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Photo Credit Goes Here
Photo credit: IWMI Flickr, Ghana and Ethiopia
Africa Water Week Side Event, July 21, 2016
Frederick...
Photo Credit Goes Here
Photo credit: IWMI Flickr, Ghana and Ethiopia
Sophie Theis, International Food Policy Research Inst...
• With increasing interest and investments in irrigation for food
& nutrition security, climate resilience, ag productivit...
GENDER RESEARCH IN THE ILSSI:
ETHIOPIA, GHANA, TANZANIA
• Qualitative research
• Household survey analysis
• Three gender ...
INCLUSIVE IRRIGATION IS PROBABLY NOT:
• Every man and woman has their own
motor pump?
• Men and women have to do all the
s...
Understanding gender-
based differences,
including how men and
women have:
…helps to answer these questions:
Different pre...
BOTH MEN AND WOMEN FACE
CONSTRAINTS TO IRRIGATION
Constraints exist, but many tend to be more severe for women than men
Ac...
DESPITE WORK IN IRRIGATED
AGRICULTURE, WOMEN OFTEN LACK
CONTROL OVER BENEFITS
“During cultivation there is love at home, g...
OVERALL BENEFITS, BUT LACK OF
CONTROL OVER INCOME
“How I have understood her it’s this way, she has understood the changes...
LOTS OF VARIATION BETWEEN PLACES
AND OVER TIME, SO IMPORTANT TO
KNOW THE CONTEXT
“There are men who like to supervise ever...
IMPLEMENTING THE AMCOW GENDER STRATEGY
AMCOW Gender Strategy goal Contribution of this Tool
1. Gender approach to implemen...
2 NEW GENDER & IRRIGATION TOOLS
Diagnostic for Gender Equality in
Irrigation
Gender in Irrigation Learning and
Improvement...
TOPICS IN THE DIAGNOSTIC
Topic
Basic Information Main sources of water & technologies used for irrigation
Section A Access...
RULES ABOUT WATER
CONTROL OVER BENEFITS OF
IRRIGATION
ACCESS TO AND CONTROL OVER
IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGIES
What is gender equality in irrigation?
• Equal opportunities, based on access to credit, labor, information, and
land, to ...
THANK YOU!
Source: IWMI Flickr
Additional Resources:
• Feed the Future Innovation
Lab for Small-Scale Irrigation
(ILSSI)
•...
Sophie Theis: New approaches for Inclusive Irrigation
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Lessons from the ILSSI project.

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Sophie Theis: New approaches for Inclusive Irrigation

