective system of eco-
nomic governance—designed to help Europe emerge from the
crisis stronger and to
coordinate policy actions between the EU and national levels.
To specifically support European research in strengthening
capacities, in overcom-
ing fragmented research in the field of policymaking, and in
advancing solutions for
1 Europe 2020 http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm
v
vi Preface
ICT supported governance and policy modeling, the European
Commission has co-
funded an international support action called eGovPoliNet2. The
overall objective
of eGovPoliNet was to create an international, cross-
disciplinary community of re-
searchers working on ICT solutions for governance and policy
modeling. In turn,
the aim of this community was to advance and sustain research
and to share the
insights gleaned from experiences in Europe and globally. To
achieve this, eGovPo-
liNet established a dialogue, brought together experts from
distinct disciplines, and
collected and analyzed knowledge assets (i.e., theories,
concepts, solutions, findings,
and lessons on ICT solutions in the field) from different
research disciplines. It built
on case material accumulated by leading actors coming from
distinct disciplinary
backgrounds and brought together the innovative knowledge in
the field. Tools, meth-
ods, and cases were drawn from the academic community, the
ICT sector, specialized
policy consulting firms as well as from policymakers and
governance experts. These
results were assembled in a knowledge base and analyzed in
order to produce com-
parative analyses and descriptions of cases, tools, and scientific
approaches to enrich
a common knowledge base accessible via www.policy-
community.eu.
This book, entitled “Policy Practice and Digital Science—
Integrating Complex
Systems, Social Simulation, and Public Administration in Policy
Research,” is one
of the exciting results of the activities of eGovPoliNet—fusing
community building
activities and activities of knowledge analysis. It documents
findings of comparative
analyses and brings in experiences of experts from academia
and from case descrip-
tions from all over the globe. Specifically, it demonstrates how
the explosive growth
in data, computational power, and social media creates new
opportunities for policy-
making and research. The book provides a first comprehensive
look on how to take
advantage of the development in the digital world with new
approaches, concepts,
instruments, and methods to deal with societal and
computational complexity. This
requires the knowledge traditionally found in different
disciplines including public
administration, policy analyses, information systems, complex
systems, and com-
puter science to work together in a multidisciplinary fashion
and to share approaches.
This book provides the foundation for strongly multidisciplinary
research, in which
the various developments and disciplines work together from a
comprehensive and
holistic policymaking perspective. A wide range of aspects for
social and professional
networking and multidisciplinary constituency building along
the axes of technol-
ogy, participative processes, governance, policy modeling,
social simulation, and
visualization are tackled in the 19 papers.
With this book, the project makes an effective contribution to
the overall objec-
tives of the Europe 2020 strategy by providing a better
understanding of different
approaches to ICT enabled governance and policy modeling, and
by overcoming the
fragmented research of the past. This book provides impressive
insights into various
theories, concepts, and solutions of ICT supported policy
modeling and how stake-
holders can be more actively engaged in public policymaking. It
draws conclusions
2 eGovPoliNet is cofunded under FP 7, Call identifier FP7-ICT-
2011-7, URL: www.policy-
community.eu
Preface vii
of how joint multidisciplinary research can bring more effective
and resilient find-
ings for better predicting dramatic changes and negative trends
in our economies and
societies.
It is my great pleasure to provide the preface to the book
resulting from the
eGovPoliNet project. This book presents stimulating research by
researchers coming
from all over Europe and beyond. Congratulations to the project
partners and to the
authors!—Enjoy reading!
Thanassis Chrissafis
Project officer of eGovPoliNet
European Commission
DG CNECT, Excellence in Science, Digital Science
Contents
1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 1
Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer
2 Educating Public Managers and Policy Analysts
in an Era of Informatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 15
Christopher Koliba and Asim Zia
3 The Quality of Social Simulation: An Example from Research
Policy Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Petra Ahrweiler and Nigel Gilbert
4 Policy Making and Modelling in a Complex World . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 57
Wander Jager and Bruce Edmonds
5 From Building a Model to Adaptive Robust Decision Making
Using Systems Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 75
Erik Pruyt
6 Features and Added Value of Simulation Models Using
Different
Modelling Approaches Supporting Policy-Making: A
Comparative
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Dragana Majstorovic, Maria A.Wimmer, Roy Lay-Yee, Peter
Davis
and Petra Ahrweiler
7 A Comparative Analysis of Tools and Technologies
for Policy Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 125
Eleni Kamateri, Eleni Panopoulou, Efthimios Tambouris,
Konstantinos Tarabanis, Adegboyega Ojo, Deirdre Lee
and David Price
8 Value Sensitive Design of Complex Product Systems . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 157
Andreas Ligtvoet, Geerten van de Kaa, Theo Fens, Cees van
Beers,
Paulier Herder and Jeroen van den Hoven
ix
x Contents
9 Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development: Observations
and Lessons from International Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 177
Natalie Helbig, Sharon Dawes, Zamira Dzhusupova, Bram
Klievink
and Catherine Gerald Mkude
10 Values in Computational Models Revalued . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 205
Rebecca Moody and Lasse Gerrits
11 The Psychological Drivers of Bureaucracy: Protecting
the Societal Goals of an Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 221
Tjeerd C. Andringa
12 Active and Passive Crowdsourcing in Government . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 261
Euripidis Loukis and Yannis Charalabidis
13 Management of Complex Systems: Toward Agent-Based
Gaming for Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Wander Jager and Gerben van der Vegt
