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Running head: GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE
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GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE
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Global Climatic Change
Joshua Rodgers
Instructor Lyew-Armstrong,
Ashford University
GEN499: General Education Capstone
November 5, 2018
Global Climatic Change
Introduction
The main cause of global climatic change lies in the expansion
of the greenhouse effect, which is caused by humans. The
greenhouse effect happens when the atmosphere blocks heat
exuding from the earth towards space. Globalism is a major
reason for climatic change. Researchers are carrying out studies
to find ways to reduce climatic change caused by this event.
This paper will examine five sources that examine climatic
change from different perspectives.
Annotated Bibliography
Chatterjee, D. (2008). Democracy in a global world: human
rights and political participation in the 21st century. Lanham:
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
In the chapters of this piece, Chatterjee tackles the well-timed
concern of democracy in theory and in practice in this world
that operates through globalism. The author challenges and
defends postulations regarding the responsibility of democracy
as a practical political and legal establishment in response to
globalization, paying attention to the role of rights at
standardizing foundation of democracy in a world that is
socially organized so that it tolerates the various religions,
races, and cultures. Chatterjee examines the key topics of
modern significance, with varying opinions of the principal
theorists, the chapters concentrate on the most useful theories
and structures of globalization, conventional democratic
exemplars as well as their limits, public consideration and
egalitarian involvement, the ethical risks of imperial
democracy, and the future of noninterventionist democracy.
Also, to recommending new perspectives on democracy,
Chatterjee uses the existing debate on impartiality, human
rights, independence, and cultural relativism to enlighten
society on ongoing questions on culture, politics, as well global
development. The apt and provocative collection will catch the
interest of anyone who is concerned with global justice, human
rights, democracy, economic development, international law,
peace, poverty and other elements of globalization. This
information will be helpful when discussing the well-timed
concern of democracy in theory and in practice in relation to
globalization and climatic change.
Cline, W. (1992). The economics of global warming.
Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
In his book, Cline looks at the costs and advantages of an
assertive program of global action for the purpose of reducing
greenhouse warming. The author begins by summarizing the
scientific concern from an economist’s point of view. As such,
he makes an analysis that heavily stresses on effort for a long
period that spans between 200 and 300 years with increased
warming and damages than associated with the set benchmark
that looks at the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Cline then offers an estimation for economic damages that range
from agricultural losses and sea-level rise to the destruction of
forests, water shortage, huge electricity needs for multiple
functions such as air conditioning, operation of industries and
so forth, as well a number of other major effects. The author
includes a survey of existing model approximations that offers
the basis for calculation of costs of reducing discharges of
green house gases. Cline then reviews the theory of term
discounting in the perspective of environmental issues over a
very long period of time. He closes his book with a cost-benefit
estimation for global action. It also includes a discussion of
policy measures to rally the response of the people around the
world. This source is detailed in scope and will help to build my
understanding on the topic.
NASA. (October 15, 2018). A blanket around the earth.
Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
This literature tackles the topic of global warming by giving
facts that explain the phenomenon. The site also uses diagrams
to help in illustrating and conveying their point to the reader.
The information is based on the argument of scientists and other
researchers. As such, they begin by pointing fingers to humans
who they argue are the cause of global warming. They continue
by listing and explaining the gases that form the blanket in the
atmosphere, which in turn leads to the greenhouse effect, which
causes climate change on the earth. The authors then mention
the activities that humans are engaged in that are changing the
natural greenhouse. These activities include burning fossil fuels
such as coal among others, which results in the combination of
carbon with oxygen thus forming carbon dioxide. For this
reason, the essayists mention that human activities are the
reason for the warming of the planet as some of their activities
have raised the atmospheric carbon dioxide from 200 parts/
1,000,000 to 400 parts/ 1,000,000 in the last 150 years. They
also mention the sun’s variability as being another reason for
global warming that has changed the climatic system. However,
they are quick to link the rise of greenhouse gases to this
phenomenon. This information will form one of the primary
works for my argument.
Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare1, W., Raper, S.,
Frieler, K., Knutti, R., Frame, D., & Myles, R. Allen. (2009).
Greenhouse gas emission targets for limiting global warming to
2°C. Nature, 458 (7242), 1158. doi: 10.1038/nature00817
This article by Meinshausen and peers is a study that utilizes
the reduced complexity coupled carbon cycle climate model
(MAGICC 6.0) to make projections for future climate by
depending on historical controls as well as for imitating more
intricate AOGCMs cycle models. The authors discuss how
MAGICC 6.0 works as it uses “hemispheric greenhouse gas
emissions, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone indications as its
major contributions and computes atmospheric concentrations,
surface air temperatures, radiative forcings, and ocean heat
uptake” (Meinshausen et al., 2009). In the article, Meinshausen
and peers adopt a global warming limit of 2 6C or below, which
should be proportional to pre-industrial levels, as a standard for
alleviation effort to lower the risks, impacts and damages or
climate change. The authors note that greenhouse gas (GHG)
releases equivalent to a specific limit warming are inadequately
identified due to the ambiguity that exists in the carbon cycle
and the climate response. The authors offer a broad
probabilistic study that seeks to quantify GHG emission budgets
for the period 2000-2050 that would bring down the warming
during the 21st Century to under 2 6C. However, this depends
on a combination of available circulation of climate system
possessions and theoretical restrictions. As such, the authors
demonstrate that in the selected categories of emission settings,
the collective emissions that extend to 2050 and emission levels
in 2050 are strong pointers of the likelihood that 21st century
warming will not go beyond 2 6C relative to 2000. This
interesting article will help to build the basis of my argument.
Westford Admin. (April 6, 2016). Positive and Negative
Impacts of Globalization. Retrieved from
https://mywestford.com/blog/positive-and-negative-impacts-of-
globalization/
This article discusses the positive and negative effects of
globalization. As such, they begin by defining globalization,
which they argue is used to the various countries that unite for
“economic, political, and educational equity” (Westford Admin,
2016). In according to the authors, in globalization, the uniting
countries consider themselves as part of the world rather than as
individual countries. A major advantage of globalization is that
it creates opportunities for trade between countries, and
developed countries benefit from being able to invest in
developing countries. However, globalization comes with a
major disadvantage that leads to the negative affect of the
environment, hence augmenting the problem of global warming.
The decrease of labor and certain resources in developed
nations have caused them to move to regions that have these in
surplus. This leads to the increased depletion of environmental
resources through increased large-scale farming that depletes
and pollutes fresh water sources, excessive fishing, mining,
quarrying, and logging, that causes an imbalance in the
ecosystem and increased industrialization that leads in increased
global warming. Clearing of land to facilitate their expansion
has also contributed largely to this issue. These activities have
grown by about 4.2 percent, which has increased temperatures
to above 27 degrees. This information will be helpful in
dismissing the myth of the national contributions to global
warming.
Conclusion
The topic of global warming and climatic change is a broad
topic that can only take global will and commitment to resolve.
Human beings can only join forces and work together to reduce
this effect or else the planet will no longer be able to sustain
life. The issue of globalization seems prospective but is one of
the major reasons why there is too much destruction on the
environment. However, the study of climatic change should
offer solutions to alleviate this problem and make the earth a
liveable place.
References
Chatterjee, D. (2008). Democracy in a global world: human
rights and political participation in the 21st century. Lanham:
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Cline, W. (1992). The economics of global warming.
Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare1, W., Raper, S.,
Frieler, K., Knutti, R., Frame, D., & Myles, R. Allen
Greenhouse gas emission targets for limiting global warming to
2°C. Nature, 458 (7242), 1158. doi: 10.1038/nature00817
NASA. (October 15, 2018). A blanket around the earth.
Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
Westford Admin. (April 6, 2016). Positive and Negative
Impacts of Globalization. Retrieved from
https://mywestford.com/blog/positive-and-negative-impacts-of-
globalization/

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Global Climatic Change Causes & Solutions

  • 1. Running head: GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE 1 GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE 3 Global Climatic Change Joshua Rodgers Instructor Lyew-Armstrong, Ashford University GEN499: General Education Capstone November 5, 2018 Global Climatic Change Introduction The main cause of global climatic change lies in the expansion of the greenhouse effect, which is caused by humans. The greenhouse effect happens when the atmosphere blocks heat exuding from the earth towards space. Globalism is a major reason for climatic change. Researchers are carrying out studies to find ways to reduce climatic change caused by this event. This paper will examine five sources that examine climatic change from different perspectives. Annotated Bibliography Chatterjee, D. (2008). Democracy in a global world: human rights and political participation in the 21st century. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • 2. In the chapters of this piece, Chatterjee tackles the well-timed concern of democracy in theory and in practice in this world that operates through globalism. The author challenges and defends postulations regarding the responsibility of democracy as a practical political and legal establishment in response to globalization, paying attention to the role of rights at standardizing foundation of democracy in a world that is socially organized so that it tolerates the various religions, races, and cultures. Chatterjee examines the key topics of modern significance, with varying opinions of the principal theorists, the chapters concentrate on the most useful theories and structures of globalization, conventional democratic exemplars as well as their limits, public consideration and egalitarian involvement, the ethical risks of imperial democracy, and the future of noninterventionist democracy. Also, to recommending new perspectives on democracy, Chatterjee uses the existing debate on impartiality, human rights, independence, and cultural relativism to enlighten society on ongoing questions on culture, politics, as well global development. The apt and provocative collection will catch the interest of anyone who is concerned with global justice, human rights, democracy, economic development, international law, peace, poverty and other elements of globalization. This information will be helpful when discussing the well-timed concern of democracy in theory and in practice in relation to globalization and climatic change. Cline, W. (1992). The economics of global warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. In his book, Cline looks at the costs and advantages of an assertive program of global action for the purpose of reducing greenhouse warming. The author begins by summarizing the scientific concern from an economist’s point of view. As such, he makes an analysis that heavily stresses on effort for a long period that spans between 200 and 300 years with increased
  • 3. warming and damages than associated with the set benchmark that looks at the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Cline then offers an estimation for economic damages that range from agricultural losses and sea-level rise to the destruction of forests, water shortage, huge electricity needs for multiple functions such as air conditioning, operation of industries and so forth, as well a number of other major effects. The author includes a survey of existing model approximations that offers the basis for calculation of costs of reducing discharges of green house gases. Cline then reviews the theory of term discounting in the perspective of environmental issues over a very long period of time. He closes his book with a cost-benefit estimation for global action. It also includes a discussion of policy measures to rally the response of the people around the world. This source is detailed in scope and will help to build my understanding on the topic. NASA. (October 15, 2018). A blanket around the earth. Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/ This literature tackles the topic of global warming by giving facts that explain the phenomenon. The site also uses diagrams to help in illustrating and conveying their point to the reader. The information is based on the argument of scientists and other researchers. As such, they begin by pointing fingers to humans who they argue are the cause of global warming. They continue by listing and explaining the gases that form the blanket in the atmosphere, which in turn leads to the greenhouse effect, which causes climate change on the earth. The authors then mention the activities that humans are engaged in that are changing the natural greenhouse. These activities include burning fossil fuels such as coal among others, which results in the combination of carbon with oxygen thus forming carbon dioxide. For this reason, the essayists mention that human activities are the reason for the warming of the planet as some of their activities have raised the atmospheric carbon dioxide from 200 parts/