  1. 1. Photo Credit Goes Here Photo credit: IWMI Flickr, Ghana and Ethiopia Africa Water Week Side Event, July 21, 2016 Frederick Kahimba (SUA), Jennie Barron (IWMI), Maureen Mnimbo (SUA), Mary Ndaro (CARE), Sophie Theis (IFPRI) New Approaches for Inclusive Irrigation: Tools and Findings from Tanzania, Ghana, Ethiopia, and Malawi
  2. 2. Photo Credit Goes Here Photo credit: IWMI Flickr, Ghana and Ethiopia Sophie Theis, International Food Policy Research Institute Africa Water Week, Dar es Salaam, July 21, 2016 New Tools for Inclusive Irrigation: Understanding and Measuring Gender Equality in Irrigation
  3. 3. • With increasing interest and investments in irrigation for food & nutrition security, climate resilience, ag productivity, income generation, and so on, how can we ensure irrigation expansion is inclusive of both men and women?
  4. 4. GENDER RESEARCH IN THE ILSSI: ETHIOPIA, GHANA, TANZANIA • Qualitative research • Household survey analysis • Three gender and irrigation workshops (March/April 2016): Workshop resources from Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania • ILSSI Gender and Irrigation Project Note • Blogpost on workshops: Investigating Gender Dynamics in Irrigation • YouTube videos from the workshops • Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Small-Scale Irrigation (ILSSI) project website
  5. 5. INCLUSIVE IRRIGATION IS PROBABLY NOT: • Every man and woman has their own motor pump? • Men and women have to do all the same work? • Specialization is OK • Women’s workloads are already very heavy, and workload does not guarantee economic empowerment • How to increase economic empowerment without increasing workload? • It is common to have some degree of joint ownership and decision making over technology, land, production • Do men and women have equal opportunity to invest, if interested?
  6. 6. Understanding gender- based differences, including how men and women have: …helps to answer these questions: Different preferences Can both men and women access and benefit from irrigation water and technologies if they want to? Different constraints Different risks What will be the impacts of an irrigation intervention? Given who has access/control, how will benefits (water, crops, income) be used? Different opportunities
  7. 7. BOTH MEN AND WOMEN FACE CONSTRAINTS TO IRRIGATION Constraints exist, but many tend to be more severe for women than men Access to land Access to credit Access to information/training/groups Access to markets Access to hired labor Challenges with water governance (e.g. distance to canal, timing of water) Time availability and energy (in context of other chores/workload) Social norms and cultural appropriateness Decision making power in community decisions (e.g. water allocations) Decision making power in household decisions (e.g. use of income)
  8. 8. DESPITE WORK IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE, WOMEN OFTEN LACK CONTROL OVER BENEFITS “During cultivation there is love at home, good talks like, ‘this year after we harvest we will make this and that, and we will take our child to there and do this for him.’ You use all your energy, and when harvesting time comes, after taking the sacks in the warehouse, and you touch him, then conflict will rise in the house, and he will tell you, ‘With the little income we have, do you think we can manage big things as those?’ Then you keep quiet.”
  9. 9. OVERALL BENEFITS, BUT LACK OF CONTROL OVER INCOME “How I have understood her it’s this way, she has understood the changes gained [from irrigation] is that we have gained to build good houses... In most cases, this is how men behave: he harvests 100 sacks of paddy and he doesn’t put them at home, instead he stores it in a warehouse, after it has dried up, he sells without notifying you, while you are thinking it’s 100 sacks of paddy he has already sold some of it, and when you go to check only 40 sacks of paddy left behind the rest you don’t know where they went, and if you ask it’s a conflict inside the house. He only cares you are living in a good house, you have a TV and good utensils then he expects you to be satisfied. It means men consume a lot.” “Irrigation cultivation has brought up mistresses since there is income, he goes and collect there.” “These warehouses destroy our husbands.”
  10. 10. LOTS OF VARIATION BETWEEN PLACES AND OVER TIME, SO IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE CONTEXT “There are men who like to supervise everything by themselves and other families like participatory.” “There are families which are dictatorship form while others are cooperative.” “Women used to fetch water in the past but recently men are the ones who fetch water in Mawemairo. When you go to water sources you may find only 1 woman out of 20 women, and may be that woman is fetching water because the husband is travelled but men are fetching water for home uses and for livestock.” “Things have changed, in the past women were partially involved in the business but recently women are the administrator in the business. In business, they are mostly involved in the financial management.”
  11. 11. IMPLEMENTING THE AMCOW GENDER STRATEGY AMCOW Gender Strategy goal Contribution of this Tool 1. Gender approach to implement project interventions at all levels within the water sector, including economic empowerment through equal access to water for productive purposes developed and adopted  Can be used to conduct a gender analysis for project interventions in the water sector  Primarily focused on economic empowerment through equal access to water for productive purposes 2. Strategic research and collection of operational information on gender undertaken, produced, shared, and used by stakeholders to inform evidence based responses  Provides a framework for recording and sharing information between stakeholders on gender equality in irrigation 3. Monitoring and Evaluation system and indicators to support gender equality interventions in the water sector developed and implemented  Can be used to develop indicators for interventions
  12. 12. 2 NEW GENDER & IRRIGATION TOOLS Diagnostic for Gender Equality in Irrigation Gender in Irrigation Learning and Improvement Tool • Measures the current gender gap in access to and control over irrigation and its benefits, including labor burden, decision making power • Assesses and improve gender integration in irrigation scheme planning • Ask questions in sex-disaggregated Focus Group Discussions, compares men and women’s responses as the “irrigation gender gap” • Ask questions in sex-disaggregated Focus Group Discussions • Helps identify the key issues where there is gender inequality (individual technologies and collective schemes) • Helps to identify ways to enhance women’s participation in decision making in formal irrigation schemes • Based on 3 workshops and qualitative research in Tanzania, Ghana, Ethiopia. • Planning to pilot in fall 2016 • Based on extensive stakeholder consultations • Field tested in Uzbekistan and Malawi
  13. 13. TOPICS IN THE DIAGNOSTIC Topic Basic Information Main sources of water & technologies used for irrigation Section A Access to Water for Multiple Uses Section B Rules about Water Section C Division of Labor Section D Control over Benefits/Income from Irrigation Section E Access to and Control over Irrigation Technologies
  14. 14. RULES ABOUT WATER
  15. 15. CONTROL OVER BENEFITS OF IRRIGATION
  16. 16. ACCESS TO AND CONTROL OVER IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGIES
  17. 17. What is gender equality in irrigation? • Equal opportunities, based on access to credit, labor, information, and land, to adopt affordable irrigation technology that meets user’s needs • Tailored training for men and women on irrigation and agronomic practices • Equal access to and control over collective water resources (e.g., irrigation canals, small reservoirs) • Meaningful participation in community and household decision making about water use and allocation • Control over the use of irrigation (e.g., what plots, crops are watered); the benefits of irrigation (e.g., use of income, food); and access to markets (e.g., inputs, sale of irrigated produce) • Reduced workload related to water distribution and application for all water uses
  18. 18. THANK YOU! Source: IWMI Flickr Additional Resources: • Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Small-Scale Irrigation (ILSSI) • ILSSI Gender and Irrigation Project Note • Resources from gender and irrigation workshops in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania • Blogpost on workshops • YouTube videos from the workshops

Lessons from the ILSSI project.

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