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Developing business opportunities for resource recovery and reuse (RRR) of domestic and agro industrial waste (IWMI)


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Presentation given by IWMI researchers on developing business opportunities for resource recovery and reuse of domestic and agro-industrial waste in urban and peri-urban areas. Presented at a stakeholder workshop held in Nairobi.

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Developing business opportunities for resource recovery and reuse (RRR) of domestic and agro industrial waste (IWMI)

  1. 1. Developing business opportunities for resource recovery and reuse (RRR) of domestic and agro- industrial waste Dr. Solomie Gebrezgabher Dr. Avinandan Taron RRR impact and upscaling project stakeholder workshop May 21, 2015, Kenya
  2. 2. Urbanization and consumption levels • Increased urbanization coupled with increased consumptions levels  Significant waste generation • Cities are becoming vast nutrient sinks while exploiting soils in farming areas • Waste generated ends up in open dumps and natural water bodies  Environmental and health challenges
  3. 3. Changing the waste challenge into an opportunity Agriculture Landscaping/horticulture Energy: Electricity Energy: Fuel-briquettes Faecal Sludge Municipal Solid Waste Nutrients (org. fertilizer, soil conditioner) Water (irrigation) Agro-waste EnergyUrine Wastewater Waste streams Resource Reuse Faecal Sludge Municipal Solid Waste Nutrients (org. fertilizer, soil conditioner) Water (irrigation) Agro-waste Urine Wastewater
  4. 4. Reuse is not new • Efforts have often been limited in size, hardly going beyond the pilot scale – Waste not viewed as a resource – Lack of business thinking a bottleneck for attracting private capital and scaling up reuse of waste • Need for innovative solutions  apply a business perspective
  5. 5. Agro-industrial waste - Energy Wastewater – Water (irrigation, aquaculture) MSW, Faecal sludge - Nutrients (ag. production) Innovative reuse initiatives
  6. 6. Number Business case name Country Location Scale (pilot, community, city,…) Type of waste used Waste product (biogas, fertilizer, water, ..) Process of waste treatment Could be a business case because.. Financial data available? 1 WASTE CONCERN BANGLADESHDhaka Large-scale business operationSolid waste Fertilizer Composting, co-compostingYes. Replication of Business model in 10 African citiesNot sure 2 BIOGAS SECTOR PARTNERSHIP NEPAL Kathmandu Large-scale??? Replicable?Human excreta, cattle dung and waterBiogas and compost/fertilizerMethanogenic bacteria on biodegradable waste in anaerobic conditionsMaybe but specific to rural settings and may not be practical for urPossible upon request 3 PUNJAB ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCYINDIA Punjab Large-scale Cattle dung Biogas and manure Biologically induced mixing arrangement (BIMA) technology used for anaerobic dige 4 USAID INDIA Uttar Pradesh Pilot Cattle dung Biogas (thermal and electrical energy) and compostAnaerobic digestionPotential 5 TAMIL NADU ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCYINDIA Tamil Nadu City Wastewater Biogas, Electrical energyHybrid Upward Flow Sludge Media Anaerobic ReactorPotential for replication and given growing demand for sago and st 6 KOYAMBEDU WHOLESALE MARKET COMPLEXINDIA Chennai, Tamil NaduCity Organic waste (market waste)Electricity; Biogas (used as fuel in gas engine and excess power generated is exported to the TNEB grid), MBiologically induced mixing arrangement (BIMA) technology used for anaerobic digeRepresents a way for the public sector to finance other divisions ofPossible 7 M/s HIND AGRO INDUSTRIES, LTD INDIA Aligarh, Uttar PradeshLow-medium scale (individual entrepreneur)Abattoir soild waste (droppings, rumen, fat, agro-wastes, fodder residues and hay)Biogas, biofertilizer Biomethanation (Low Speed Agitator tank Reactor)Replicability and sustainability potential; diverse source of incomeMaybe 8 M/s AL-KABEER EXPORTS PVT, LTD INDIA Andhra Pradesh Medium scale Feed waste, animal wasteBiogas, Manure Biogas Induced Mixing Arrangement (BIMA) technologyReplicability and potential for up-scalingMaybe 9 SuSanA GHANA Kumasi Pilot Faecal sludge, Solid wasteCompost FS Dewatering with unplanted drying beds and Aerobic Windrows co-composting ofPPP which addressses land tenure constraints, third party implemeYes (IWMI was partner) 10 ECoH Holdings Ltd KENYA Nairobi City Organic waste (green waste, market waste, hotels, schools, hospitals, kitchen waste, farmyard manure, crop residues andCompost Windrow composting Possible to get financial data 11 Lilongwe City Council MALAWI Lilongwe Community Organic waste (sugarcanes, mangoes, nsima from hospitals, kitchen and animal manure)Compost Open-air, static-pile compostingAspects of PPP/ CBO model address business constraints (financialAnnual turnover: 40,000Kwacha; Price of produ 12 NAWACOM KENYA Nakuru Community/City Household organic wasteCompost ? Replicability - success factor/ cooperative model1,500Ksh per bag; 336 members; Access to micr 13 Waste Enterprisers GHANA Kumasi City Faecal sludge Wastewater 