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Running Head: GROUP DB FORUM 3: PART 21
GROUP DB FORUM 3: PART 23
Group 3, Discussion Board Forum 3, Part 2
Zak Ayala
Patricia Day
Melissa Hardie
Cindy O’Donnell
Liberty University
Chapter 7: Mass customization of products has become a
common approach in manufacturing organizations. Explain how
mass customization can be applied to service firms as well.
Whereas mass customization is a feasible alternative in
manufacturing on digital factories and engaging lean
manufacturing strategies, service organizations engage a more
productive setting to ensure the profitability of mass
customization. Ostensibly, mass customization entails the
utilization of mass-production technologies to swiftly and cost-
effectively amass products that are designed exclusively to
satisfy the demands of the client (Daft, 2016). The major
challenge associated with mass customization service is
information translation concerning consumer preferences.
Achieved through marketing research, a comprehensible format
that involves service modularization and training of customer-
contact personnel can be utilized in the decision-making process
(Delbert & Dabholkar, 2009).
In the service platform, mass customization is a continuous
configuration procedure with direct customer involvement. This
element, combined with professional guidance by service
professionals, can enhance the comprehension of the client.
Eliminating confusion, the customer needs are met by service
personnel providing concise and clear alternatives, such as
configuration alternatives that strike the seamless balance
between complexity and flexibility. Furthermore, ongoing
interaction between the customer and vanguard contact
personnel which is consequential in mass customization.
****NEEDS A CITATION****
Chapter 7: Does teaching management from a textbook assume
that the manager's job is analyzable and, therefore, that formal
training rather than experience is most important?
Craft technologies are described primarily as a steady activities
stream. However, the conversion procedure is not well
understood and analyzable. Consequentially, these intangible
elements require extensive experience and training due to
employees’ responses on based on intuition, experience, and
wisdom. (Despite management having several) Although some
managerial skills can be acquired on the job, a certain skillset
must be taught in an academic setting. Essentially, these
acquired skills are regarded as non-routine skills. Therefore,
strategic planning, basic research, and other methods of
engagement involving unexpected problems and new projects
(Daft, 2016) can be used. For example, the expectation is
executives should possess an understanding of project
management and accounting before working in management. For
this reason, it is for appropriate to teach management courses in
business schools, reaffirming the need for experience and
formal training.
Chapter 8: Do you believe that technology will eventually
enable high-level managers to do their job with little face-to-
face communication?
Executives today have significant access to several new
technologies through efficient Management Information
Systems (MIS). that includes information reporting, decision
support, and executive information structures and systems
necessary in facilitating the effective and rapid decision-making
process. On the other hand, there are control elements that
include different management control structures and systems
such as executive dashboards and a balanced scorecard
procedure. Current technology facilitates management
executives in undertaking their obligations with minimum face-
to-face communication, for instance, using behavior control
methodology. Ostensibly, behavior control is anchored on
management observation of staff actions to perceive whether the
employees follow the laid down desired procedures and
executes responsibilities as instructed. Despite managers
monitoring behavior by read-through emails and checking
additional online activities, there is a need to effectively
communicate with the staffs when necessary (Daft, 2016). The
management may send an official email to the staffs; however,
if the employee snubs the email, then it is advisable to engage
in a face-to-face meeting. Therefore, despite technology
enabling management to undertake their responsibility with
minimum face-to-face communication is necessary at times.
Chapter 9: Look through several recent issues of a business
magazine (Fortune, Business Week, Fast Company, etc.) and
find examples of 2 companies that are using approaches to
busting bureaucracy. Explain the techniques that these
companies are applying.
Due to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the aviation
industry business model evolved to a very bureaucratic industry
due to the government emphasis on airport access and high-
security issues. Recently, security has had an adversative
influence on aviation business and flight operations, and
therefore National Business Aviation Assn. (NBAA), in
collaboration with the Transportation Security Administration
(TSA), and TAA is gently triggering progress regarding the
effort to salvage the capacity to fly anytime, anywhere, with
insignificant federal interference. Therefore, the aviation
industry business is not even permitted to utilize the Ronald
Reagan National Airport (RRNA). Initially, the aviation
business community should formulate an effective and formal
logistical and technical response towards federal security
apprehensions, and secondly, an organization political rejoinder
from the president White House is essential to revive the airport
to flying business (Phillips, 2013).
Another business that must handle significant bureaucracy is,
for example, Kiva's container an organization engaging in the
packaging business. Consequentially, the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) inspects the equipment,
while the Department of Commerce (DC) entails assessments of
shipping records, the Department of Transportation (DT), and
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates
chemicals are necessary for overseeing the packaging labels
(Philips, 2013). Kiva's container company is among several
small business ventures with significant bureaucratic
challenges. Small-business proprietors, expend at least 1 billion
hours annually filling out governmental forms, according to the
Small Business Administration (SBA) in the US (Philip, 2013).
Kiva's container proprietors engage in approximately 70 hours
weekly into the business operation. Kiva's owner has undertaken
deliberate effort to go to Washington to engage legislators
concerning health care issues and other challenges touching
small business. However, at this time the proprietor will
continue putting a lot of operation hours.
Chapter 9: Do you believe that a no-growth philosophy of
management should be taught in business schools?
Primarily, there are several benefits associated with small
businesses. Founded on researches of religious sects, primitive
societies, military organizations, and certain businesses, Robin
Dunbar and renowned anthropologist proposed that a hundred
and fifty is the optimal size required by any group aimed at
achieving a predetermined and specific objective. Dunbar
argues that beyond the 150-group size, the group's efficiency
and effectiveness wane due to numerous procedures, red tape,
and rules that saps and decelerates group enthusiasm,
commitment, and morale (Daft, 2016). Consequentially, there
are several benefits associated with "no growth” small
businesses and hence the reason to teach “no growth”
management philosophy in business schools. Several businesses
types are superlative when small and several business owners
and hence fear to become large business such as Ford.
How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?
A biblical worldview is applicable during consideration of the
corporate culture and hence according to Romans 12: 2,
Christians are not supposed to conform to the corporate culture
where they work and hence should strive towards
transformation.
References
Daft, R. (2016). Organization Theory and Design (10th ed.).
South-Western: Mason, OH.
Dellaert, B. & Dabholkar. P. (2009). Increasing the
attractiveness of mass customization: The role of
complementary on-line services and range of options.
International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 13(3), 43-
70. Retrieved from
***Cite URL***
Phillips, E. (2013). BIZAV battling bureaucracy. Aviation Week
& Space Technology. 159(14), 60-62. Retrieved from
****Cite URL**
Running head: group db forum 3: Part 11
group db forum 3: Part 12
Group 3 DB Forum 3: Part 1Chapter 7
Question 1
Improving customer service and quality while reducing cost is
the goal of the smart factory. Using the lean manufacturing
approach (Daft, 2016), an organization may incorporate highly
trained employees in all stages of the process, ensuring the
production of goods which will represent value and quality.
Recognizing the benefits of this model, smart factories have
advanced the process using mass customization, a production
technology that allows for increased cost-effectiveness while
meeting the consumer demands for designs which are unique
and built to order. Existing in an environment that enables
higher levels of flexibility, adaptability, quality and
productivity, organizations that follow a lean model recognize
that technology alone cannot improve customer satisfaction
(Daft, 2018).
Making up more than fifty percent of the business in the United
States, the service industry is a market that employs an
estimated ninety percent of the US workforce. Unlike its
counterpart, manufacturing technology firms, the connection
between customer and employee is more distinct (Daft, 2018).
This direct interaction is a pivotal piece in the customer’s
perception of service quality.
Impacted by the timeliness of response time and site location,
service firms are now gravitating to a delivery system that is
lean yet capable of meeting the expectations of customers (Daft,
2018). Maintaining a core that is close to the customer in a
structure that is less driven by boundaries yet holds a higher
focus on customer interaction is key for the service
organization. However, the intangible nature of the service
industry presents a unique exception when comparing service
and manufacturing models (Daft, 2018).
As Liu and Yai (2018) noted, a primary organizational issue is
to resolve the conflict that exists between meeting the needs of
the customer and the scale of the economy. In doing so, the
service firm must accept the responsibility of reforming the
existing internal operational system. Addressing the diverse and
customized requests of an expanding market, the service mass
customization must institute strategic operational changes, such
as the integration of a variety of supply chain resources, when
attempting to optimize the operational system of the
organization (Liu & Yai, 2018). Choosing those resources that
are readily available and offer the highest level of benefit can
lead to a successful outcome.