  • 4. 1,000,000 to 400 parts/ 1,000,000 in the last 150 years. They also mention the sun’s variability as being another reason for global warming that has changed the climatic system. However, they are quick to link the rise of greenhouse gases to this phenomenon. This information will form one of the primary works for my argument. Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare1, W., Raper, S., Frieler, K., Knutti, R., Frame, D., & Myles, R. Allen. (2009). Greenhouse gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°C. Nature, 458 (7242), 1158. doi: 10.1038/nature00817 This article by Meinshausen and peers is a study that utilizes the reduced complexity coupled carbon cycle climate model (MAGICC 6.0) to make projections for future climate by depending on historical controls as well as for imitating more intricate AOGCMs cycle models. The authors discuss how MAGICC 6.0 works as it uses “hemispheric greenhouse gas emissions, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone indications as its major contributions and computes atmospheric concentrations, surface air temperatures, radiative forcings, and ocean heat uptake” (Meinshausen et al., 2009). In the article, Meinshausen and peers adopt a global warming limit of 2 6C or below, which should be proportional to pre-industrial levels, as a standard for alleviation effort to lower the risks, impacts and damages or climate change. The authors note that greenhouse gas (GHG) releases equivalent to a specific limit warming are inadequately identified due to the ambiguity that exists in the carbon cycle and the climate response. The authors offer a broad probabilistic study that seeks to quantify GHG emission budgets for the period 2000-2050 that would bring down the warming during the 21st Century to under 2 6C. However, this depends on a combination of available circulation of climate system possessions and theoretical restrictions. As such, the authors demonstrate that in the selected categories of emission settings,
  • 5. the collective emissions that extend to 2050 and emission levels in 2050 are strong pointers of the likelihood that 21st century warming will not go beyond 2 6C relative to 2000. This interesting article will help to build the basis of my argument. Westford Admin. (April 6, 2016). Positive and Negative Impacts of Globalization. Retrieved from https://mywestford.com/blog/positive-and-negative-impacts-of- globalization/ This article discusses the positive and negative effects of globalization. As such, they begin by defining globalization, which they argue is used to the various countries that unite for “economic, political, and educational equity” (Westford Admin, 2016). In according to the authors, in globalization, the uniting countries consider themselves as part of the world rather than as individual countries. A major advantage of globalization is that it creates opportunities for trade between countries, and developed countries benefit from being able to invest in developing countries. However, globalization comes with a major disadvantage that leads to the negative affect of the environment, hence augmenting the problem of global warming. The decrease of labor and certain resources in developed nations have caused them to move to regions that have these in surplus. This leads to the increased depletion of environmental resources through increased large-scale farming that depletes and pollutes fresh water sources, excessive fishing, mining, quarrying, and logging, that causes an imbalance in the ecosystem and increased industrialization that leads in increased global warming. Clearing of land to facilitate their expansion has also contributed largely to this issue. These activities have grown by about 4.2 percent, which has increased temperatures to above 27 degrees. This information will be helpful in dismissing the myth of the national contributions to global warming. Conclusion
  • 6. The topic of global warming and climatic change is a broad topic that can only take global will and commitment to resolve. Human beings can only join forces and work together to reduce this effect or else the planet will no longer be able to sustain life. The issue of globalization seems prospective but is one of the major reasons why there is too much destruction on the environment. However, the study of climatic change should offer solutions to alleviate this problem and make the earth a liveable place. References Chatterjee, D. (2008). Democracy in a global world: human rights and political participation in the 21st century. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Cline, W. (1992). The economics of global warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare1, W., Raper, S., Frieler, K., Knutti, R., Frame, D., & Myles, R. Allen Greenhouse gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°C. Nature, 458 (7242), 1158. doi: 10.1038/nature00817 NASA. (October 15, 2018). A blanket around the earth. Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/ Westford Admin. (April 6, 2016). Positive and Negative Impacts of Globalization. Retrieved from https://mywestford.com/blog/positive-and-negative-impacts-of- globalization/