1. Water Stabilization Pond?Sustainable model but may be limited in terms of replicabilityAvailable 14 Water for People BOLIVIA Cuchumuela, CochabambaCity Urine and fecesDecomposed urine and fecesUDDTs Sustainability Sale of mushrooms; Pine 15 ROSA KENYA Nakuru City Organic waste, feces, urineCo-compost (organic waste with faecal matter collected from UDDTs)? Replicable; sustainable model without external financial support 16 Karnkata Compost Development LimitedINDIA Bangalore City Organic wasteCompost Windrow composting/ Aerobic decomposition 17 Santiago Composting Project CHILE Santiago Project/ City Biodegradable waste and nontoxic wastewater sludgeCompost/ Sale of emissions reductions? Replicable, self-sustainingProcesses 43000mT of waste/year; Sale of 326,0 18 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD)& SNVVIETNAM ? Pilot/City Human excreta, cattle dung and waterBiogas, Bio-slurry/organic fertilizer? Can be widely replicated, however success highly dependent on geoCosts per household: $550 19 Chinese Academy of Science CHINA ? Pilot project Waste straw "Bread grass", biogas Bacteria infested (anaerobic/aerobic)Self-sustaining, however initial financial obstaclesN/A 20 Unilever/Triple R Project SOUTH AFRICA? City Food grade wasteCompost * Replicable but may not be cost-effective for factoriesnone 21 Kigali - Biogas RWANDA Kigali City Human feces, urineBiogas Biogas digester Replicated with other institutions (hospitals, academic institutionsPossibly accessible 22 Waste Busters PAKISTAN Lahore City Household/ market waste (organic and inorganic)Compost Windrow composting methodPotential for up-scalingAvailable 23 VermiGOLD INDIA Mumbai City Wet garbage, organic wasteVermicompost Vermiculture Low-level technology, replicability 24 Anamol Krishi Udyog INDIA Nagpur, MaharashtraCity Vegetable market waste, organic household wasteCompost Biologically induced mixing arrangement (BIMA) technologyReplicability, has potential to be up-scaled; Profitable and sustainabCosts of production available 25 TERRA FIRMA BIOTECHNOLOGY LTD INDIA Bangalore City - large-scale Household and market wasteOrganic compost Vermiculture Historical financial growth; large-scale; Successful producer of orgAvailabel in document: 26 Lakshmi Energy and Foods Limited INDIA Punjab City Rice husk Electricity, Bricks (ash from burning husks)* Large-scale; sustainable business model* 27 Cape Flats Treatment Works SOUTH AFRICACape Town City Faecal sludge Biogas, pellets Anaerobic digestion for biogas production; Drying with Swiss Combi Drying systeLarge-scale; sustainable business model400m3/h of biogas; wastre volume? 28 Sulabh International Social Service OrganizationINDIA 25 states Country-wide Human excreta, WastewaterCompost, Manure, Pisciculture?Human excreta - biogas digesters; Duckweed-based wastewater treatment; CompostCommercially viable business model - portfolio diversification, sign2005 profits - $5m; 6,000 public toi; lets in 25 st 29 East Kolkata Wetlands INDIA West Bengal City,maybe on a larger scale?Wastewater, solid wasteFish Waste stabilization pondsLarge-scale; self-sustaining/commercially viable system; replicable* 30 Ondo State Integrated Wastes Recycling and Treatment ProjectNIGERIA Ondo State Solid waste Compost Semi-mechanical windrow, curing and milling operationsLarge-scale; successful public entity* 31 PRISM BANGLADESHKuhlna City Faecal sludge, wastewaterDuckweed, Fish Waste stabilization pondsSelf-sustaining/ successful?Available in document 32 Cows to Kilowatts Project NIGERIA Ibadan? City Abattoir wasteBiogas Anaerobic digestion of abattoir waseSelf-sustaining * 33 UN-ESCAP/ Waste Concern SRI LANKA/ VIETNAMMatale/ Quy NhonCommunity Solid waste Compost Aerated box methodSelf-sustaining, profit-making enterpriseSince 2007, model plants operating successfully 34 Nyongara Biogas Project/ Kenya Industrial Research and Development InstituteKENYA Dagoretti/ Outskirts of NairobiCity Abattoir wasteBiogas High Performance Temperature Controlled (HPTC) biogas digester modelReplicable in developing countries (East Africa) where waste fromPossibly available upon request 35 IFAD Supported Biogas Projects ASIA / PACIFICChina/ Vietnam Mainly Rural setting?Human and animal wasteBiogas (thermal and electrical energy) and compostBiogas digester This case was included because it has the potential to be replicated* 36 KORAT WASTE TO ENERGY THAILAND Muang District City Industrial - wastewater from starch industry/ Sanguan Wongse industriesBiogas - (biofuel and electricity)Anaerobic baffled reactorFinancial viability?* 37 Boeung Cheung Ek Lake CAMBODIA Phnom Penh City? Wastewater Water spinach productionWastewater used as a growth medium for water spinachAgricultural production; Financial viability100-300kg/household; $350-700/yr for 5-10to 38 Supporting the Informal Wastewater Farming Business in GhanaGHANA Accra - Several citiesCountry-wide Wastewater Direct reuse of wastewaterAgricultural use of wastewaterHigh cost-recovery potential and model is already flourishingAvailable in Cofie and Murray paper Identification of 150+ RRR potential success stories across Asia, Africa and Latin America and analyzing 60+ in detail.