Question 2
The combination of an analyzable conversion process with
experience, judgment and intuition can provide a path to a
solution. Dealing with a situation in which the solution is
unknown can present a problem. Therefore, when faced with an
issue that lacks the ability to be analyzed, a solution can be
found by applying wisdom gained from past experiences (Daft,
2018). In the setting of a craft technology, the demands of the
intangible elements can present analytical barriers. When faced
with these challenges, employees must utilize wisdom and
experience to meet expectations (Daft, 2018).
While it may include intangible variables, teaching management
in a business school is appropriate when applying a
sociotechnical systems approach. The relationship between the
social human need to gain knowledge and the technical
expertise of the organization or educator, exemplifies the
effectiveness of the design. Meeting the needs of both systems
can produce an outcome that is optimal for both (Daft, 2018).
In addition, reliance on sequence and procedures reinforces the
argument that superior management may not be a craft
technology (Daft, 2018). Possessing an ability to decipher large
volumes of input while remaining focused during task
accomplishment could be viewed as a hallmark of a skilled
worker-manager and while it may be a hallmark of
analyzability, experience and wisdom cannot be discounted
(Daft, 2018).
Chapter 8
Question 1
Used to improve the collaboration and coordination of
employees, information technology is an efficient and effective
tool in the exchange of knowledge and communications.
Whether tacit or codified, the management of knowledge require
systems that promote engagement, encouraging employees to
seek out information and individuals if answers are needed
(Daft, 2018. This connection, key to the success of an
organization, cannot survive in a vacuum void of human
contact.
While it may no longer be viewed as a nontraditional approach,
the decentralization of organizations by way of the use of IT
can provide a variety of benefits, such as improved coordination
within an enhanced network structure (Daft, 2018). However, as
Stone, Deadrick, Lukaszewski and Johnson (2015) stated, the
use of IT in the process and practices of the human resource
aspect of organizations have had some less favorable outcomes,
notably in the areas of employee retention and motivation.
Therefore, while its prevalence may continue to grow, I do not
believe technology will enable high level managers to
successfully do their jobs with little face-to-face
communication. The need to connect on a personal level to
exchange ideas and witness behavior cannot be achieved if the
boundaries of IT prevent it from occurring (Daft, 2018).
Chapter 9
Question 1
Improving efficiency and effectiveness are two benefits
bureaucracy can provide to an organization. The machinelike
system and organization that are produced by a set of rules and
regulations can transform an organization, as seen in the
success of UPS (Daft, 2018). However, if the structure is
overburdening, which is often the case, the inflexibility can lead
to stagnation and failure. To remain competitive and increase
flexibility, organizations take the necessary steps to cut those
hierarchical layers that impose excessive limitations, thus
busting the bureaucratic chain (Daft, 2018).
Jose Almeida, the CEO of the healthcare giant Baxter
International, is an example of a transformational leader.
Identifying the impact culture has on an organization, Almeida
took the committed steps of cutting bureaucratic layers.
Creating an open culture in which the exchange of ideas is
encouraged, Almeida gave his employees an increase level of
freedom and authority in the organization’s decision-making
process. Utilizing this successful bureaucracy busting strategy,
Baxter’s stock increased nearly 70%, creating a viable
opportunity for acquisition (Gharib, 2018).
Another example of bureaucracy busting is seen in the efforts
and initiatives of JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon. Identifying it as
a disease, Dimon actively tries to reduce the threats imposed by
bureaucracy. By limiting internal meetings and creating small,
dedicated “war rooms”, Dimon attempted to link employee
autonomy with the resources needed to improve the sought-after
organizational outcome, a reimagined customer experience
(Lebowitz, 2018).
Question 2
In response to a declining economy, organizations may elect to
make certain changes to avoid failure. Lay offs, hiring freezes
and abandoned construction projects are a few examples of the
conscious decisions made by organizations and service firms as
they attempt to downsize and create and a survivable
organizational decline. Often followed by a lengthy period of
success, these measures are taken stabilize an inefficient and
deteriorating environment (Daft, 2018).
Facing stages that cannot be ignored, organizations may adopt a
framework that will inhibit growth while promoting
sustainability. Revising practices while utilizing embedded
organizational strategies that secure performance and
contribution can ultimately allow for benefits such as cost
savings, employee retention and reduced risk (Le Roux &
Pretorius, 2016). A proactive paradigm, the strategy of no
growth is a necessary reality for many organizations as they
strive to remain viable. No longer an exception, the curriculum
in business school s must expose future leaders to every facet of
operations, not just those that appeal to a booming economy or
the enticement of entrepreneurship.
Biblical Worldview Application
Striving for stability in a global environment that is often
tumultuous, the words and message of Psalm 16:8 provide the
message that can give guidance during times of uncertainty and
instability. Accepting the power that God’s presence offers
allows for a deeper sense of strength and commitment, one that
can lead to a renewed spirit. As Jude 1:24-25 states, it is
through the presence and glory of God that one is kept safe,
giving hope to pursue remarkable things under His authority.
word count 1291
References
Daft, R. L. (2016). Organizational theory & design (12th ed.).
Boston: Cengage Learning.
Gharbib, S. 2018, February). This CEO believes that innovation
and culture are one and the same. Fortune. Retrieved from
http://www.fortune.com/2018/02/14/baxter-international-jose-
almeida/
Lebowitz, S. (2018, April). Jamie Dimon says bureaucracy is ‘a
disease’-and JPMorgan takes 5 steps to combat it. Business
insider. Retrieved from
https://www.businessinsider.com/jp-morgan-jamie-dimon-
bureaucracy-2018-4
Le Roux, C., & Pretorius, M. (2016). Conceptualizing the
limiting issues inhibiting sustainability
embeddedness. Sustainability, 8(4), 364. Retrieved from
doi:10.3390/su8040364
Liu, C., & Yao, J. (2018). Dynamic supply chain integration
optimization in service mass customization. Computers &
Industrial Engineering, 120, 42-52. Retrieved from
doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2018.04.018
Stone, D. L., Deadrick, D. L., Lukaszewski, K. M., & Johnson,
R. (2015). The influence of technology on the future of human
resource management. Human Resource Management Review,
25(2), 216-231. Retrieved from
https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.01.002
.
Running head: Discussion board forum 3 part 1 1
Discussion board forum 3 part 1 2
Chapter 7, Q1.
Customers are expecting more from their service providers.
Rather than traditionally accepting boilerplate offerings from
service providers, customers desire that service providers cater
to their requests. Organizations providing services must keep up
with the customer’s demand or risk losing business to others
who will. Many service providers have been adopting lean
principles to accommodate the needs of their customers in
successful attempts to decrease waste, increase efficiency,
improve customer service and satisfaction (Daft, 2016, p. 275).
From online music providers, customers expect music tracks
personalized for their tastes. From airlines, customers can
expect preflight seat and meal selections. Amazon.com provides
custom personalization to a customers’ home pages by placing
personally directed advertisements and products which the
customer is more likely to order from the company. Amazon
book recommendations are personalized to the specific customer
and are provided based upon previous books read. With
customers expecting customized and catered experiences,
companies need to keep up with this demand and embrace mass
customization in order to obtain and retain customers.
Chapter 7, Q2.
While many facets of businesses may involve craft technology,
it is still important for business schools to teach management.
Some businesses which only expect their leaders to gain
knowledge and expertise from experience, may be creating a
bureaucratic and restricted model for their business. Companies
which rely only on internal training for their leaders can miss
opportunities from potential leaders coming in from the outside.
Business schools which teach management can provide potential
leaders with a foundation to draw from. Teaching management
can expose students to issues and opportunities experienced by
others, not just ones restricted to one specific company.
Teaching management from a textbook is just one method of
conveying information. Just as one would not necessarily be
proficient in piloting a boat from reading a book, a textbook
about doing so would provide the student with underlying
concepts which could dramatically increase the success of the
student when they move to an actual boat. This textbook based
training would be further enhanced with some practical
experience.
Chapter 8, Q1.
Technology has progressed allowing real time instant messaging
and virtual meetings. High level managers can indeed expect
technology to allow them to do their jobs with little face-to-face
communication, but they should question if that is something
they really want to do. There are currently methods available
which could be used effectively to communicate with
subordinates, employees and stockholders, such as recorded
feeds which would be able to reach every associated individual.
