Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction
Water-Energy-Food Tradeoffs
Scientific approaches to implementing the...
Acknowledgements to Stuart
Carlson and the Milwaukee Journal
Sentinel
Why CGIAR WLE?
Correlation of food and energy prices –
and rising
Ringler, et al., 2014 in press
Why CGIAR WLE?
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South
Asia
SSA LAC MENA Eas...
Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction
Global Risks Report
2014, World Economic
Forum
‘Water crisis’ is
the ...
. . . WHERE? Targeted interventions in 9 focal
and 4 priority focal regions
Where we work
Example 1: Andean Basins
Rewarding the value of Ecosystem
Services provided by upstream Farmers …
My farm
participates in ...
For better hydropower outcomes
Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction
Example 2: Aral Sea Basin
Groundwater irrigation (GWI) has higher ene...
• Agricultural growth in West
Bengal had slumped by more
than half
• Research identified that a
major obstacle to agricult...
Example 4: Global: Water Pollution
Agricultural N emissions increase by 47-61% between 2003 and 2050 and
emissions of P by...
Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction
Using business models to
turn waste into an asset
• Solid waste and f...
WLE’s research and projects are
at the heart of the nexus thinking
WLE brings together the research power of 11
CGIAR cent...
Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction
Thank You
wle.cgiar.org
wle.cgiar.org/blogs
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Water-Energy-Food Tradeoffs

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Presentation by Andrew Noble at The International Conference on Sustainability in the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, meeting in Bonn, Germany on May 19th and 20th 2014

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  • Sound ecosystems are the basis of human well-being. WLE brings science to bear on agriculture for improved human well-being and environmental sustainability. The Nexus is a key WLE research-for-development cluster to support this approach.
  • Ten WLE target basins and regions are: the Andes, Limpopo, Zambezi, Volta, Niger, Nile, Indus and Ganges, Mekong, Amu Darya and Syr Darya, and Tigris and Euphrates.

    As the map above shows, current WLE investments are in some of the poorest regions of the world where there are pressing water-related problems. For instance, it works in sub-Saharan Africa where there are high levels of food insecurity and rainfall variability. Many of its activities in Southeast Asia focus on addressing water, food and energy-related issues, where hydropower needs to be balanced with other development needs such as agriculture and fisheries.
  • WLE is involved in several Payment for Ecosystem Service Schemes in Latin America through its partner CIAT. In all cases, the upstream farmers provide important ecosystem services but remain poor, whereas downstream cities, industries and hydropower schemes suffer from sub-optimal water quality and sedimentation reducing water, energy and food outcomes for all stakeholders involved. PES schemes, where downstream users pay upstream users for their services are one way to achieve a win-win-win situation in these basins. The Peruvian Government is finalizing legislation on this topic, based on insights from our program.
  • As Daniel Press will tell you, soil is a pollutant.
  • Traditionally, irrigation in the Aral Sea Basin focuses on surface water resources that are often pumped to higher areas with so-called lift irrigation system. Our work has shown that groundwater irrigation through individual pumps directly owned by farmers in many cases leads to better energy, water and food outcomes.
  • A few concluding points
    Including on partners, networks,
    Website,
  • Water-Energy-Food Tradeoffs

    1. 1. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Water-Energy-Food Tradeoffs Scientific approaches to implementing the nexus—Examples from the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) Andrew Noble, Director WLE
    2. 2. Acknowledgements to Stuart Carlson and the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Why CGIAR WLE?
    3. 3. Correlation of food and energy prices – and rising Ringler, et al., 2014 in press
    4. 4. Why CGIAR WLE? 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 South Asia SSA LAC MENA East Asia OECD Access to sanitation (%) Access to food (%) Energy use (kwh/cap) Access to sanitation (%) Energy use (kwh/cap) Share of non-malnourished children (%) The poorest have limited access to water, food and modern forms of energy Source: WDI 2011 and IFPRI IMPACT
    5. 5. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Global Risks Report 2014, World Economic Forum ‘Water crisis’ is the third highest global risk ..extreme weather, climate change and biodiversity loss also very high
    6. 6. . . . WHERE? Targeted interventions in 9 focal and 4 priority focal regions Where we work
    7. 7. Example 1: Andean Basins Rewarding the value of Ecosystem Services provided by upstream Farmers … My farm participates in the Management of the Reventazon River Watershed (ICE)
    8. 8. For better hydropower outcomes
    9. 9. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Example 2: Aral Sea Basin Groundwater irrigation (GWI) has higher energy and water use efficiency compared to traditional Lift Irrigation (LI) Crop Water productivity, kg/m 3 Energy productivity (kg/Kwh) LI GWI LI GWI Cotton 0.19 0.21 0.25 2.10 Vegetables 0.59 1.00 1.65 7.93 Maize for silage 1.99 1.46 2.61 14.17 Sorghum 0.55 1.66 1.54 3.30 Alfalfa 0.59 0.78 0.78 1.56 Apricots 0.16 0.51 0.44 4.92 Grapevines 0.11 0.70 0.15 1.37 GW irrigation
    10. 10. • Agricultural growth in West Bengal had slumped by more than half • Research identified that a major obstacle to agricultural productivity was getting access to groundwater • New policies recommended by IWMI were adopted to reduce ‘red-tape’ and improve groundwater access for smallholder farmers. • The policy change could benefit more than 5.6 million smallholders Example 3: West Bengal – easing regulatory and pricing barriers Source: Aditi Mukherji
    11. 11. Example 4: Global: Water Pollution Agricultural N emissions increase by 47-61% between 2003 and 2050 and emissions of P by 6-20%, depending on climate change scenario; Improved nutrient use efficiency and RRR can substantially reduce but not reverse increases in N & P emissions N emissions from agriculture, 2050, baseline
    12. 12. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Using business models to turn waste into an asset • Solid waste and fecal sludge composting in Asia and Africa could save billions of US$ per year, assuming a market for only 25% of the urban organic waste. • Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced to up to 13 million tons CO2-e per year. Fortifier With Fortifier Without Fortifier Turning septage into Fertilizer
    13. 13. WLE’s research and projects are at the heart of the nexus thinking WLE brings together the research power of 11 CGIAR centres and the FAO along with hundreds of regional and local partners to: • Look beyond the farm-level to sustainable development within global ecosystems at different scales • Foster innovative thinking on agriculture, natural resources management, gender and poverty alleviation • Support big, bold solutions to difficult problems through out-of-box thinking and multidisciplinary approaches.
    14. 14. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Thank You wle.cgiar.org wle.cgiar.org/blogs

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