14 The Role of Microsimulation in the Development of Public
Policy . . . 305
Roy Lay-Yee and Gerry Cotterell
15 Visual Decision Support for Policy Making: Advancing
Policy
Analysis with Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 321
Tobias Ruppert, Jens Dambruch, Michel Krämer, Tina Balke,
Marco
Gavanelli, Stefano Bragaglia, Federico Chesani, Michela
Milano
and Jörn Kohlhammer
16 Analysis of Five Policy Cases in the Field of Energy Policy .
. . . . . . . . 355
Dominik Bär, Maria A.Wimmer, Jozef Glova, Anastasia
Papazafeiropoulou and Laurence Brooks
17 Challenges to Policy-Making in Developing Countries
and the Roles of Emerging Tools, Methods and Instruments:
Experiences from Saint Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 379
Dmitrii Trutnev, Lyudmila Vidyasova and Andrei Chugunov
18 Sustainable Urban Development, Governance and Policy:
A Comparative Overview of EU Policies and Projects . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 393
Diego Navarra and Simona Milio
19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training
in Nigeria: Bridging the Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 417
Tanko Ahmed
Contributors
Tanko Ahmed National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies
(NIPSS), Jos,
Nigeria
Petra Ahrweiler EA European Academy of Technology and
Innovation Assess-
ment GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany
Tjeerd C. Andringa University College Groningen, Institute of
Artificial In-
telligence and Cognitive Engineering (ALICE), University of
Groningen, AB,
Groningen, the Netherlands
Tina Balke University of Surrey, Surrey, UK
Dominik Bär University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany
Cees van Beers Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management, Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Stefano Bragaglia University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Laurence Brooks Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK
Yannis Charalabidis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece
Federico Chesani University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Andrei Chugunov ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Gerry Cotterell Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the
Social Sciences
(COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland,
Auckland, New Zealand
Jens Dambruch Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics
Research, Darmstadt,
Germany
Peter Davis Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the
Social Sciences
(COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland,
Auckland, New Zealand
Sharon Dawes Center for Technology in Government,
University at Albany,
Albany, New York, USA
xi
xii Contributors
Zamira Dzhusupova Department of Public Administration and
Development Man-
agement, United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs (UNDESA),
NewYork, USA
Bruce Edmonds Manchester Metropolitan University,
Manchester, UK
Theo Fens Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management,
Delft University of
Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Marco Gavanelli University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Lasse Gerrits Department of Public Administration, Erasmus
University
Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Nigel Gilbert University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Jozef Glova Technical University Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia
Natalie Helbig Center for Technology in Government,
University at Albany,
Albany, New York, USA
Paulier Herder Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management,
Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Jeroen van den Hoven Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management, Delft
University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Wander Jager Groningen Center of Social Complexity Studies,
University of
Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Marijn Janssen Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management, Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Geerten van de Kaa Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management, Delft
University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Eleni Kamateri Information Technologies Institute, Centre for
Research &
Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece
Bram Klievink Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management,
Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Jörn Kohlhammer GRIS, TU Darmstadt & Fraunhofer IGD,
Darmstadt, Germany
Christopher Koliba University of Vermont, Burlington, VT,
USA
Michel Krämer Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics
Research, Darmstadt,
Germany
Roy Lay-Yee Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the
Social Sciences
(COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland,
Auckland, New Zealand
Deirdre Lee INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG,
Galway, Ireland
Contributors xiii
Andreas Ligtvoet Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management, Delft Univer-
sity of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Euripidis Loukis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece
Dragana Majstorovic University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz,
Germany
Michela Milano University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Simona Milio London School of Economics, Houghton Street,
London, UK
Catherine Gerald Mkude Institute for IS Research, University of
Koblenz-Landau,
Koblenz, Germany
Rebecca Moody Department of Public Administration, Erasmus
University
Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Diego Navarra Studio Navarra, London, UK
Adegboyega Ojo INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG,
Galway, Ireland
Eleni Panopoulou Information Technologies Institute, Centre
for Research &
Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece
Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK
David Price Thoughtgraph Ltd, Somerset, UK
Erik Pruyt Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management,
Delft University of
Technology, Delft, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for
Advanced Study,
Wassenaar, The Netherlands
Tobias Ruppert Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics
Research, Darmstadt,
Germany
Efthimios Tambouris Information Technologies Institute, Centre
for Research &
Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of
Macedonia, Thessaloniki,
Greece
Konstantinos Tarabanis Information Technologies Institute,
Centre for Research
& Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of
Macedonia, Thessa-
loniki, Greece
Dmitrii Trutnev ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Gerben van der Vegt Faculty of Economics and Business,
University of Groningen,
Groningen, The Netherlands
Lyudmila Vidyasova ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Maria A. Wimmer University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz,
Germany
Asim Zia University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
Chapter 1
Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age
Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer
We are running the 21st century using 20th century systems on
top of 19th century political structures. . . .
John Pollock, contributing editor MIT technology review
Abstract The explosive growth in data, computational power,
and social media
creates new opportunities for innovating governance and policy-
making. These in-
formation and communications technology (ICT) developments
affect all parts of
the policy-making cycle and result in drastic changes in the way
policies are devel-
oped. To take advantage of these developments in the digital
world, new approaches,
concepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able
to deal with so-
cietal complexity and uncertainty. This field of research is
sometimes depicted
as e-government policy, e-policy, policy informatics, or data
science. Advancing
our knowledge demands that different scientific communities
collaborate to create
practice-driven knowledge. For policy-making in the digital age
disciplines such as
complex systems, social simulation, and public administration
need to be combined.
1.1 Introduction
Policy-making and its subsequent implementation is necessary
to deal with societal
problems. Policy interventions can be costly, have long-term
implications, affect
groups of citizens or even the whole country and cannot be
easily undone or are even
irreversible. New information and communications technology
(ICT) and models
can help to improve the quality of policy-makers. In particular,
the explosive growth
in data, computational power, and social media creates new
opportunities for in-
novating the processes and solutions of ICT-based policy-
making and research. To
M. Janssen (�)
Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft
University of Technology,
Delft, The Netherlands
e-mail: [email protected]
M. A. Wimmer
University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 1
M. Janssen et al. (eds.), Policy Practice and Digital Science,
Public Administration and Information Technology 10, DOI
10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2_1
2 M. Janssen and M. A. Wimmer
take advantage of these developments in the digital world, new
approaches, con-
cepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able to
deal with societal and
computational complexity. This requires the use of knowledge
which is traditionally
found in different disciplines, including (but not limited to)
public administration,
policy analyses, information systems, complex systems, and
computer science. All
these knowledge areas are needed for policy-making in the
digital age. The aim of
this book is to provide a foundation for this new
interdisciplinary field in which
various traditional disciplines are blended.
Both policy-makers and those in charge of policy
implementations acknowledge
that ICT is becoming more and more important and is changing
the policy-making
process, resulting in a next generation policy-making based on
ICT support. The field
of policy-making is changing driven by developments such as
open data, computa-
tional methods for processing data, opinion mining, simulation,
and visualization of
rich data sets, all combined with public engagement, social
media, and participatory
tools. In this respect Web 2.0 and even Web 3.0 point to the
specific applications of
social networks and semantically enriched and linked data
which are important for
policy-making. In policy-making vast amount of data are used
for making predictions
and forecasts. This should result in improving the outcomes of
policy-making.
Policy-making is confronted with an increasing complexity and
uncertainty of the
outcomes which results in a need for developing policy models
that are able to deal
with this. To improve the validity of the models policy-makers
are harvesting data to
generate evidence. Furthermore, they are improving their
models to capture complex
phenomena and dealing with uncertainty and limited and
incomplete information.
Despite all these efforts, there remains often uncertainty
concerning the outcomes of
policy interventions. Given the uncertainty, often multiple
scenarios are developed
to show alternative outcomes and impact. A condition for this is
the visualization of
policy alternatives and its impact. Visualization can ensure
involvement of nonexpert
and to communicate alternatives. Furthermore, games can be
used to let people gain
insight in what can happen, given a certain scenario. Games
allow persons to interact
and to experience what happens in the future based on their
interventions.
Policy-makers are often faced with conflicting solutions to
complex problems,
thus making it necessary for them to test out their assumptions,
interventions, and
resolutions. For this reason policy-making organizations
introduce platforms facili-
tating policy-making and citizens engagements and enabling the
processing of large
volumes of data. There are various participative platforms
developed by government
agencies (e.g., De Reuver et al. 2013; Slaviero et al. 2010;
Welch 2012). Platforms
can be viewed as a kind of regulated environment that enable
developers, users, and
others to interact with each other, share data, services, and
applications, enable gov-
ernments to more easily monitor what is happening and
facilitate the development
of innovative solutions (Janssen and Estevez 2013). Platforms
should provide not
only support for complex policy deliberations with citizens but
should also bring to-
gether policy-modelers, developers, policy-makers, and other
stakeholders involved
in policy-making. In this way platforms provide an information-
rich, interactive
1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age 3
environment that brings together relevant stakeholders and in
which complex phe-
nomena can be modeled, simulated, visualized, discussed, and
even the playing of
games can be facilitated.