These however may not provide a sense of personalization from
the managers. Leaders in an organization may resort to using
technology and end up building a wall between themselves and
their subordinates by becoming detached from the employees of
the organization. It would not be unreasonable for an employee
in this situation to feel that they are working for a virtual
supervisor, much like an automated telephonic voice tree, with
no sense of human interaction. In regards to improvements after
implementation of lean business projects, “Managers said that
one condition needed to keep improving was visible support
from board members and senior leadership—without it, frontline
workers would believe that the company’s enthusiasm for the
effort has waned, and backsliding ensues.” (Holweg, Staats, &
Upton, 2018). It could be more challenging for an employee to
buy into the organization if they felt they were not valued for
their individuality, but rather were merely just a non-
personalized component of the organization, thus becoming
more and more distanced from the organization.
Chapter 9, Q1.
Two recent examples of companies which are “busting
bureaucracy” are Netflix and Take Haier. Netflix, a home video
streaming service, started as a mail order DVD rental company
which competed with video rental storefronts. It evolved into a
personalized subscription video streaming service with
traditional offerings, as well as its own movies and series.
Netflix has over 75 million subscribers and continues to look to
improving the future of the business. In regards to their
internal business model, “Netflix leaders…believe that people
do their best work when they don’t need to constantly ask for
approval. They consider that when people have the freedom to
make decisions, they’ll put more effort into making those
decisions responsibly” (Wilder, 2018).
Haier is a Chinese based appliance maker which has seen a
growth of profits by 23 annually for the past decade. Their
CEO, Zhang Ruimin, seeing bureaucracy as a competitive
liability, has “…led to an effort to build a company where
everyone is directly accountable to customers, employees are
energetic entrepreneurs, and an open ecosystem of users,
investors, and partners replaces formal hierarchy” (Saelinger,
2018). Haier employees are divided into more than 4,000
microenterprises consisting of just 10 to 15 employees. The
microenterprises of marketing and manufacturing platforms
follow the standards of the business, but are flexible in their
individual operations. They are self-managing, allowing them to
make decisions and changes in the best interest of the company
without needing approval from the CEO.
Chapter 9, Q2.
A no-growth philosophy of management should be taught in
business schools. While it is ideal that businesses constantly
grow and experience positive revenue, it is not always the case.
Business leaders must be exposed to the concept that the
business may experience periods of no-growth for such reasons
as either due to the economy, failure to keep up with customer’s
demands, or other reasons seemingly out of their control.
Business leaders who recognize periods of no-growth before
they happen, can be better prepared to deal with slowing in their
business. Smaller businesses, such as a corner store, may be
quite content operating in a no-growth model. Business schools
should provide students with a virtual tool box of resources and
information to draw from. Including no-growth management
principles should be included in the tool box.
In regards to a biblical worldview of bureaucracy, “If you see
the oppression of the poor, and the violent perversion of justice
and righteousness in a province, do not marvel at the matter; for
high official watches over high official, and higher officials are
over them” Ecclesiastes 5:8 (NKJV). This verse is describing
bureaucracy and illustrates that layer upon layer of supervision
does not result in prosperity for those at the bottom.
Running Head: Group DB Forum 3 Part 11
Group DB Forum 3 Part 12
Chapter 7
Question 1
One of the goals of mass customization is customer satisfaction.
Organizations provide customers the ability to order products
which are unique to their needs (Daft, 2016). This approach is
considered lean manufacturing which was founded by Ford and
then later Toyota adopted to regulate the production process
efficiently (Ghobakhloo, Fathi, Fontes, & Ching, 2018). The
main purpose of this process is to evaluate current systems
“through a set of synergistic work practices” enabling a
reduction in cost while at the same time providing products and
services “on demand” (Ghobakhloo, Fathi, Fontes, & Ching,
2018).
The lean process has been very successful for the manufacturing
company but can also be used by a service firm. Since service
industries also focus on customer satisfaction, this can be
applied especially in reducing waste and continuously
improving processes (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). Toyota used lean
to improve manufacturing which included improving “the flow
of information and material” (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). This can
be applied to the service organization by evaluating the costs
associated with “unnecessary delays, tasks, costs and errors”
(Cudney & Elrod, 2011).
The main idea is to evaluate wastes to determine how to
eliminate them. This includes “seven wastes of lean which are
overproduction, transportation, inventory, processing, waiting,
motion, and defects” (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). This can be
applied to certain departments within the service industry
including “procurement, invoicing, order entry, accounting and
sales” (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). The task should be in how to
improve current processes with the intent of providing a better
service to the customer. A service is a direct result of a
“request from the customer” whereas a product can be
manufactured and then sold at a later date (Daft, 2016). The
service will be mostly employees who must have expertise in
the type of service provided (Daft, 2016). For customizing a
service firm, the level of customer satisfaction is in direct
relation to the “quality of service perceived” (Daft, 2016).
Question 2
It is interesting to consider management as a craft technology
which is being interpreted that this is only learned through
experience. Experience is fundamental especially within an
organization. Managers must evaluate internal processes
including employees to determine the best strategy especially
with ensuring customer satisfaction. Further, management also
should understand the importance of building a learning
atmosphere that includes creativity and knowledge-sharing
(Daft, 2016). With this in mind, it would be almost impossible
to implement if management was not also learning and seeking
new innovation.
As with all professions, it is necessary to have learned skills
specifically through education. For example, if a surgeon only
learned through experience, would this be beneficial to the
patient. There is more to management than managing
employees. A manager should have a clear understanding of
planning and goal-setting (Durant, Carlon, & Downs, 2016).
This is imperative for employee satisfaction that will directly
affect customer satisfaction.
Chapter 8
Question 1
Just as organizations must continue to evaluate the environment
to ensure profitability, management must determine if the
current management style is feasible. With the increase in
social media, businesses are now encouraging “social business”
which empowers employees to collaborate easily with other
employees and customers (Daft, 2016). This also provides
managers with better resources for communicating with
employees.
Even with the rapid growth of technology, high-level managers
may continue to communicate with employees although this may
be through technology rather than face-to-face. There are two
types of controls management may use within an organization
which can be used simultaneously but typically one or the other
is used depending on the manager (Daft, 2016). The
hierarchical control is more of the traditional with management
initiating “rules, policies, hierarchy of authority, written
documentation, reward systems, and other mechanisms” to
develop employee performance (Daft, 2016). Decentralized
control relies on employees in allowing them to collaborate
together specifically based on “cultural values, traditions,
shared beliefs, and trust to foster compliance with
organizational goals” (Daft, 2016).
High-level managers in either situation may rely heavily on
operational managers to determine which type of control is
necessary. With the decentralized control, high-level
management may have little communication with employees as
department managers may adhere to the “flexible authority
style” enabling employees to take part in the day to day
operations specifically with “monitoring quality” (Daft, 2016).
Chapter 9
Question 1
One organization that has decided to change its current structure
is Tesla. In an attempt to reduce the cost of the company’s
cheapest model, a decision was made to close the majority of its
stores and transition to “online only” (Meyer, 2019). The
company then decided to keep more stores open and raising the
price of other models to cover the cost (Meyer, 2019). The
stores will have fewer employees and offer assistance to
customers in purchasing a Tesla online (Meyer, 2019). Elon
Musk, Tesla CEO, had plans to reduce the price of model 3
enabling the company to introduce Tesla in new markets
“worldwide” (Levingston, 2019). Due to reduced sales and
slow delivery, the company had to react with possible layoffs
and slowing the plan to offer more cars at lower prices
(Levingston, 2019). Reducing the number of stores enabling
customers to order a vehicle online allows the company to
expand in other areas. It seems this will be hard at first but the
intention is to offer better service and lower prices which leads
to customer satisfaction.
Another company that is considered a great place to work by
most of its employees is Pariveda
Solution
s. The company promotes transparency among all employees
including salary levels with easy access to this information
(Frauenheim, 2019). The company uses Holacracy which is
removing “management, the organizational chart and
subordinates” and replacing this with a type of control that
allows employees to work in “self-managed teams” and “to act
freely within specified zones of authority” (Frauenheim, 2019).
In reviewing the companies core values, the first on the list is
integrity which encourages “high ethical standards” (Pariveda,
2019). This is providing clear expectations for employees and
their work ethic.
