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Gender and Irrigation
Julius Nyerere International
Convention Centre
Dar es Salaam.
21st,July,2016.
1
Small scale irrigation, Gender and
Challenges of uptake
Tatu Mnimbo and Henry Mahoo
Sokoine University of Agriculture,
Mor...
Outline of the presentation
• Introduction on small scale
irrigation in Tanzania
• Why consider gender in water and
Irriga...
4
Introduction
5
• Many high-level policy forums in sub-Saharan
Africa, including the African Ministers’ Council
on Water (A...
6
Introduction cont..
• Although international policymakers are increasingly recognizing
women’s roles in irrigated agricu...
7
Why include gender in water/irrigation Issues
• There are significant gender differences in use, access and
management o...
8
Methodology used to collect gender data
• Sex-dissegrated information/data collection
• Activities performed should be
m...
Classification of irrigation schemes
• In Tanzania, there is no formal
classification of irrigation schemes,
• But the inf...
10
MAIN CANAL for a typical Traditional irrigation
scheme
11
Improved Headworks of the Msemembo irrigation scheme, Singida
Lined canals in the Msemembo irrigation
scheme, Singida
Impr...
Spate water harvesting-Makanya
village - SAME
13
Spate water harvesting-Makanya village 14
MAJALUBA RWH-SHINYANGA
WOMENT AT WORK IN A JALUBA
Water harvesting based irrigation 15
Modern irrigation schemes
16
Gender challenges in irrigation uptake
Access and ownership of resources
i) Women may not benefit from irrigation
technolo...
Challenges cont…………
iii) Intra-household dynamics
 Bargaining power - Due to this factor, Irrigation
technologies may be ...
Addressing the challenges: possible
solutions
• Direct targeting technologies that are user friendly
• Kitchen-garden, as ...
20
Possible solutions cont…
• Sensitization at village level(community) on
gender issues through farmer seminars, village
...
21
Kitchen /Pocket gardening
22
conclusion
» Gender-based farming systems where men and women cultivate separate fields
are common in many parts of sub...
23
conclusion
• Women, like men, have clear opinions about how an
irrigation system should be operated.
• women may have d...
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
24
23
IF NOT “ENGENDERED” IT IS
“ENDANGERED”
25
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Maureen Mnimbo: Gender and irrigation

Presentation made at Africa Water Week.

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Maureen Mnimbo: Gender and irrigation

  1. 1. Gender and Irrigation Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre Dar es Salaam. 21st,July,2016. 1
  2. 2. Small scale irrigation, Gender and Challenges of uptake Tatu Mnimbo and Henry Mahoo Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro 2
  3. 3. Outline of the presentation • Introduction on small scale irrigation in Tanzania • Why consider gender in water and Irrigation issues • Methodology used to collect gender data. • Challenges of uptake • Conclusion and recommendations. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Introduction 5 • Many high-level policy forums in sub-Saharan Africa, including the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW), have adopted gender equality as their main goal (AMCOW 2011). • National constitutions, African gender protocols and United Nations agreements, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women (CEDAW)
  6. 6. 6 Introduction cont.. • Although international policymakers are increasingly recognizing women’s roles in irrigated agriculture,many women farmers remain poor, vulnerable to food insecurity and marginalized. • reasons for this ranges from lack of understanding of gender issues by policy makers, lack of will and commitment at the project design and implementation phases, lack of use of relevant tools, unavailability of gender- disaggregated data, and prevailing cultural norms in the societies.
  7. 7. 7 Why include gender in water/irrigation Issues • There are significant gender differences in use, access and management of water. • It helps to explain why some cultures, societies or communities are more successful than others to manage water. • gender discrimination limits the women’s and men’s chances to access vital water resources, by placing restriction in their autonomy. Attitudes such as, “Women should – or should not – do this and that”.
  8. 8. 8 Methodology used to collect gender data • Sex-dissegrated information/data collection • Activities performed should be measured/analysed through individual householdmember(Adoption,perfomance/hour s spent). • Collection of intra-household dynamics) • Use of gendered tools and theories.
  9. 9. Classification of irrigation schemes • In Tanzania, there is no formal classification of irrigation schemes, • But the informal and accepted categorization that is currently used divides schemes into 3 categories: (i) small-scale irrigation (0–200 ha), (ii) medium-scale irrigation (200–500 ha), (iii) large-scale irrigation (>500 ha). 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. MAIN CANAL for a typical Traditional irrigation scheme 11
  12. 12. Improved Headworks of the Msemembo irrigation scheme, Singida Lined canals in the Msemembo irrigation scheme, Singida Improved traditional irrigation 12
  13. 13. Spate water harvesting-Makanya village - SAME 13
  14. 14. Spate water harvesting-Makanya village 14
  15. 15. MAJALUBA RWH-SHINYANGA WOMENT AT WORK IN A JALUBA Water harvesting based irrigation 15
  16. 16. Modern irrigation schemes 16
  17. 17. Gender challenges in irrigation uptake Access and ownership of resources i) Women may not benefit from irrigation technologies due to their poor access to ownership of land and finance. ii) Land ownership-Farmers who own their land may benefit more from these technologies than those who do not. 17
  18. 18. Challenges cont………… iii) Intra-household dynamics  Bargaining power - Due to this factor, Irrigation technologies may be used to irrigate men’s plots and crops at the expense of women’s plots  Decision Making – who decides in the household?  Affordability iv) The development and dissemination of irrigation technologies  Some irrigation technologies are not gender sensitive- e.g. Pumps for irrigation that are too heavy for women to lift/transport from home to the fields 18
  19. 19. Addressing the challenges: possible solutions • Direct targeting technologies that are user friendly • Kitchen-garden, as a participatory technology development for women farmers. • Address land ownership and empower the less advantaged to own land • Provide subsidies to the less advantaged • Recognition that development policies impact female and male differently there is need to ensure that the needs of all groups in the society are taken on board during policy development, implementation 19
  20. 20. 20 Possible solutions cont… • Sensitization at village level(community) on gender issues through farmer seminars, village meetings,film shows and dramas(main messages being on women social-economic rights). • Involving women in new irrigation technologies(from design to implementation).
  21. 21. 21 Kitchen /Pocket gardening
  22. 22. 22 conclusion » Gender-based farming systems where men and women cultivate separate fields are common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. » (This reality has often been ignored in irrigation development projects and led to gender inequity in access to productive resources. It has also resulted in the partial or total failure of irrigation schemes). » While men prefer to use water to irrigate cash crops or livestock, most women prefer to use water to grow staple crops, food crops, vegetables, and kitchen gardens or for domestic use (drinking, washing). » If irrigation projects are to address the concerns of both women and men, there is a need to play an active role in local water management in recognizing the multiple uses of water in and around households.
  23. 23. 23 conclusion • Women, like men, have clear opinions about how an irrigation system should be operated. • women may have different preferences for irrigation operations and the scheduling of water deliveries.
  24. 24. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING 24
  25. 25. 23 IF NOT “ENGENDERED” IT IS “ENDANGERED” 25

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