1.2 Complexity and Uncertainty in Policy-Making
Policy-making is driven by the need to solve societal problems
and should result in
interventions to solve these societal problems. Examples of
societal problems are
unemployment, pollution, water quality, safety, criminality,
well-being, health, and
immigration. Policy-making is an ongoing process in which
issues are recognized
as a problem, alternative courses of actions are formulated,
policies are affected,
implemented, executed, and evaluated (Stewart et al. 2007).
Figure 1.1 shows the
typical stages of policy formulation, implementation, execution,
enforcement, and
evaluation. This process should not be viewed as linear as many
interactions are
necessary as well as interactions with all kind of stakeholders.
In policy-making
processes a vast amount of stakeholders are always involved,
which makes policy-
making complex.
Once a societal need is identified, a policy has to be formulated.
Politicians,
members of parliament, executive branches, courts, and interest
groups may be
involved in these formulations. Often contradictory proposals
are made, and the
impact of a proposal is difficult to determine as data is missing,
models cannot
citizen
s
Policy formulation
Policy
implementation
Policy
execution
Policy
enforcement and
evaluation
politicians
Policy-
makers
Administrative
organizations
b
u
sin
esses
Inspection and
enforcement agencies
experts
Fig. 1.1 Overview of policy cycle and stakeholders
4 M. Janssen and M. A. Wimmer
capture the complexity, and the results of policy models are
difficult to interpret and
even might be interpreted in an opposing way. This is further
complicated as some
proposals might be good but cannot be implemented or are too
costly to implement.
There is a large uncertainty concerning the outcomes.
Policy implementation is done by organizations other than those
that formulated
the policy. They often have to interpret the policy and have to
make implemen-
tation decisions. Sometimes IT can block quick implementation
as systems have
to be changed. Although policy-making is the domain of the
government, private
organizations can be involved to some extent, in particular in
the execution of policies.
Once all things are ready and decisions are made, policies need
to be executed.
During the execution small changes are typically made to fine
tune the policy formu-
lation, implementation decisions might be more difficult to
realize, policies might
bring other benefits than intended, execution costs might be
higher and so on. Typ-
ically, execution is continually changing. Evaluation is part of
the policy-making
process as it is necessary to ensure that the policy-execution
solved the initial so-
cietal problem. Policies might become obsolete, might not work,
have unintended
affects (like creating bureaucracy) or might lose its support
among elected officials,
or other alternatives might pop up that are better.
Policy-making is a complex process in which many stakeholders
play a role. In
the various phases of policy-making different actors are
dominant and play a role.
Figure 1.1 shows only some actors that might be involved, and
many of them are not
included in this figure. The involvement of so many actors
results in fragmentation
and often actors are even not aware of the decisions made by
other actors. This makes
it difficult to manage a policy-making process as each actor has
other goals and might
be self-interested.
Public values (PVs) are a way to try to manage complexity and
give some guidance.
Most policies are made to adhere to certain values. Public value
management (PVM)
represents the paradigm of achieving PVs as being the primary
objective (Stoker
2006). PVM refers to the continuous assessment of the actions
performed by public
officials to ensure that these actions result in the creation of PV
(Moore 1995). Public
servants are not only responsible for following the right
procedure, but they also have
to ensure that PVs are realized. For example, civil servants
should ensure that garbage
is collected. The procedure that one a week garbage is collected
is secondary. If it is
necessary to collect garbage more (or less) frequently to ensure
a healthy environment
then this should be done. The role of managers is not only to
ensure that procedures
are followed but they should be custodians of public assets and
maximize a PV.
There exist a wide variety of PVs (Jørgensen and Bozeman
2007). PVs can be
long-lasting or might be driven by contemporary politics. For
example, equal access
is a typical long-lasting value, whereas providing support for
students at universities
is contemporary, as politicians might give more, less, or no
support to students. PVs
differ over times, but also the emphasis on values is different in
the policy-making
cycle as shown in Fig. 1.2. In this figure some of the values
presented by Jørgensen
and Bozeman (2007) are mapped onto the four policy-making
stages. Dependent on
the problem at hand other values might play a role that is not
included in this figure.
1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age 5
Policy
formulation
Policy
implementation
Policy
execution
Policy
enforcement
and evaluation
efficiency
efficiency
accountability
transparancy
responsiveness
public interest
will of the people
listening
citizen involvement
evidence-based
protection of
individual rights
accountability
transparancy
evidence-based
equal access
balancing of interests
robust
honesty
fair
timelessness
reliable
flexible
fair
Fig. 1.2 Public values in the policy cycle
Policy is often formulated by politicians in consultation with
experts. In the PVM
paradigm, public administrations aim at creating PVs for society
and citizens. This
suggests a shift from talking about what citizens expect in
creating a PV. In this view
public officials should focus on collaborating and creating a
dialogue with citizens
in order to determine what constitutes a PV.
1.3 Developments
There is an infusion of technology that changes policy processes
at both the individual
and group level. There are a number of developments that
influence the traditional
way of policy-making, including social media as a means to
interact with the public
(Bertot et al. …

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  • 1. Running Head: HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY 1 HEATH INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY 3 Health information system in the global economy Student name Professor Course Date of submission The development of technology-aided tools has continuously helped businesses, industries, and corporate organizations to provide quality products and services effectively and efficiently. Heath organization has also launched integrated health information systems in their day to day activities. The management system also aims at offering advanced patient care, quality planning, and implementation of information application that improves health activities. However, this strategy has to follow ergonomics and heath working environment to meet the
  • 2. competitive global economy. Heath informatics identifies factors that foster development systems and their significance in a heath set situation. The establishment of an information scheme enables the management of healthcare data and a quick collection and transmission of medical records using electronic means. The integration of systems allows resource sharing, which leverage and improves patient outcomes. In a typical organization, the healthcare system influences policy-making, research, and the decision-making process. As a result, there is a primary concern of accessing, processing, and maintaining large volumes of data within the organization (Bryant,2018). Management systems come a log with security measures of enhancing data security and privacy. Practice management software enhances effective electronic monitoring of medical and health record keeping. Heath system has indeed transformed the healthcare organization in a significant way. The latest technology has now enabled the automation of services and medical events. Using the digital software heath industry has automated administrative function, which has replaced human interventions. This system is actively used to offer global collaborative care through the access of common heath care records. It is also used in population health management after analyzing trends and clinical support systems. In an economical scope, the use of technology in a health facility creates efficiency and cost-saving. To sum HIS is a best practice that increases integrity, accountability, and secures sensitive data from malicious damage and illegal access. For a fact, integration of the system has enabled global convince and access to patient information(Chris,2019).