Question 2
There are a number of definitions for growth. The Oxford
Dictionary includes “the process of increasing in amount, value
or importance” (Oxford Dictionary, 2019). The opposite of
growth is to be stagnate (Daft, 2016). Growth within an
organization does not just mean in size. All organizations
should evaluate how to improve by setting goals and
establishing new strategy. This is a type of growth specifically
in value. For business schools to provide a no-growth
philosophy for management may need to be refined. There are
multiple examples showing how some organizations have
thrived by growing bigger and others have focused on
improving rather than growth (Daft, 2016).
If managers are taught that an organization should not grow,
then this would not always fit with certain organizations. An
organization may need to grow to keep up with the competition
(Daft, 2016). An organization that grows to become a leader in
the market will reap the benefits and the employees will most
likely be provided opportunities to grow with the organization
(Daft, 2016). In contrast, a small company also has benefits
including “free-flowing management style that encourages
entrepreneurship and innovation” (Daft, 2016). The best option
for a business school is to provide information for both the
large organization and small business allowing managers to
determine which type is best for them.
Biblical Worldview
A verse that is relevant in the situation with management
growing the business with the intention of maximizing profits is
Hebrews 13:5 which encourages us to avoid loving money and
to be content with what we are given. Those who are not
satisfied with what has been provided may continuously seek
after more. This is good advice for those who own a small
business and want to grow just to increase profit.
References
Cudney, E., & Elrod, C. (2011). A comparative analysis of
integrating lean concepts into supply chain management in
manufacturing and service industries. International Journal of
Lean Six Sigma, 2(1), pp.5-22. Retrieved from https://doi-
org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/20401461111119422
Daft, R. L. (2016). Organization theory & design. Boston:
Cengage Learning.
Durant, R. A., Carlon, D. M., & Downs, A. (2016). The
efficiency challenge: creating a transformative learning
experience in a principles of management course. Journal of
Management Education, 41(6), pp. 852-872. Retrieved from
https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1177/1052562916682789
Frauenheim, E. (2019, March 19). These companies are the best
workplaces in Texas. Fortune. Retrieved from
http://fortune.com/2019/03/19/these-companies-are-the-best-
workplaces-in-texas/
Ghobakhloo, M., Fathi, M., Fontes, D. B., & Ching, N. T.
(2018). Modeling lean manufacturing success. Journal of
Modelling in Management,13(4), pp. 908-931. Retrieved from
https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/JM2-03-2017-0025
Levingston, I. (2019, April 4). Elon Musk's plan to boost tesla
sales is dealt a setback. Fortune. Retrieved from
http://fortune.com/2019/04/04/elon-musk-tesla-q1/
Meyer, D. (2019, March 11). Tesla to raise prices and reduce
store closures in latest strategy switch. Fortune. Retrieved from
http://fortune.com/2019/03/11/tesla-price-rise-retail-stores/
Oxford Dictionary. (2019). Retrieved from
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/growth
Pariveda. (2019). Mission & core values. Pariveda. Retrieved
from https://www.parivedasolutions.com/about-home-
page/mission-and-core-values
Running Head: DB1
DB2
Discussion Board
Chapter 7: Mass customization of products has become a
common approach in manufacturing organizations. Explain how
mass customization can be applied to service firms as well.
Whereas mass customization is a feasible alternative in
manufacturing on digital factories and engaging lean
manufacturing strategies, service organization engages a more
productive setting to ensure the profitability of mass
customization. Ostensibly, mass customization entails
utilization of mass-production technologies to swiftly and cost-
effectively amass products that are exclusively designed to
satisfy the demands of each client (Daft, 2016). The major
challenge associated with mass customization service is
information translation concerning consumer preferences
achieved through marketing research into a comprehensible
format that can be effortlessly utilized in the decision-making
process involving service modularization and training of
customer-contact personnel (Dellaert & Dabholkar, 2009). In
the service platform, mass customization is a continuous
configuration procedure with direct customer involvement
combined with professional guidance by service professionals
who comprehend the configuration regulations and appreciates
them. A clear customer needs understanding is necessary
alongside service personnel required to offer the client concise
and clear configuration alternatives that strike the seamless
balance between complexity and flexibility — furthermore,
ongoing interaction between the customer and vanguard contact
personnel which is consequential in mass customization.
Chapter 7: Does teaching management from a textbook assume
that the manager's job is analyzable and, therefore, that formal
training rather than experience is most important?
Primarily, craft technologies are described by a significantly
steady activities stream. However, the conversion procedure is
not well understood and analyzable. Consequentially, these
responsibilities require extensive experience and training due to
employees response on intangible elements based on intuition,
experience, and wisdom. Despite management having several
skills acquired on the job application, some skills are supposed
to be acquired in school. Essentially, these acquired skills are
regarded as non-routine skills. Therefore, strategic planning,
basic research, and other engagement involving unexpected
problems and new projects(Daft, 2016). For instance, the
majority of executives are supposed to understand project
management and accounting before working in management.
Ostensibly, that is the reason for appropriately teaching
management courses in business schools. Therefore, a
managers occupation is not analyzable and hence the need to
engage both experience and formal training.
Chapter 8: Do you believe that technology will eventually
enable high-level managers to do their job with little face-to-
face communication?
Executives today have significant access to several new
technologies through efficient Management Information
Systems (MIS) that includes information reporting, decision
support, and executive information structures and systems
necessary in facilitating the effective and rapid decision-making
process. On the other hand, there are control elements that
include different management control structures and systems
such as executive dashboards and a balanced scorecard
procedure. Current technology facilitates management
executives in undertaking their obligations with minimum face-
to-face communication, for instance, using behavior control
methodology. Ostensibly, behavior control is anchored on
management observation of staff actions to perceive whether the
employees follow the laid down desired procedures and
executes responsibilities as instructed. Despite managers
monitoring behavior by read-through emails and checking
additional online activities, there is a need to effectively
communicate with the staffs when necessary (Daft, 2016). The
management may send an official email to the staffs; however,
if the employee snubs the email, then it is advisable to engage
in a face-to-face meeting. Therefore, despite technology
enabling management to undertake their responsibility with
minimum face-to-face communication is necessary at times.
Chapter 9: Look through several recent issues of a business
magazine (Fortune, Business Week, Fast Company, etc.) and
find examples of 2 companies that are using approaches to
busting bureaucracy. Explain the techniques that these
companies are applying.
Due to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the aviation
industry business model evolved to a very bureaucratic industry
due to the government emphasis on airport access and high-
security issues. Recently, security has had an adversative
influence on aviation business and flight operations, and
therefore National Business Aviation Assn. (NBAA), in
collaboration with the Transportation Security Administration
(TSA), and TAA is gently triggering progress regarding the
effort to salvage the capacity to fly anytime, anywhere, with
insignificant federal interference. Therefore, the aviation
industry business is not even permitted to utilize the Ronald
Reagan National Airport (RRNA). Initially, the aviation
business community should formulate an effective and formal
logistical and technical response towards federal security
apprehensions, and secondly, an organization political rejoinder
from the president White House is essential to revive the airport
to flying business (Phillips, 2013).
Another business that has to handle significant bureaucracy is,
for example, Kiva's container an organization engaging in the
packaging business. Consequentially, the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) inspects the equipment,
while the Department of Commerce (DC) entails assessments of
shipping records, the Department of Transportation (DT), and
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates
chemicals are necessary for overseeing the packaging labels
(Philips, 2013). Kiva's container company is among several
small business ventures with significant bureaucratic
challenges. Small-business proprietors, expend at least 1 billion
hours annually filling out governmental forms, according to the
Small Business Administration (SBA) in the US (Philip, 2013).
Kiva's container proprietors engage in approximately 70 hours
weekly into the business operation. Kiva's owner has undertaken
deliberate effort to go to Washington to engage legislators
concerning health care issues and other challenges touching
small business. However, at this time the proprietor will
continue putting a lot of operation hours.
Chapter 9: Do you believe that a no-growth philosophy of
management should be taught in business schools?
Primarily, there are several benefits associated with small
businesses. Founded on researches of religious sects, primitive
societies, military organizations, and certain businesses, Robin
Dunbar and renowned anthropologist proposed that a hundred
and fifty is the optimal size required by any group aimed at
achieving a predetermined and specific objective. Dunbar
argues that beyond the 150 group size, the group's efficiency
and effectiveness wane due to numerous procedures, red tape,
and rules that saps and decelerates group enthusiasm,
commitment, and morale (Daft, 2016). Consequentially, there
are several benefits associated with "no growth” small
businesses and hence the reason to teach “no growth”
management philosophy in business schools. Several businesses
types are superlative when small and several business owners
and hence fear to become large business such as Ford.
