Valuation of Ecosystem Services for Improving Agricultural Water Management in Kazakhstan

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Presentation by Vinay Nangia, Ph.D., ICARDA at The International Conference on Sustainability in the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, meeting in Bonn, Germany on May 19th and 20th 2014,

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Valuation of Ecosystem Services for Improving Agricultural Water Management in Kazakhstan

  1. 1. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Valuation of Ecosystem Services for Improving Agricultural Water Management in Kazakhstan Vinay Nangia, Ph.D. Lead Agricultural Hydrologist Int’l Center for Ag. Res. in Dry Areas (ICARDA) Amman, Jordan
  2. 2. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Study location
  3. 3. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Background Chardara reservoir was constructed: in southern Kazakhstan in 1965 for irrigation and hydropower generation. reservoir also supports many fragile ecosystems such as: • fisheries and livestock • riparian forests and rangelands • human population • tourism
  4. 4. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Background (cont’d) But the volume of water in the reservoir fluctuates by as much as 10-12 times from winter to summer period, and return flows from irrigated agriculture are rich in nonpoint source pollutants and adversely affect the downstream users of this water
  5. 5. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Site characteristics South Kazakhstan Province Turkestan city administration area Population in 2012 2,734,700 244,100 Population density 22,4 person per km2 33,0 person per km2 Total area, thousand km2 117.2 7.4 Number of agricultural units in 2012 74,050 4,968 Total cultivated area (ha) 772,183.8 38,944.1 Soil types Grey soils and grey brown soils Bright southern and ordinary serozems, sand and gravel Agro climate characteristics Dry arid zone Dry arid foothill zone Annual precipitation Plain – 50-250 mm, foothill – 750 mm 180-200 mm Average air temperature January -9.6°C in the north part, -0.9°C in the south part July +20/+30°C January -10/-15°C July +35/+40°C Main economic drivers Agriculture Tourism, agriculture
  6. 6. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Project builds on existing research The Regional Environmental Center for Central Asia (CAREC) has a GEF-funded 2 year project in area aimed at creating cooperation mechanisms between local stakeholders to enhance ES provisioning CAREC built linkages between nature reserve, farmers, herders, schools and a local NGO  WQ and  Landscape aesthetics main ES
  7. 7. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction  The nature reserve committed to develop a plan for rational pasture management in its buffer zone to limit soil erosion and grazing in the Khantagi riverbed  Water points were built on remote pastures to destock degraded rangelands  The nature reserve held trainings on alternative sources of income such as greenhouse construction and management, and promoted the use of water-saving technologies (drip irrigation)
  8. 8. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Hypothesis of this study • Improving agricultural water management will lead to improvement of other downstream ecosystem services sharing same water, and • through the identification and valuation of main water-related ecosystem services, a plan can be developed for payment for improvement of agricultural water management
  9. 9. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Objectives Identify key drivers of water use and water-use change in the lower Syr Darya River Basin and their economic impact on water users; Develop a set of mechanisms, including incentive- based ones, to promote improved water uses, with a focus on women-led, agriculture-based, income- generating activities; Mainstream project results into development planning and policy making of the Republic of Kazakhstan
  10. 10. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Methodology • Baseline assessment Ag. water management modeling (SWAT) Stakeholder mapping (GIS) Drivers of water uses (survey) • Improvement activities Cap. building and women empowerment Dev. Incentive-based mechanism Application of H2O-saving technologies Cap. building of policy makers
  11. 11. Uniting agriculture and nature for poverty reduction Outputs Database of stakeholders and water users MS these on value chains and VES Well-calibrated SWAT model estimating Discharge N, P, K Pesticides Sediment Trade-off options under different scenarios of changing ecosystem services provision Policy briefs
  12. 12. Thank you

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