  • 3. References Bryant Joy. (2018). The Importance of Information Systems in Healthcare. https://www.bryantstratton.edu/continuing- education/healthcare/resources/information-systems
  • 4. CHRIS BROOK. (2019, October 24). What is the Health Information System? https://digitalguardian.com/blog/what- health-information-system The United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment. (2017). The Management of Health Care Technology in Ten Countries. Dissertation Handbook 2019-2020 DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 2 Table of Contents Introduction 3 Doctoral Program and Dissertation Process 3 Purpose of Handbook 3 Dissertation Committee 3 Committee Members 3 Choosing committee members 3 Committee chair responsibilities 4 Responsibilities of other committee members 5
  • 5. Candidate responsibilities 5 Dissertation Guidelines 6 Choosing a Research Topic 6 Dissertation Timeline 6 Dissertation Style 7 Quantitative Dissertations 7 Qualitative Dissertations 8 Final Document 9 Dissertation Research Approval Process 9 Oral Defense 10 Graduation 11 Appendix A: Quantitative Dissertation Information 12 Appendix B: Qualitative Dissertation Information 14 Appendix C: Dissertation Defense Rubric 19 Appendix D: Reporting Statistical Tests 20 DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 3
  • 6. Introduction Doctoral Program and Dissertation Process The Graduate School at the University of the Cumberlands offers Doctor of Business Administration, Doctor of Education, and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. The doctoral dissertation, designed to evaluate the candidate’s capabilities as a scholar, is the final academic requirement of the DBA, EdD, and PhD programs. Candidates complete the dissertation during professional research courses (LEAR 736, 839, 930, 931), which are the last four courses taken during the program. This handbook sets forth the guidelines for completing the dissertation process. Purpose of Handbook The purpose of this handbook is to guide candidates through the dissertation process including writing, defense, and final document submission. Candidate and committee member responsibilities are outlined, writing guidelines are detailed and examples provided, required
  • 7. sections for each chapter, and printing guidelines for the final dissertation document are included. The handbook is to be used by instructors, dissertation chairs, and committee members to ensure maintenance of high standards related to the form and appearance of dissertations. Dissertation Committee Dissertation committees are made up of three members; the dissertation chair and two committee members. Each member has specific responsibilities as outlined below. Committee Members Choosing committee members. While enrolled in LEAR 930, the candidate and dissertation chair will identify instructors to serve on his/her dissertation committee. The dissertation course instructor will serve as the dissertation chair. Other members are to be instructors teaching at the DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 4 graduate level at University of the Cumberlands. These members should be chosen based on
  • 8. dissertation topic expertise and candidate needs. Dissertation chairs will provide candidates with a list of instructors available to serve on committees. Committee chair responsibilities. Responsibilities of the committee chair include: itional committee members. of the dissertation. process. and ethical quality in the dissertation research. methods/procedures for data collection and analysis. committee and communicate such with committee members. The candidate should avoid consulting the full committee
  • 9. for feedback without prior approval of the chair. defense. the department chair of the date, time, and location of all dissertation defense meetings. members to the department chair in a timely manner after the defense. -ready copy of the dissertation to the department chair prior to the anticipated graduation date of the candidate. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 5 Responsibilities of other committee members. Responsibilities of other committee members include: g subject matter expertise as requested by the chair or candidate.
  • 10. clarification and resolution of methodological issues during the dissertation process. major flaws that are likely to result in a candidate’s unsuccessful defense are identified. manner. Candidate Responsibilities Responsibilities of the dissertation candidate include: members based on expertise in the dissertation topic area. The candidate is encouraged to select at least one member with expertise in data collection and analysis. before collecting data. read drafts of materials to the chair, preparing adequately for consultations, and communicating on a regular basis with the chair. personal or professional
  • 11. situation which may interfere with program completion. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 6 -free, print-ready copy of dissertation as a pdf document to the dissertation chair and the Graduate School office in a timely manner after a successful defense. -sided copies using white, 24 lb. résumé paper. to program office prior to the end of the semester. Dissertation Guidelines Choosing a Research Topic Candidates begin thinking about dissertation topics when applying for admission to the program. The dissertation topics must be grounded in theory, related to program goals, and have specific
  • 12. implications for practitioners. Candidates are encouraged to choose research topics of personal relevance and significance. When opportunities arise in coursework, candidates should begin researching these topics in the form of literature reviews and other assignments that allow for research. The research topic will be narrowed to a research study and approved by the department chair/director when candidates enroll in the first dissertation course, LEAR 736. The link for topic approval is provided through the Graduate School. Dissertation Timeline The dissertation topic is approved by the Graduate School and department when candidates are enrolled in LEAR 736. The review of literature is completed while enrolled in LEAR 736, and Chapter Two of the dissertation is written. This is a requirement for enrolling in LEAR 839. While enrolled in LEAR 839, candidates complete Chapter One, the introduction to the study, and Chapter Three, the methodology section. Candidates must get approval for their research
  • 13. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 7 from the Institutional Review Board while enrolled in LEAR 839, before collecting any data. A completed Chapter One and Chapter Three and IRB approval are required before candidates enroll in LEAR 930. Candidates complete Chapter Four, which presents their research findings, while enrolled in LEAR 930. Once enrolled in LEAR 931, candidates complete Chapter Five. In Chapter Five, candidates interpret their findings, discuss implications of those findings, present recommendations for further study and action, and discuss how their study fills a gap in the literature and contributes to leadership. The final step in the dissertation process is the oral defense, which is completed in LEAR 931-935. Once the study is successfully defended, candidates submit printed copies of the dissertation to the department chair. At that time, the department chair recommends the candidate for graduation. The DBA, EdD, and PhD programs are designed for dissertations to be completed in four courses. Candidates needing additional time may enroll in
  • 14. additional courses providing the total time in the program does not exceed five years. Enrollment in courses beyond LEAR 931 must be approved by the department chair. Dissertation Style The dissertation, a scholarly document, is written for professionals in the field. The dissertation may include a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods study. Quantitative Dissertations While there is no set number of pages, a dissertation typically includes approximately 100 pages for quantitative studies. The quantitative dissertation follows a five chapter format and deductive approach (see Appendix A). The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 8 American Psychological Association (APA) is the style manual to be used in writing the dissertation. All APA guidelines should be followed.