How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?
A biblical worldview is applicable during consideration of the
corporate culture and hence according to Romans 12: 2,
Christians are not supposed to conform to the corporate culture
where they work and hence should strive towards
transformation.
References
Daft, R. (2016). Organization Theory and Design (10th ed.).
South-Western: Mason, OH.
Dellaert, B. & Dabholkar. P. (2009). Increasing the
Attractiveness of Mass Customization: The Role of
Complementary On-line Services and Range of Options.
International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 13(3), 43-70.
Phillips, E. (2013). BIZAV Battling Bureaucracy. Aviation
Week & Space Technology. 159(14), 60-62.
Running Head GROUP DB FORUM 3 PART 21GROUP DB FORUM 3 PART .docx

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Running Head GROUP DB FORUM 3 PART 21GROUP DB FORUM 3 PART .docx

  • 1. Running Head: GROUP DB FORUM 3: PART 21 GROUP DB FORUM 3: PART 23 Group 3, Discussion Board Forum 3, Part 2 Zak Ayala Patricia Day Melissa Hardie Cindy O’Donnell Liberty University Chapter 7: Mass customization of products has become a common approach in manufacturing organizations. Explain how mass customization can be applied to service firms as well. Whereas mass customization is a feasible alternative in manufacturing on digital factories and engaging lean manufacturing strategies, service organizations engage a more productive setting to ensure the profitability of mass customization. Ostensibly, mass customization entails the utilization of mass-production technologies to swiftly and cost-
  • 2. effectively amass products that are designed exclusively to satisfy the demands of the client (Daft, 2016). The major challenge associated with mass customization service is information translation concerning consumer preferences. Achieved through marketing research, a comprehensible format that involves service modularization and training of customer- contact personnel can be utilized in the decision-making process (Delbert & Dabholkar, 2009). In the service platform, mass customization is a continuous configuration procedure with direct customer involvement. This element, combined with professional guidance by service professionals, can enhance the comprehension of the client. Eliminating confusion, the customer needs are met by service personnel providing concise and clear alternatives, such as configuration alternatives that strike the seamless balance between complexity and flexibility. Furthermore, ongoing interaction between the customer and vanguard contact personnel which is consequential in mass customization. ****NEEDS A CITATION**** Chapter 7: Does teaching management from a textbook assume that the manager's job is analyzable and, therefore, that formal training rather than experience is most important? Craft technologies are described primarily as a steady activities stream. However, the conversion procedure is not well understood and analyzable. Consequentially, these intangible elements require extensive experience and training due to employees’ responses on based on intuition, experience, and wisdom. (Despite management having several) Although some managerial skills can be acquired on the job, a certain skillset must be taught in an academic setting. Essentially, these acquired skills are regarded as non-routine skills. Therefore, strategic planning, basic research, and other methods of engagement involving unexpected problems and new projects (Daft, 2016) can be used. For example, the expectation is executives should possess an understanding of project management and accounting before working in management. For
  • 3. this reason, it is for appropriate to teach management courses in business schools, reaffirming the need for experience and formal training. Chapter 8: Do you believe that technology will eventually enable high-level managers to do their job with little face-to- face communication? Executives today have significant access to several new technologies through efficient Management Information Systems (MIS). that includes information reporting, decision support, and executive information structures and systems necessary in facilitating the effective and rapid decision-making process. On the other hand, there are control elements that include different management control structures and systems such as executive dashboards and a balanced scorecard procedure. Current technology facilitates management executives in undertaking their obligations with minimum face- to-face communication, for instance, using behavior control methodology. Ostensibly, behavior control is anchored on management observation of staff actions to perceive whether the employees follow the laid down desired procedures and executes responsibilities as instructed. Despite managers monitoring behavior by read-through emails and checking additional online activities, there is a need to effectively communicate with the staffs when necessary (Daft, 2016). The management may send an official email to the staffs; however, if the employee snubs the email, then it is advisable to engage in a face-to-face meeting. Therefore, despite technology enabling management to undertake their responsibility with minimum face-to-face communication is necessary at times. Chapter 9: Look through several recent issues of a business magazine (Fortune, Business Week, Fast Company, etc.) and find examples of 2 companies that are using approaches to busting bureaucracy. Explain the techniques that these companies are applying. Due to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the aviation industry business model evolved to a very bureaucratic industry
  • 4. due to the government emphasis on airport access and high- security issues. Recently, security has had an adversative influence on aviation business and flight operations, and therefore National Business Aviation Assn. (NBAA), in collaboration with the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and TAA is gently triggering progress regarding the effort to salvage the capacity to fly anytime, anywhere, with insignificant federal interference. Therefore, the aviation industry business is not even permitted to utilize the Ronald Reagan National Airport (RRNA). Initially, the aviation business community should formulate an effective and formal logistical and technical response towards federal security apprehensions, and secondly, an organization political rejoinder from the president White House is essential to revive the airport to flying business (Phillips, 2013). Another business that must handle significant bureaucracy is, for example, Kiva's container an organization engaging in the packaging business. Consequentially, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspects the equipment, while the Department of Commerce (DC) entails assessments of shipping records, the Department of Transportation (DT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates chemicals are necessary for overseeing the packaging labels (Philips, 2013). Kiva's container company is among several small business ventures with significant bureaucratic challenges. Small-business proprietors, expend at least 1 billion hours annually filling out governmental forms, according to the Small Business Administration (SBA) in the US (Philip, 2013). Kiva's container proprietors engage in approximately 70 hours weekly into the business operation. Kiva's owner has undertaken deliberate effort to go to Washington to engage legislators concerning health care issues and other challenges touching small business. However, at this time the proprietor will continue putting a lot of operation hours. Chapter 9: Do you believe that a no-growth philosophy of management should be taught in business schools?