  7. 7. RRR-impact and upscaling project Two components: 1. Assess the business environment (investment climate) for RRR sector 2. Assess the economic impact of RRR business models
  9. 9. Business environment for RRR • Waste management strategies shift focus from a disposal-oriented approach to a business-oriented approach that emphasizes value creation and revenue generation. • To achieve success in RRR sector, there is a need for private sector involvement. • Need for understanding of the business/investment climate under which the RRR businesses are operating to foster entrepreneurship in RRR.
  10. 10. Defining business environment • Business/investment climate comprise all factors external to firms (policy, legal and regulatory frameworks; macroeconomic policy; financial access etc). • A good investment climate (IC) is central to private sector led growth and investment, Employment generation, income growth, poverty reduction
  11. 11. Need for IC assessment • Assist Governments/policymakers to identify which dimensions of the IC need improving. • Inform Investors/businesses the business environment they are operating in. • Assist Donor community to identify specific issues and develop targeted private sector development programmes.
  12. 12. Framework for assessing IC for RRR RRR Entrepreneurship determinants Regulatory framework & Infrastructure •Cost to start a business •Tax incentives •Access to infrastructure Markets •Market size •Domestic sales Support service •RRR Network associations •RRR incubators Finance •Access to debt •Amount of bank loans to RRR •Interest rate RRR entrepreneurship performance •Number of RRR firms (birth, death and survival rates) •RRR firm growth rate Impact Job creation, amount of waste reduced, Ecosystem services, gender etc.
  14. 14. The Ecosystem services approach • Why do we need ecosystem services approach? – Primarily to meet the needs of sustainable production and consumption • What are ecosystem services? – Benefits people obtain from nature – it comprises of the dynamic interactions between the living and the nonliving environment • Inclusion of both natural and human-modified ecosystems • “Services” encompass both tangible and intangible benefits • How can we classify ecosystem services? – The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), – The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES)
  15. 15. Benefits Costs Socio-Economic  Estimated number of direct and indirect jobs created  Increase in yield/productivity  Labor hours saved  Revenue or cost saving to municipality/society/business  Generation of electricity  Improved sanitation  Gender implications  Estimated number of jobs lost  Increased exposure to bad odor Health  Reduced exposure to wastes  Health care costs savings  Productivity gains due to improved health  Time savings  Increased exposure to products recovered from wastes  Increased health risks due to possible pathogen survival Environmental  Estimated GHG emissions reduction  Improved soil quality  Reduced water pollution  Groundwater recharge  Benefits derived from recovered land  Estimated GHG emission from process  Observed eutrophication
  16. 16. Defining Ecosystem Services Provisioning services – • Food , raw materials, fresh water and medicinal resources Cultural services – • Recreation • Tourism • Aesthetic appreciation • Spiritual experience Habitat or supporting services – • Habitat for species & maintenance of genetic biodiversity Regulating services – • Local climate and air quality • Carbon sequestration and storage • Moderation of extreme events • Wastewater treatment • Erosion prevention and maintenance of soil fertility
  17. 17. Framework Physical Flows and natural inputs, products and residuals (Source: SEEA, 2012)
  18. 18. Framework continued… Human Interactions Changes in ecosystem services Production Reuse Studying impacts of RRR business models Valuation of ESS
  19. 19. Methodology Quantify the impacts of policy options Approaches - Impact Assessment (i) Environmental Impact Assessment,(EIA); (ii) Strategic Environment Assessment, (SEA); (iii)Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA); (iv) Risk Assessment; (v) Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; (vi) Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and (vii) Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) Assess the effects on welfare Establish Environmental baseline Qualitative Assessment Valuation of ESS • The preliminary activity involves Scoping followed by Screening of the environmental impacts • Use of a ranking methodology, expert opinion, secondary review for each of the services
  20. 20. Qualitative Assessment framework Category Baseline / Do Nothing (Option 1) Use Agrowaste for electricity generation (Option 2) Use Agrowaste for briquette production (Option 3) Use Livestock waste for generating electricity (Option 4) Provisioning Services Food ++ Fiber & Fuel +++ +++ +++ Fresh Water - - Regulating Services Air Quality regulation +++ + +++ Water regulation - - Climate regulation Natural hazard regulation Pest regulation - - + + Disease regulation - - + + Erosion regulation Water purification and waste treatment - Cultural Services Cultural heritage Recreation and tourism Aesthetic value Supporting Service Soil formation Nutrient cycling + + Water cycling - Photosynthesis
  21. 21. Thank you!