  • 15. Qualitative Dissertations Unlike the EdD and Quantitative PhD dissertations, which follow a five-chapter format, the qualitative dissertation is not bound by those requirements. Rather, the qualitative dissertation should be approximately 45,000 words. This word requirement applies to the text of the dissertation only; it does not cover the title page, acknowledgements, table of contents, or other non-content related pages. Thus, with a small indulgence in tautology, the dissertation, should be as long as it needs to be, as long it meets the minimum word requirement. The Graduate School requires the use of footnotes (when necessary), citations, and references for all qualitative dissertations. All qualitative dissertations should be double-spaced, typed in 12pt, Times New Roman with 1” margins. Footnotes must be in 10pt Times New Roman with a double space between notes, but a single space inside the note itself. The acknowledgements and other non-textual pages at the beginning of the dissertation should be in roman numerals at the bottom-center of the page, and they should be continuous. The
  • 16. title page does not have a page number. When quoting, place punctuation marks inside the quotation marks. For visual examples of the title page, bibliography, and general formatting, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition and Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). Final Document The final dissertation document must be submitted while enrolled in the last research course, typically LEAR 931. The final document is submitted after the successful oral defense is DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 9 presented and all committee member recommended edits have been made. An error-free, print- ready copy of dissertation is submitted as a pdf document after a successful defense. The copy is to be submitted electronically to the dissertation chair and the Graduate School. Candidates print
  • 17. a minimum of two one-sided copies using white, 24 lb. resume paper. Candidates then submit a minimum of two printed copies of the dissertation to the program office prior to the designated semester deadline. After having those copies bound, the UC Binding Department will return the two copies to the candidate. If the candidate wishes to keep more than two bound copies, he/should submit the number desired. The Binding Department will bill the student for the additional copies at a minimal cost per copy. Dissertation Research Approval Process Approval for conducting the dissertation research must be obtained while enrolled in LEAR 839 and is a pre-requisite to enrolling in LEAR 930. The Institutional Review Board application to conduct research and all supporting documents must be submitted in LEAR 839. The dissertation chair will review the document, and then the student should submit the documents to the Department of study (Leadership Studies, Counseling, Business, or IT). Candidates will receive an IRB Approval Letter once the
  • 18. research has been approved. No research is to be executed until IRB approval is granted and all necessary consents (adults) and assents (minors) are secured from participants. The IRB Approval Letter is to be placed in the dissertation as Appendix A. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 10 Oral Defense While enrolled in the final dissertation course, the candidate must present an oral defense of her/his research. This oral defense is presented after the committee chair and all committee members have given feedback and all edits have been made to the dissertation document. The Department of Leadership Studies will schedule the defense session. All three committee members must be present for the oral defense. The oral defense session normally takes 45-60 minutes. The committee members and chair will ask questions
  • 19. and offer comments. The candidate will then be dismissed for committee deliberation. Once the committee and chair have deliberated and reached a decision, the candidate will be invited to re-join the group for the committee decision. The committee will make one of the following decisions: dissertation. If one of the first two decisions is made, the committee chair will work with the candidate to get the final document ready to send to the department chair for review. If the committee decision requires major revisions or a new dissertation, the candidate will enroll in another research course to complete the revisions or rewrite. The defense must be successfully completed by the department defense deadline for the semester. The dissertation chair and committee will evaluate the candidate using the department
  • 20. rubric (see Appendix C). DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 11 Graduation Candidates should apply for graduation at the beginning of the semester in which they plan to graduate. The application for graduation is located at https://inside.ucumberlands.edu/academics/registrar/graduation_ application.php. Once the research has been successfully defended and copies of the dissertation are received by the department chair, the department chair will notify the registrar that the candidate has completed all program requirements and is eligible to graduate. Graduation exercises are held in May. Candidates are hooded during the graduation exercise. https://inside.ucumberlands.edu/academics/registrar/graduation_ application.php
  • 21. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 12 Appendix A Quantitative Dissertation Format Title Page Signature Page Acknowledgements Abstract (150 words maximum) Table of Contents List of Tables Chapter One (Introduction) Overview Background and Problem Statement Purpose of the Study Research Questions Theoretical Framework Limitations of the Study Assumptions Definitions
  • 22. Summary Chapter Two (Review of Literature) Introduction Subsections based on a deductive approach Summary Chapter Three (Procedures and Methodology) Introduction Research Paradigm (qualitative or quantitative) Research Design Sampling Procedures and or/ Data Collection Sources (reference Informed Consent and IRB approval placed in Appendices) Statistical Tests Summary DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 13 Chapter Four (Research Findings) Introduction
  • 23. Participants and Research Setting Analyses of Research Questions (one at a time) Supplementary Findings (if any) Summary Chapter Five (Summary, Discussion, and Implications) Introduction Practical Assessment of Research Question(s) Limitations of the Study Implications for Future Study Summary References Appendices (This section contains any tables, figures and possible data sources that could not be placed in the text of the paper due to its size, as well as copies of consent forms and IRB letters.)
  • 24. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 14 Appendix B Qualitative Dissertation Information Title Page Signature Page Acknowledgements Abstract (150 words maximum) Table of Contents Introduction (Example): Title of Your Project Overview The introduction is where you will establish for your readers the overall scope of your project. You will establish the topic, the thesis, and general thesis map. It is in the Introduction where you “hook” your readers into wanting to know more about your topic and argument. In many ways, this your chance to show off your writing, thinking, and expertise on the subject as the Introduction serves as your place to show the readers why your project
  • 25. is important and worthwhile. Please note several things regarding the format. First, at the top-center, you note the Introduction, Chapter, Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, or Dedication, placing a colon at the end. Second, for the Introduction and Chapters, you will then space one line down, and place the title of each chapter. The exceptions are Introduction where you will place the dissertation’s title and Chapter 1, which you will title “Literature Review.” From there, double-space between the chapter title and the start of the text. Please note: unlike this example, the page number at the start of the Introduction and each chapter must be bottom- center. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 15 Despite the open-ended nature of the qualitative dissertation, each dissertation must start with an Introduction. In the “Introduction,” the author must present his or her research project, the overall scope of the work, and produce the general thesis of the work as well a thesis map elaborating the sub-topics/extent of each chapter. The thesis map should logically support the thesis statement.