  • 5. Primarily, there are several benefits associated with small businesses. Founded on researches of religious sects, primitive societies, military organizations, and certain businesses, Robin Dunbar and renowned anthropologist proposed that a hundred and fifty is the optimal size required by any group aimed at achieving a predetermined and specific objective. Dunbar argues that beyond the 150-group size, the group's efficiency and effectiveness wane due to numerous procedures, red tape, and rules that saps and decelerates group enthusiasm, commitment, and morale (Daft, 2016). Consequentially, there are several benefits associated with "no growth” small businesses and hence the reason to teach “no growth” management philosophy in business schools. Several businesses types are superlative when small and several business owners and hence fear to become large business such as Ford. How can/should a biblical worldview be applied? A biblical worldview is applicable during consideration of the corporate culture and hence according to Romans 12: 2, Christians are not supposed to conform to the corporate culture where they work and hence should strive towards transformation. References Daft, R. (2016). Organization Theory and Design (10th ed.). South-Western: Mason, OH. Dellaert, B. & Dabholkar. P. (2009). Increasing the attractiveness of mass customization: The role of complementary on-line services and range of options. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 13(3), 43- 70. Retrieved from ***Cite URL*** Phillips, E. (2013). BIZAV battling bureaucracy. Aviation Week & Space Technology. 159(14), 60-62. Retrieved from ****Cite URL**
  • 6. Running head: group db forum 3: Part 11 group db forum 3: Part 12 Group 3 DB Forum 3: Part 1Chapter 7 Question 1 Improving customer service and quality while reducing cost is the goal of the smart factory. Using the lean manufacturing approach (Daft, 2016), an organization may incorporate highly trained employees in all stages of the process, ensuring the production of goods which will represent value and quality. Recognizing the benefits of this model, smart factories have advanced the process using mass customization, a production technology that allows for increased cost-effectiveness while meeting the consumer demands for designs which are unique and built to order. Existing in an environment that enables higher levels of flexibility, adaptability, quality and productivity, organizations that follow a lean model recognize that technology alone cannot improve customer satisfaction (Daft, 2018). Making up more than fifty percent of the business in the United States, the service industry is a market that employs an estimated ninety percent of the US workforce. Unlike its counterpart, manufacturing technology firms, the connection between customer and employee is more distinct (Daft, 2018). This direct interaction is a pivotal piece in the customer’s perception of service quality. Impacted by the timeliness of response time and site location, service firms are now gravitating to a delivery system that is lean yet capable of meeting the expectations of customers (Daft, 2018). Maintaining a core that is close to the customer in a structure that is less driven by boundaries yet holds a higher focus on customer interaction is key for the service organization. However, the intangible nature of the service industry presents a unique exception when comparing service and manufacturing models (Daft, 2018). As Liu and Yai (2018) noted, a primary organizational issue is to resolve the conflict that exists between meeting the needs of
  • 7. the customer and the scale of the economy. In doing so, the service firm must accept the responsibility of reforming the existing internal operational system. Addressing the diverse and customized requests of an expanding market, the service mass customization must institute strategic operational changes, such as the integration of a variety of supply chain resources, when attempting to optimize the operational system of the organization (Liu & Yai, 2018). Choosing those resources that are readily available and offer the highest level of benefit can lead to a successful outcome. Question 2 The combination of an analyzable conversion process with experience, judgment and intuition can provide a path to a solution. Dealing with a situation in which the solution is unknown can present a problem. Therefore, when faced with an issue that lacks the ability to be analyzed, a solution can be found by applying wisdom gained from past experiences (Daft, 2018). In the setting of a craft technology, the demands of the intangible elements can present analytical barriers. When faced with these challenges, employees must utilize wisdom and experience to meet expectations (Daft, 2018). While it may include intangible variables, teaching management in a business school is appropriate when applying a sociotechnical systems approach. The relationship between the social human need to gain knowledge and the technical expertise of the organization or educator, exemplifies the effectiveness of the design. Meeting the needs of both systems can produce an outcome that is optimal for both (Daft, 2018). In addition, reliance on sequence and procedures reinforces the argument that superior management may not be a craft technology (Daft, 2018). Possessing an ability to decipher large volumes of input while remaining focused during task accomplishment could be viewed as a hallmark of a skilled worker-manager and while it may be a hallmark of analyzability, experience and wisdom cannot be discounted
  • 8. (Daft, 2018). Chapter 8 Question 1 Used to improve the collaboration and coordination of employees, information technology is an efficient and effective tool in the exchange of knowledge and communications. Whether tacit or codified, the management of knowledge require systems that promote engagement, encouraging employees to seek out information and individuals if answers are needed (Daft, 2018. This connection, key to the success of an organization, cannot survive in a vacuum void of human contact. While it may no longer be viewed as a nontraditional approach, the decentralization of organizations by way of the use of IT can provide a variety of benefits, such as improved coordination within an enhanced network structure (Daft, 2018). However, as Stone, Deadrick, Lukaszewski and Johnson (2015) stated, the use of IT in the process and practices of the human resource aspect of organizations have had some less favorable outcomes, notably in the areas of employee retention and motivation. Therefore, while its prevalence may continue to grow, I do not believe technology will enable high level managers to successfully do their jobs with little face-to-face communication. The need to connect on a personal level to exchange ideas and witness behavior cannot be achieved if the boundaries of IT prevent it from occurring (Daft, 2018). Chapter 9 Question 1 Improving efficiency and effectiveness are two benefits bureaucracy can provide to an organization. The machinelike system and organization that are produced by a set of rules and regulations can transform an organization, as seen in the success of UPS (Daft, 2018). However, if the structure is overburdening, which is often the case, the inflexibility can lead to stagnation and failure. To remain competitive and increase flexibility, organizations take the necessary steps to cut those
  • 9. hierarchical layers that impose excessive limitations, thus busting the bureaucratic chain (Daft, 2018). Jose Almeida, the CEO of the healthcare giant Baxter International, is an example of a transformational leader. Identifying the impact culture has on an organization, Almeida took the committed steps of cutting bureaucratic layers. Creating an open culture in which the exchange of ideas is encouraged, Almeida gave his employees an increase level of freedom and authority in the organization’s decision-making process. Utilizing this successful bureaucracy busting strategy, Baxter’s stock increased nearly 70%, creating a viable opportunity for acquisition (Gharib, 2018). Another example of bureaucracy busting is seen in the efforts and initiatives of JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon. Identifying it as a disease, Dimon actively tries to reduce the threats imposed by bureaucracy. By limiting internal meetings and creating small, dedicated “war rooms”, Dimon attempted to link employee autonomy with the resources needed to improve the sought-after organizational outcome, a reimagined customer experience (Lebowitz, 2018). Question 2 In response to a declining economy, organizations may elect to make certain changes to avoid failure. Lay offs, hiring freezes and abandoned construction projects are a few examples of the conscious decisions made by organizations and service firms as they attempt to downsize and create and a survivable organizational decline. Often followed by a lengthy period of success, these measures are taken stabilize an inefficient and deteriorating environment (Daft, 2018). Facing stages that cannot be ignored, organizations may adopt a framework that will inhibit growth while promoting sustainability. Revising practices while utilizing embedded organizational strategies that secure performance and contribution can ultimately allow for benefits such as cost savings, employee retention and reduced risk (Le Roux & Pretorius, 2016). A proactive paradigm, the strategy of no
  • 10. growth is a necessary reality for many organizations as they strive to remain viable. No longer an exception, the curriculum in business school s must expose future leaders to every facet of operations, not just those that appeal to a booming economy or the enticement of entrepreneurship. Biblical Worldview Application Striving for stability in a global environment that is often tumultuous, the words and message of Psalm 16:8 provide the message that can give guidance during times of uncertainty and instability. Accepting the power that God’s presence offers allows for a deeper sense of strength and commitment, one that can lead to a renewed spirit. As Jude 1:24-25 states, it is through the presence and glory of God that one is kept safe, giving hope to pursue remarkable things under His authority. word count 1291 References Daft, R. L. (2016). Organizational theory & design (12th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning. Gharbib, S. 2018, February). This CEO believes that innovation and culture are one and the same. Fortune. Retrieved from http://www.fortune.com/2018/02/14/baxter-international-jose- almeida/ Lebowitz, S. (2018, April). Jamie Dimon says bureaucracy is ‘a disease’-and JPMorgan takes 5 steps to combat it. Business insider. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/jp-morgan-jamie-dimon- bureaucracy-2018-4 Le Roux, C., & Pretorius, M. (2016). Conceptualizing the limiting issues inhibiting sustainability embeddedness. Sustainability, 8(4), 364. Retrieved from doi:10.3390/su8040364 Liu, C., & Yao, J. (2018). Dynamic supply chain integration optimization in service mass customization. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 120, 42-52. Retrieved from doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2018.04.018 Stone, D. L., Deadrick, D. L., Lukaszewski, K. M., & Johnson,
  • 11. R. (2015). The influence of technology on the future of human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 25(2), 216-231. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.01.002 . Running head: Discussion board forum 3 part 1 1 Discussion board forum 3 part 1 2 Chapter 7, Q1. Customers are expecting more from their service providers. Rather than traditionally accepting boilerplate offerings from service providers, customers desire that service providers cater to their requests. Organizations providing services must keep up with the customer’s demand or risk losing business to others who will. Many service providers have been adopting lean principles to accommodate the needs of their customers in successful attempts to decrease waste, increase efficiency, improve customer service and satisfaction (Daft, 2016, p. 275). From online music providers, customers expect music tracks personalized for their tastes. From airlines, customers can expect preflight seat and meal selections. Amazon.com provides custom personalization to a customers’ home pages by placing personally directed advertisements and products which the customer is more likely to order from the company. Amazon book recommendations are personalized to the specific customer and are provided based upon previous books read. With customers expecting customized and catered experiences, companies need to keep up with this demand and embrace mass customization in order to obtain and retain customers. Chapter 7, Q2. While many facets of businesses may involve craft technology, it is still important for business schools to teach management.
  • 12. Some businesses which only expect their leaders to gain knowledge and expertise from experience, may be creating a bureaucratic and restricted model for their business. Companies which rely only on internal training for their leaders can miss opportunities from potential leaders coming in from the outside. Business schools which teach management can provide potential leaders with a foundation to draw from. Teaching management can expose students to issues and opportunities experienced by others, not just ones restricted to one specific company. Teaching management from a textbook is just one method of conveying information. Just as one would not necessarily be proficient in piloting a boat from reading a book, a textbook about doing so would provide the student with underlying concepts which could dramatically increase the success of the student when they move to an actual boat. This textbook based training would be further enhanced with some practical experience. Chapter 8, Q1. Technology has progressed allowing real time instant messaging and virtual meetings. High level managers can indeed expect technology to allow them to do their jobs with little face-to-face communication, but they should question if that is something they really want to do. There are currently methods available which could be used effectively to communicate with subordinates, employees and stockholders, such as recorded feeds which would be able to reach every associated individual. These however may not provide a sense of personalization from the managers. Leaders in an organization may resort to using technology and end up building a wall between themselves and their subordinates by becoming detached from the employees of the organization. It would not be unreasonable for an employee in this situation to feel that they are working for a virtual supervisor, much like an automated telephonic voice tree, with no sense of human interaction. In regards to improvements after implementation of lean business projects, “Managers said that
  • 13. one condition needed to keep improving was visible support from board members and senior leadership—without it, frontline workers would believe that the company’s enthusiasm for the effort has waned, and backsliding ensues.” (Holweg, Staats, & Upton, 2018). It could be more challenging for an employee to buy into the organization if they felt they were not valued for their individuality, but rather were merely just a non- personalized component of the organization, thus becoming more and more distanced from the organization. Chapter 9, Q1. Two recent examples of companies which are “busting bureaucracy” are Netflix and Take Haier. Netflix, a home video streaming service, started as a mail order DVD rental company which competed with video rental storefronts. It evolved into a personalized subscription video streaming service with traditional offerings, as well as its own movies and series. Netflix has over 75 million subscribers and continues to look to improving the future of the business. In regards to their internal business model, “Netflix leaders…believe that people do their best work when they don’t need to constantly ask for approval. They consider that when people have the freedom to make decisions, they’ll put more effort into making those decisions responsibly” (Wilder, 2018). Haier is a Chinese based appliance maker which has seen a growth of profits by 23 annually for the past decade. Their CEO, Zhang Ruimin, seeing bureaucracy as a competitive liability, has “…led to an effort to build a company where everyone is directly accountable to customers, employees are energetic entrepreneurs, and an open ecosystem of users, investors, and partners replaces formal hierarchy” (Saelinger, 2018). Haier employees are divided into more than 4,000 microenterprises consisting of just 10 to 15 employees. The microenterprises of marketing and manufacturing platforms follow the standards of the business, but are flexible in their individual operations. They are self-managing, allowing them to
  • 14. make decisions and changes in the best interest of the company without needing approval from the CEO. Chapter 9, Q2. A no-growth philosophy of management should be taught in business schools. While it is ideal that businesses constantly grow and experience positive revenue, it is not always the case. Business leaders must be exposed to the concept that the business may experience periods of no-growth for such reasons as either due to the economy, failure to keep up with customer’s demands, or other reasons seemingly out of their control. Business leaders who recognize periods of no-growth before they happen, can be better prepared to deal with slowing in their business. Smaller businesses, such as a corner store, may be quite content operating in a no-growth model. Business schools should provide students with a virtual tool box of resources and information to draw from. Including no-growth management principles should be included in the tool box. In regards to a biblical worldview of bureaucracy, “If you see the oppression of the poor, and the violent perversion of justice and righteousness in a province, do not marvel at the matter; for high official watches over high official, and higher officials are over them” Ecclesiastes 5:8 (NKJV). This verse is describing bureaucracy and illustrates that layer upon layer of supervision does not result in prosperity for those at the bottom. Running Head: Group DB Forum 3 Part 11 Group DB Forum 3 Part 12
  • 15. Chapter 7 Question 1 One of the goals of mass customization is customer satisfaction. Organizations provide customers the ability to order products which are unique to their needs (Daft, 2016). This approach is considered lean manufacturing which was founded by Ford and then later Toyota adopted to regulate the production process efficiently (Ghobakhloo, Fathi, Fontes, & Ching, 2018). The main purpose of this process is to evaluate current systems “through a set of synergistic work practices” enabling a reduction in cost while at the same time providing products and services “on demand” (Ghobakhloo, Fathi, Fontes, & Ching, 2018). The lean process has been very successful for the manufacturing company but can also be used by a service firm. Since service industries also focus on customer satisfaction, this can be applied especially in reducing waste and continuously improving processes (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). Toyota used lean to improve manufacturing which included improving “the flow of information and material” (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). This can be applied to the service organization by evaluating the costs associated with “unnecessary delays, tasks, costs and errors”
  • 16. (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). The main idea is to evaluate wastes to determine how to eliminate them. This includes “seven wastes of lean which are overproduction, transportation, inventory, processing, waiting, motion, and defects” (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). This can be applied to certain departments within the service industry including “procurement, invoicing, order entry, accounting and sales” (Cudney & Elrod, 2011). The task should be in how to improve current processes with the intent of providing a better service to the customer. A service is a direct result of a “request from the customer” whereas a product can be manufactured and then sold at a later date (Daft, 2016). The service will be mostly employees who must have expertise in the type of service provided (Daft, 2016). For customizing a service firm, the level of customer satisfaction is in direct relation to the “quality of service perceived” (Daft, 2016). Question 2 It is interesting to consider management as a craft technology which is being interpreted that this is only learned through experience. Experience is fundamental especially within an organization. Managers must evaluate internal processes including employees to determine the best strategy especially with ensuring customer satisfaction. Further, management also should understand the importance of building a learning atmosphere that includes creativity and knowledge-sharing (Daft, 2016). With this in mind, it would be almost impossible to implement if management was not also learning and seeking new innovation. As with all professions, it is necessary to have learned skills specifically through education. For example, if a surgeon only learned through experience, would this be beneficial to the patient. There is more to management than managing employees. A manager should have a clear understanding of planning and goal-setting (Durant, Carlon, & Downs, 2016). This is imperative for employee satisfaction that will directly affect customer satisfaction.
  • 17. Chapter 8 Question 1 Just as organizations must continue to evaluate the environment to ensure profitability, management must determine if the current management style is feasible. With the increase in social media, businesses are now encouraging “social business” which empowers employees to collaborate easily with other employees and customers (Daft, 2016). This also provides managers with better resources for communicating with employees. Even with the rapid growth of technology, high-level managers may continue to communicate with employees although this may be through technology rather than face-to-face. There are two types of controls management may use within an organization which can be used simultaneously but typically one or the other is used depending on the manager (Daft, 2016). The hierarchical control is more of the traditional with management initiating “rules, policies, hierarchy of authority, written documentation, reward systems, and other mechanisms” to develop employee performance (Daft, 2016). Decentralized control relies on employees in allowing them to collaborate together specifically based on “cultural values, traditions, shared beliefs, and trust to foster compliance with organizational goals” (Daft, 2016). High-level managers in either situation may rely heavily on operational managers to determine which type of control is necessary. With the decentralized control, high-level management may have little communication with employees as department managers may adhere to the “flexible authority style” enabling employees to take part in the day to day operations specifically with “monitoring quality” (Daft, 2016). Chapter 9 Question 1 One organization that has decided to change its current structure is Tesla. In an attempt to reduce the cost of the company’s cheapest model, a decision was made to close the majority of its
  • 18. stores and transition to “online only” (Meyer, 2019). The company then decided to keep more stores open and raising the price of other models to cover the cost (Meyer, 2019). The stores will have fewer employees and offer assistance to customers in purchasing a Tesla online (Meyer, 2019). Elon Musk, Tesla CEO, had plans to reduce the price of model 3 enabling the company to introduce Tesla in new markets “worldwide” (Levingston, 2019). Due to reduced sales and slow delivery, the company had to react with possible layoffs and slowing the plan to offer more cars at lower prices (Levingston, 2019). Reducing the number of stores enabling customers to order a vehicle online allows the company to expand in other areas. It seems this will be hard at first but the intention is to offer better service and lower prices which leads to customer satisfaction. Another company that is considered a great place to work by most of its employees is Pariveda Solution s. The company promotes transparency among all employees including salary levels with easy access to this information (Frauenheim, 2019). The company uses Holacracy which is removing “management, the organizational chart and subordinates” and replacing this with a type of control that allows employees to work in “self-managed teams” and “to act freely within specified zones of authority” (Frauenheim, 2019). In reviewing the companies core values, the first on the list is integrity which encourages “high ethical standards” (Pariveda, 2019). This is providing clear expectations for employees and