  • 26. The introduction of each chapter should be the only place where an outright thesis statement and map are used. The thesis can (and probably should) be referred to throughout the work, but it should be done in a more subtle, literary style. Allow the introduction to be the place where you state the thesis in a bold, upfront, and “in your face” manner. Chapter One After the Introductory chapter, Chapter One of the dissertation should be your Literature Review. Here, you will elaborate and engage what the secondary literature says about the general topic you are writing about. You are expected to discuss and analyze both the seminal works – those writings which have had an important and lasting impact on how a topic is understood – on the topic as well lesser-known contributions. You should make special note of potential trends, how understanding of the topic has changed over time, and any potential paradigms that might have emerged and been influential on the writings on your topic. This does not mean, however, you must cover everything ever written on the topic or even talk about them in glowing terms. Remember, be critical and set your perspective and work apart from the other pieces on the subject. For many topics, it would take a lifetime or
  • 27. more to master that literature. Rather, a good-faith effort to master the literature is what is expected. After the Introduction and Chapter One, the rest is up to you. You will spend the next chapters (however many) elaborating your contribution and understanding of the topic. These chapters need to be primary source- driven. The last element of the textual part of the dissertation must be a Conclusion. In it, you must provide a general overview of the literature, what your work just argued, and offer suggestive questions for future researchers on the topic. DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 16 Appendix C Dissertation Evaluation Rubric Standard Score 4 3 2 1 Score I. Demonstrates
  • 28. critical and reflective thinking capable of facilitating institutional, informational technology, or business related problem-solving or school/ college improvement. Accurately assesses two issues affecting an institution’s effectiveness as well as offers a convincing argument for improvement. Accurately assesses two issues affecting an institution’s
  • 29. effectiveness. Accurately assesses one issue affecting an institution’s performance. No evidence is presented. II. Demonstrates consideration for the impact of leadership, information technology, or business on institutional constituents. Shows balance between the needs
  • 30. of two or more constituent groups while maintaining organizational goals. Shows realistic consideration for the needs of two or more constituent groups. Shows realistic consideration for the needs of one constituent group. No evidence is presented. III. Demonstrates effective analytical and communication skills. Demonstrates a
  • 31. professional level of skills associated with formatting, grammar, spelling, syntax, and use of numbers. Demonstrates acceptable skills associated with formatting, grammar, spelling, syntax, and use of numbers. Needs minor improvement in skills associated with formatting, grammar, spelling, syntax, and use of
  • 32. numbers. Needs significant improvement in skills associated formatting, grammar, spelling, syntax, and use of numbers. IV. Demonstrates knowledge of genres, paradigms, theories or trends in business, criminal justice, education, English, health sciences, history, information technology, math,
  • 33. nursing, psychology, religion, or student personnel services. Subject is identified, realistic, and grounded in a recognized genre, paradigm, theory, or trend. Subject is identified and is realistic, but it lacks grounding in a recognized genre, paradigm, theory, or trend. Subject is identified but is not realistic or grounded in a recognized genre, paradigm, theory, or trend. Subject area is not
  • 34. established. Score DISSERTATION HANDBOOK 17 Appendix D Reporting Statistical Tests For quantitative dissertations, the statistical tests are reported in the abstract and Chapter Four. The alpha should be set at .05. Some common examples of tests used in quantitative analysis are listed below as examples. All statistical symbols are italicized. For all tests listed below, report the degrees of freedom (except the Spearman’s rs, where you report the number of pairs). Symbol Report findings Null hypothesis Chi-Square Test X 2
  • 35. (X 2 [df, N = ] = result, p < or > .05) The variables are independent. Spearman’s rs rs (rs [number of pairs] = result, p < or > .05) There is no relationship between the ranked data. t-test (Independent and paired samples) t (t [df] = result, p < or > .05) There is no difference in the means. ANOVA F F [df] = result, p < or > .05) There is no difference in the means. (If the null hypothesis is rejected, then run post-hoc testing). Regression or Pearson Product
  • 36. moment correlation coefficient r r r [df] = result, p < or > .05) There is no relationship between the variables. *For additional tests, please follow current APA guidelines. Public Administration and Information Technology Volume 10 Series Editor Christopher G. Reddick San Antonio, Texas, USA More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10796 Marijn Janssen • Maria A. Wimmer
  • 37. Ameneh Deljoo Editors Policy Practice and Digital Science Integrating Complex Systems, Social Simulation and Public Administration in Policy Research 2123 Editors Marijn Janssen Ameneh Deljoo Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management Management Delft University of Technology Delft University of Technology Delft Delft The Netherlands The Netherlands Maria A. Wimmer Institute for Information Systems Research University of Koblenz-Landau Koblenz Germany ISBN 978-3-319-12783-5 ISBN 978-3-319-12784-2 (eBook) Public Administration and Information Technology DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2014956771 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York London
  • 38. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface The last economic and financial crisis has heavily threatened European and other economies around the globe. Also, the Eurozone crisis, the
  • 39. energy and climate change crises, challenges of demographic change with high unemployment rates, and the most recent conflicts in the Ukraine and the near East or the Ebola virus disease in Africa threaten the wealth of our societies in different ways. The inability to predict or rapidly deal with dramatic changes and negative trends in our economies and societies can seriously hamper the wealth and prosperity of the European Union and its Member States as well as the global networks. These societal and economic challenges demonstrate an urgent need for more effective and efficient processes of governance and policymaking, therewith specifically addressing crisis management and economic/welfare impact reduction. Therefore, investing in the exploitation of innovative information and commu- nication technology (ICT) in the support of good governance and policy modeling has become a major effort of the European Union to position itself and its Member States well in the global digital economy. In this realm, the European Union has laid out clear strategic policy objectives for 2020 in the Europe 2020 strategy1: In a changing world, we want the EU to become a smart, sustainable, and inclusive economy. These three mutually reinforcing priorities should help the EU and the Member States deliver high levels of employment, productivity, and social cohesion. Concretely, the Union has set five ambitious objectives—on
  • 40. employment, innovation, education, social inclusion, and climate/energy—to be reached by 2020. Along with this, Europe 2020 has established four priority areas—smart growth, sustainable growth, inclusive growth, and later added: A strong and effective system of eco- nomic governance—designed to help Europe emerge from the crisis stronger and to coordinate policy actions between the EU and national levels. To specifically support European research in strengthening capacities, in overcom- ing fragmented research in the field of policymaking, and in advancing solutions for 1 Europe 2020 http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm v vi Preface ICT supported governance and policy modeling, the European Commission has co- funded an international support action called eGovPoliNet2. The overall objective of eGovPoliNet was to create an international, cross- disciplinary community of re- searchers working on ICT solutions for governance and policy modeling. In turn, the aim of this community was to advance and sustain research and to share the insights gleaned from experiences in Europe and globally. To achieve this, eGovPo-
  • 41. liNet established a dialogue, brought together experts from distinct disciplines, and collected and analyzed knowledge assets (i.e., theories, concepts, solutions, findings, and lessons on ICT solutions in the field) from different research disciplines. It built on case material accumulated by leading actors coming from distinct disciplinary backgrounds and brought together the innovative knowledge in the field. Tools, meth- ods, and cases were drawn from the academic community, the ICT sector, specialized policy consulting firms as well as from policymakers and governance experts. These results were assembled in a knowledge base and analyzed in order to produce com- parative analyses and descriptions of cases, tools, and scientific approaches to enrich a common knowledge base accessible via www.policy- community.eu. This book, entitled “Policy Practice and Digital Science— Integrating Complex Systems, Social Simulation, and Public Administration in Policy Research,” is one of the exciting results of the activities of eGovPoliNet—fusing community building activities and activities of knowledge analysis. It documents findings of comparative analyses and brings in experiences of experts from academia and from case descrip- tions from all over the globe. Specifically, it demonstrates how the explosive growth in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for policy- making and research. The book provides a first comprehensive
  • 42. look on how to take advantage of the development in the digital world with new approaches, concepts, instruments, and methods to deal with societal and computational complexity. This requires the knowledge traditionally found in different disciplines including public administration, policy analyses, information systems, complex systems, and com- puter science to work together in a multidisciplinary fashion and to share approaches. This book provides the foundation for strongly multidisciplinary research, in which the various developments and disciplines work together from a comprehensive and holistic policymaking perspective. A wide range of aspects for social and professional networking and multidisciplinary constituency building along the axes of technol- ogy, participative processes, governance, policy modeling, social simulation, and visualization are tackled in the 19 papers. With this book, the project makes an effective contribution to the overall objec- tives of the Europe 2020 strategy by providing a better understanding of different approaches to ICT enabled governance and policy modeling, and by overcoming the fragmented research of the past. This book provides impressive insights into various theories, concepts, and solutions of ICT supported policy modeling and how stake- holders can be more actively engaged in public policymaking. It draws conclusions
  • 43. 2 eGovPoliNet is cofunded under FP 7, Call identifier FP7-ICT- 2011-7, URL: www.policy- community.eu Preface vii of how joint multidisciplinary research can bring more effective and resilient find- ings for better predicting dramatic changes and negative trends in our economies and societies. It is my great pleasure to provide the preface to the book resulting from the eGovPoliNet project. This book presents stimulating research by researchers coming from all over Europe and beyond. Congratulations to the project partners and to the authors!—Enjoy reading! Thanassis Chrissafis Project officer of eGovPoliNet European Commission DG CNECT, Excellence in Science, Digital Science Contents 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer 2 Educating Public Managers and Policy Analysts
  • 44. in an Era of Informatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Christopher Koliba and Asim Zia 3 The Quality of Social Simulation: An Example from Research Policy Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Petra Ahrweiler and Nigel Gilbert 4 Policy Making and Modelling in a Complex World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Wander Jager and Bruce Edmonds 5 From Building a Model to Adaptive Robust Decision Making Using Systems Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Erik Pruyt 6 Features and Added Value of Simulation Models Using Different Modelling Approaches Supporting Policy-Making: A Comparative Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Dragana Majstorovic, Maria A.Wimmer, Roy Lay-Yee, Peter Davis and Petra Ahrweiler 7 A Comparative Analysis of Tools and Technologies for Policy Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Eleni Kamateri, Eleni Panopoulou, Efthimios Tambouris, Konstantinos Tarabanis, Adegboyega Ojo, Deirdre Lee and David Price 8 Value Sensitive Design of Complex Product Systems . . . . . . .