  • 19. their work ethic. Question 2 There are a number of definitions for growth. The Oxford Dictionary includes “the process of increasing in amount, value or importance” (Oxford Dictionary, 2019). The opposite of growth is to be stagnate (Daft, 2016). Growth within an organization does not just mean in size. All organizations should evaluate how to improve by setting goals and establishing new strategy. This is a type of growth specifically in value. For business schools to provide a no-growth philosophy for management may need to be refined. There are multiple examples showing how some organizations have thrived by growing bigger and others have focused on improving rather than growth (Daft, 2016). If managers are taught that an organization should not grow, then this would not always fit with certain organizations. An organization may need to grow to keep up with the competition (Daft, 2016). An organization that grows to become a leader in the market will reap the benefits and the employees will most likely be provided opportunities to grow with the organization (Daft, 2016). In contrast, a small company also has benefits including “free-flowing management style that encourages entrepreneurship and innovation” (Daft, 2016). The best option for a business school is to provide information for both the large organization and small business allowing managers to
  • 20. determine which type is best for them. Biblical Worldview A verse that is relevant in the situation with management growing the business with the intention of maximizing profits is Hebrews 13:5 which encourages us to avoid loving money and to be content with what we are given. Those who are not satisfied with what has been provided may continuously seek after more. This is good advice for those who own a small business and want to grow just to increase profit. References Cudney, E., & Elrod, C. (2011). A comparative analysis of integrating lean concepts into supply chain management in manufacturing and service industries. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 2(1), pp.5-22. Retrieved from https://doi- org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/20401461111119422 Daft, R. L. (2016). Organization theory & design. Boston: Cengage Learning. Durant, R. A., Carlon, D. M., & Downs, A. (2016). The efficiency challenge: creating a transformative learning experience in a principles of management course. Journal of Management Education, 41(6), pp. 852-872. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1177/1052562916682789 Frauenheim, E. (2019, March 19). These companies are the best workplaces in Texas. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2019/03/19/these-companies-are-the-best-
  • 21. workplaces-in-texas/ Ghobakhloo, M., Fathi, M., Fontes, D. B., & Ching, N. T. (2018). Modeling lean manufacturing success. Journal of Modelling in Management,13(4), pp. 908-931. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/JM2-03-2017-0025 Levingston, I. (2019, April 4). Elon Musk's plan to boost tesla sales is dealt a setback. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2019/04/04/elon-musk-tesla-q1/ Meyer, D. (2019, March 11). Tesla to raise prices and reduce store closures in latest strategy switch. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2019/03/11/tesla-price-rise-retail-stores/ Oxford Dictionary. (2019). Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/growth Pariveda. (2019). Mission & core values. Pariveda. Retrieved from https://www.parivedasolutions.com/about-home- page/mission-and-core-values
  • 23. Chapter 7: Mass customization of products has become a common approach in manufacturing organizations. Explain how mass customization can be applied to service firms as well. Whereas mass customization is a feasible alternative in manufacturing on digital factories and engaging lean manufacturing strategies, service organization engages a more productive setting to ensure the profitability of mass customization. Ostensibly, mass customization entails utilization of mass-production technologies to swiftly and cost- effectively amass products that are exclusively designed to satisfy the demands of each client (Daft, 2016). The major challenge associated with mass customization service is information translation concerning consumer preferences achieved through marketing research into a comprehensible format that can be effortlessly utilized in the decision-making process involving service modularization and training of customer-contact personnel (Dellaert & Dabholkar, 2009). In the service platform, mass customization is a continuous configuration procedure with direct customer involvement combined with professional guidance by service professionals who comprehend the configuration regulations and appreciates them. A clear customer needs understanding is necessary alongside service personnel required to offer the client concise and clear configuration alternatives that strike the seamless
  • 24. balance between complexity and flexibility — furthermore, ongoing interaction between the customer and vanguard contact personnel which is consequential in mass customization. Chapter 7: Does teaching management from a textbook assume that the manager's job is analyzable and, therefore, that formal training rather than experience is most important? Primarily, craft technologies are described by a significantly steady activities stream. However, the conversion procedure is not well understood and analyzable. Consequentially, these responsibilities require extensive experience and training due to employees response on intangible elements based on intuition, experience, and wisdom. Despite management having several skills acquired on the job application, some skills are supposed to be acquired in school. Essentially, these acquired skills are regarded as non-routine skills. Therefore, strategic planning, basic research, and other engagement involving unexpected problems and new projects(Daft, 2016). For instance, the majority of executives are supposed to understand project management and accounting before working in management. Ostensibly, that is the reason for appropriately teaching management courses in business schools. Therefore, a managers occupation is not analyzable and hence the need to engage both experience and formal training. Chapter 8: Do you believe that technology will eventually enable high-level managers to do their job with little face-to-
  • 25. face communication? Executives today have significant access to several new technologies through efficient Management Information Systems (MIS) that includes information reporting, decision support, and executive information structures and systems necessary in facilitating the effective and rapid decision-making process. On the other hand, there are control elements that include different management control structures and systems such as executive dashboards and a balanced scorecard procedure. Current technology facilitates management executives in undertaking their obligations with minimum face- to-face communication, for instance, using behavior control methodology. Ostensibly, behavior control is anchored on management observation of staff actions to perceive whether the employees follow the laid down desired procedures and executes responsibilities as instructed. Despite managers monitoring behavior by read-through emails and checking additional online activities, there is a need to effectively communicate with the staffs when necessary (Daft, 2016). The management may send an official email to the staffs; however, if the employee snubs the email, then it is advisable to engage in a face-to-face meeting. Therefore, despite technology enabling management to undertake their responsibility with minimum face-to-face communication is necessary at times. Chapter 9: Look through several recent issues of a business
  • 26. magazine (Fortune, Business Week, Fast Company, etc.) and find examples of 2 companies that are using approaches to busting bureaucracy. Explain the techniques that these companies are applying. Due to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the aviation industry business model evolved to a very bureaucratic industry due to the government emphasis on airport access and high- security issues. Recently, security has had an adversative influence on aviation business and flight operations, and therefore National Business Aviation Assn. (NBAA), in collaboration with the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and TAA is gently triggering progress regarding the effort to salvage the capacity to fly anytime, anywhere, with insignificant federal interference. Therefore, the aviation industry business is not even permitted to utilize the Ronald Reagan National Airport (RRNA). Initially, the aviation business community should formulate an effective and formal logistical and technical response towards federal security apprehensions, and secondly, an organization political rejoinder from the president White House is essential to revive the airport to flying business (Phillips, 2013). Another business that has to handle significant bureaucracy is, for example, Kiva's container an organization engaging in the packaging business. Consequentially, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspects the equipment,
  • 27. while the Department of Commerce (DC) entails assessments of shipping records, the Department of Transportation (DT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates chemicals are necessary for overseeing the packaging labels (Philips, 2013). Kiva's container company is among several small business ventures with significant bureaucratic challenges. Small-business proprietors, expend at least 1 billion hours annually filling out governmental forms, according to the Small Business Administration (SBA) in the US (Philip, 2013). Kiva's container proprietors engage in approximately 70 hours weekly into the business operation. Kiva's owner has undertaken deliberate effort to go to Washington to engage legislators concerning health care issues and other challenges touching small business. However, at this time the proprietor will continue putting a lot of operation hours. Chapter 9: Do you believe that a no-growth philosophy of management should be taught in business schools? Primarily, there are several benefits associated with small businesses. Founded on researches of religious sects, primitive societies, military organizations, and certain businesses, Robin Dunbar and renowned anthropologist proposed that a hundred and fifty is the optimal size required by any group aimed at achieving a predetermined and specific objective. Dunbar argues that beyond the 150 group size, the group's efficiency and effectiveness wane due to numerous procedures, red tape,
  • 28. and rules that saps and decelerates group enthusiasm, commitment, and morale (Daft, 2016). Consequentially, there are several benefits associated with "no growth” small businesses and hence the reason to teach “no growth” management philosophy in business schools. Several businesses types are superlative when small and several business owners and hence fear to become large business such as Ford. How can/should a biblical worldview be applied? A biblical worldview is applicable during consideration of the corporate culture and hence according to Romans 12: 2, Christians are not supposed to conform to the corporate culture where they work and hence should strive towards transformation. References Daft, R. (2016). Organization Theory and Design (10th ed.). South-Western: Mason, OH. Dellaert, B. & Dabholkar. P. (2009). Increasing the Attractiveness of Mass Customization: The Role of Complementary On-line Services and Range of Options. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 13(3), 43-70. Phillips, E. (2013). BIZAV Battling Bureaucracy. Aviation Week & Space Technology. 159(14), 60-62.