  • 45. . . . . . . . . 157 Andreas Ligtvoet, Geerten van de Kaa, Theo Fens, Cees van Beers, Paulier Herder and Jeroen van den Hoven ix x Contents 9 Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development: Observations and Lessons from International Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Natalie Helbig, Sharon Dawes, Zamira Dzhusupova, Bram Klievink and Catherine Gerald Mkude 10 Values in Computational Models Revalued . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Rebecca Moody and Lasse Gerrits 11 The Psychological Drivers of Bureaucracy: Protecting the Societal Goals of an Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Tjeerd C. Andringa 12 Active and Passive Crowdsourcing in Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Euripidis Loukis and Yannis Charalabidis 13 Management of Complex Systems: Toward Agent-Based Gaming for Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Wander Jager and Gerben van der Vegt
  • 46. 14 The Role of Microsimulation in the Development of Public Policy . . . 305 Roy Lay-Yee and Gerry Cotterell 15 Visual Decision Support for Policy Making: Advancing Policy Analysis with Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Tobias Ruppert, Jens Dambruch, Michel Krämer, Tina Balke, Marco Gavanelli, Stefano Bragaglia, Federico Chesani, Michela Milano and Jörn Kohlhammer 16 Analysis of Five Policy Cases in the Field of Energy Policy . . . . . . . . . 355 Dominik Bär, Maria A.Wimmer, Jozef Glova, Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou and Laurence Brooks 17 Challenges to Policy-Making in Developing Countries and the Roles of Emerging Tools, Methods and Instruments: Experiences from Saint Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Dmitrii Trutnev, Lyudmila Vidyasova and Andrei Chugunov 18 Sustainable Urban Development, Governance and Policy: A Comparative Overview of EU Policies and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Diego Navarra and Simona Milio 19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria: Bridging the Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 Tanko Ahmed
  • 47. Contributors Tanko Ahmed National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), Jos, Nigeria Petra Ahrweiler EA European Academy of Technology and Innovation Assess- ment GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany Tjeerd C. Andringa University College Groningen, Institute of Artificial In- telligence and Cognitive Engineering (ALICE), University of Groningen, AB, Groningen, the Netherlands Tina Balke University of Surrey, Surrey, UK Dominik Bär University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Cees van Beers Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Stefano Bragaglia University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Laurence Brooks Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK Yannis Charalabidis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece Federico Chesani University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Andrei Chugunov ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Gerry Cotterell Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the
  • 48. Social Sciences (COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Jens Dambruch Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany Peter Davis Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences (COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Sharon Dawes Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Albany, New York, USA xi xii Contributors Zamira Dzhusupova Department of Public Administration and Development Man- agement, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), NewYork, USA Bruce Edmonds Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK Theo Fens Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
  • 49. Marco Gavanelli University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Lasse Gerrits Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Nigel Gilbert University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Jozef Glova Technical University Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia Natalie Helbig Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Albany, New York, USA Paulier Herder Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Jeroen van den Hoven Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Wander Jager Groningen Center of Social Complexity Studies, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Marijn Janssen Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Geerten van de Kaa Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Eleni Kamateri Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research &
  • 50. Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece Bram Klievink Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Jörn Kohlhammer GRIS, TU Darmstadt & Fraunhofer IGD, Darmstadt, Germany Christopher Koliba University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Michel Krämer Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany Roy Lay-Yee Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences (COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Deirdre Lee INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG, Galway, Ireland Contributors xiii Andreas Ligtvoet Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft Univer- sity of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Euripidis Loukis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece Dragana Majstorovic University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany
  • 51. Michela Milano University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Simona Milio London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, UK Catherine Gerald Mkude Institute for IS Research, University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Rebecca Moody Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Diego Navarra Studio Navarra, London, UK Adegboyega Ojo INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG, Galway, Ireland Eleni Panopoulou Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK David Price Thoughtgraph Ltd, Somerset, UK Erik Pruyt Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Wassenaar, The Netherlands Tobias Ruppert Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany
  • 52. Efthimios Tambouris Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Konstantinos Tarabanis Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of Macedonia, Thessa- loniki, Greece Dmitrii Trutnev ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Gerben van der Vegt Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Lyudmila Vidyasova ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Maria A. Wimmer University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Asim Zia University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Chapter 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer We are running the 21st century using 20th century systems on top of 19th century political structures. . . . John Pollock, contributing editor MIT technology review
  • 53. Abstract The explosive growth in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for innovating governance and policy- making. These in- formation and communications technology (ICT) developments affect all parts of the policy-making cycle and result in drastic changes in the way policies are devel- oped. To take advantage of these developments in the digital world, new approaches, concepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able to deal with so- cietal complexity and uncertainty. This field of research is sometimes depicted as e-government policy, e-policy, policy informatics, or data science. Advancing our knowledge demands that different scientific communities collaborate to create practice-driven knowledge. For policy-making in the digital age disciplines such as complex systems, social simulation, and public administration need to be combined. 1.1 Introduction Policy-making and its subsequent implementation is necessary to deal with societal problems. Policy interventions can be costly, have long-term implications, affect groups of citizens or even the whole country and cannot be easily undone or are even irreversible. New information and communications technology (ICT) and models can help to improve the quality of policy-makers. In particular, the explosive growth
  • 54. in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for in- novating the processes and solutions of ICT-based policy- making and research. To M. Janssen (�) Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands e-mail: [email protected] M. A. Wimmer University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 1 M. Janssen et al. (eds.), Policy Practice and Digital Science, Public Administration and Information Technology 10, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2_1 2 M. Janssen and M. A. Wimmer take advantage of these developments in the digital world, new approaches, con- cepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able to deal with societal and computational complexity. This requires the use of knowledge which is traditionally found in different disciplines, including (but not limited to) public administration, policy analyses, information systems, complex systems, and computer science. All these knowledge areas are needed for policy-making in the digital age. The aim of this book is to provide a foundation for this new interdisciplinary field in which
  • 55. various traditional disciplines are blended. Both policy-makers and those in charge of policy implementations acknowledge that ICT is becoming more and more important and is changing the policy-making process, resulting in a next generation policy-making based on ICT support. The field of policy-making is changing driven by developments such as open data, computa- tional methods for processing data, opinion mining, simulation, and visualization of rich data sets, all combined with public engagement, social media, and participatory tools. In this respect Web 2.0 and even Web 3.0 point to the specific applications of social networks and semantically enriched and linked data which are important for policy-making. In policy-making vast amount of data are used for making predictions and forecasts. This should result in improving the outcomes of policy-making. Policy-making is confronted with an increasing complexity and uncertainty of the outcomes which results in a need for developing policy models that are able to deal with this. To improve the validity of the models policy-makers are harvesting data to generate evidence. Furthermore, they are improving their models to capture complex phenomena and dealing with uncertainty and limited and incomplete information. Despite all these efforts, there remains often uncertainty concerning the outcomes of policy interventions. Given the uncertainty, often multiple
  • 56. scenarios are developed to show alternative outcomes and impact. A condition for this is the visualization of policy alternatives and its impact. Visualization can ensure involvement of nonexpert and to communicate alternatives. Furthermore, games can be used to let people gain insight in what can happen, given a certain scenario. Games allow persons to interact and to experience what happens in the future based on their interventions. Policy-makers are often faced with conflicting solutions to complex problems, thus making it necessary for them to test out their assumptions, interventions, and resolutions. For this reason policy-making organizations introduce platforms facili- tating policy-making and citizens engagements and enabling the processing of large volumes of data. There are various participative platforms developed by government agencies (e.g., De Reuver et al. 2013; Slaviero et al. 2010; Welch 2012). Platforms can be viewed as a kind of regulated environment that enable developers, users, and others to interact with each other, share data, services, and applications, enable gov- ernments to more easily monitor what is happening and facilitate the development of innovative solutions (Janssen and Estevez 2013). Platforms should provide not only support for complex policy deliberations with citizens but should also bring to- gether policy-modelers, developers, policy-makers, and other stakeholders involved
  • 57. in policy-making. In this way platforms provide an information- rich, interactive 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age 3 environment that brings together relevant stakeholders and in which complex phe- nomena can be modeled, simulated, visualized, discussed, and even the playing of games can be facilitated. 1.2 Complexity and Uncertainty in Policy-Making Policy-making is driven by the need to solve societal problems and should result in interventions to solve these societal problems. Examples of societal problems are unemployment, pollution, water quality, safety, criminality, well-being, health, and immigration. Policy-making is an ongoing process in which issues are recognized as a problem, alternative courses of actions are formulated, policies are affected, implemented, executed, and evaluated (Stewart et al. 2007). Figure 1.1 shows the typical stages of policy formulation, implementation, execution, enforcement, and evaluation. This process should not be viewed as linear as many interactions are necessary as well as interactions with all kind of stakeholders. In policy-making processes a vast amount of stakeholders are always involved, which makes policy- making complex.
  • 58. Once a societal need is identified, a policy has to be formulated. Politicians, members of parliament, executive branches, courts, and interest groups may be involved in these formulations. Often contradictory proposals are made, and the impact of a proposal is difficult to determine as data is missing, models cannot citizen s Policy formulation Policy implementation Policy execution Policy enforcement and evaluation politicians Policy- makers Administrative organizations b u
  • 59. sin esses Inspection and enforcement agencies experts Fig. 1.1 Overview of policy cycle and stakeholders 4 M. Janssen and M. A. Wimmer capture the complexity, and the results of policy models are difficult to interpret and even might be interpreted in an opposing way. This is further complicated as some proposals might be good but cannot be implemented or are too costly to implement. There is a large uncertainty concerning the outcomes. Policy implementation is done by organizations other than those that formulated the policy. They often have to interpret the policy and have to make implemen- tation decisions. Sometimes IT can block quick implementation as systems have to be changed. Although policy-making is the domain of the government, private organizations can be involved to some extent, in particular in the execution of policies. Once all things are ready and decisions are made, policies need to be executed.
  • 60. During the execution small changes are typically made to fine tune the policy formu- lation, implementation decisions might be more difficult to realize, policies might bring other benefits than intended, execution costs might be higher and so on. Typ- ically, execution is continually changing. Evaluation is part of the policy-making process as it is necessary to ensure that the policy-execution solved the initial so- cietal problem. Policies might become obsolete, might not work, have unintended affects (like creating bureaucracy) or might lose its support among elected officials, or other alternatives might pop up that are better. Policy-making is a complex process in which many stakeholders play a role. In the various phases of policy-making different actors are dominant and play a role. Figure 1.1 shows only some actors that might be involved, and many of them are not included in this figure. The involvement of so many actors results in fragmentation and often actors are even not aware of the decisions made by other actors. This makes it difficult to manage a policy-making process as each actor has other goals and might be self-interested. Public values (PVs) are a way to try to manage complexity and give some guidance. Most policies are made to adhere to certain values. Public value management (PVM) represents the paradigm of achieving PVs as being the primary objective (Stoker
  • 61. 2006). PVM refers to the continuous assessment of the actions performed by public officials to ensure that these actions result in the creation of PV (Moore 1995). Public servants are not only responsible for following the right procedure, but they also have to ensure that PVs are realized. For example, civil servants should ensure that garbage is collected. The procedure that one a week garbage is collected is secondary. If it is necessary to collect garbage more (or less) frequently to ensure a healthy environment then this should be done. The role of managers is not only to ensure that procedures are followed but they should be custodians of public assets and maximize a PV. There exist a wide variety of PVs (Jørgensen and Bozeman 2007). PVs can be long-lasting or might be driven by contemporary politics. For example, equal access is a typical long-lasting value, whereas providing support for students at universities is contemporary, as politicians might give more, less, or no support to students. PVs differ over times, but also the emphasis on values is different in the policy-making cycle as shown in Fig. 1.2. In this figure some of the values presented by Jørgensen and Bozeman (2007) are mapped onto the four policy-making stages. Dependent on the problem at hand other values might play a role that is not included in this figure.
  • 62. 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age 5 Policy formulation Policy implementation Policy execution Policy enforcement and evaluation efficiency efficiency accountability transparancy responsiveness public interest will of the people listening citizen involvement evidence-based
  • 63. protection of individual rights accountability transparancy evidence-based equal access balancing of interests robust honesty fair timelessness reliable flexible fair Fig. 1.2 Public values in the policy cycle Policy is often formulated by politicians in consultation with experts. In the PVM paradigm, public administrations aim at creating PVs for society and citizens. This suggests a shift from talking about what citizens expect in creating a PV. In this view public officials should focus on collaborating and creating a dialogue with citizens
  • 64. in order to determine what constitutes a PV. 1.3 Developments There is an infusion of technology that changes policy processes at both the individual and group level. There are a number of developments that influence the traditional way of policy-making, including social media as a means to interact with the public (Bertot et al. …