Diffusion of sodium chloride through dialysis tubing using conductivity sensor

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Diffusion of sodium chloride through dialysis tubing measured using conductivity sensor. Please give proper reference to my IB student, Jason if you use this material.

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Diffusion of sodium chloride through dialysis tubing using conductivity sensor

  1. 1. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Internal Assessment – Investigating the Relationship between Concentration ofGlucose and Rate of Diffusion of Sodium ChlorideResearch Question:How will changing the percentage of glucose concentration affect the rate of diffusion of sodiumchloride across a visking tubing – down a concentration gradient – measured using a conductivity probe?Introduction:Diffusion is a passive process in which molecules spread, from areas of high concentration to areas oflow concentration, until equilibrium is reached. For instance, sodium chloride molecules inside a viskingtubing will diffuse out from the area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. There areseveral factors that can affect this rate of diffusion. Such factors include the concentration gradient, thesurface area of visking tubing, and temperature. 1In this experiment, glucose solution will be poured into the visking tubing in addition to the sodiumchloride solution to observe the effect of glucose concentration on the rate of diffusion of sodiumchloride. The rate of diffusion will be measured using Logger Pro and a conductivity probe: theconductivity of the water as sodium chloride diffuses out will be measured by the probe for 60 seconds.After the collection of data, the rate of diffusion can be calculated by finding the slope of conductivity vs.time graph, since rate of diffusion is change in conductivity over time. If the change in conductivity issignificant the rate of diffusion is high and if the change is small the rate is low. Rate of Diffusion =1 Bailey, Regina. "Diffusion and Passive Transport." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec 2010.<http://biology.about.com/od/cellularprocesses/ss/diffusion.htm>.
  2. 2. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Hypothesis:Visking tubing is a semi-permeable membrane that allows for molecules to diffuse in or out, dependingon the concentration gradient. As mentioned in the introduction, the only factors that can affect therate of diffusion across a visking tubing are the concentration gradient, surface area, and temperature.Although glucose molecules are larger than sodium chloride molecules, they will not clog the viskingtubing; there will still be thousands of pores through which the sodium chloride will be able to diffuseout. Therefore, as long as there is a greater concentration of sodium chloride inside the visking tubingthan outside, the molecules will continue to diffuse out unperturbedly until equilibrium is reached, nomatter how high the concentration of glucose is inside the visking tubing. Effect of Glucose Concentration on Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride Average Rate of Diffusion, ΔμScm-1s-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Concentration of Glucose, %Figure 1: Prediction of the Effect of Glucose Concentration on Rate of Diffusion of Sodium ChlorideThe figure above demonstrates no change in the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride as the glucoseconcentration increases. As such, the hypothesis is that the concentration of glucose solution inside thevisking tubing will have no effect on the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride.
  3. 3. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Variables: Variable Description Units / range Method of Measuring / Manipulating Independent Concentration of % The independent variable will be manipulated by a process of glucose serial dilution, from 10% concentration to 5%, 5% to 2.5%, 2.5% to 1.25%, and 1.25% to 0.625%. Dependent Rate of diffusion of ΔμScm-1s-1 This will be measured with a conductivity probe. The sodium chloride conductivity probe measures the amount of electricity, and because sodium chloride contains charged ions, the ( ) conductivity probe can accurately determine the amount of sodium chloride that is diffusing out. Therefore, the rate of diffusion can be measured using a conductivity probe. The conductivity will be measured from 0-60 seconds, and the rate of diffusion can be calculated by finding the slope of the conductivity vs. time graph. The uncertainty can be considered negligible. Controlled Concentration of % The concentration of sodium chloride will be kept constant at sodium chloride 10% concentration, and this will be insured by using the same solution for every trial. Volume of water cm3 Volume of water inside the visking tubing is set at 10mL of inside & outside sodium chloride solution and 5mL of glucose solution. the visking tubing Volume is measured accurately using a burette and a pipette. Volume of water inside the beaker (where the diffusion will take place) is set at 200cm3. Volume is measured accurately using the increment on the beaker. Range of μm The range of conductivity is kept constant at the 2000μm conductivity range on the conductivity probe Rate of stirring Increments on The rate of stirring is set at the first increment on the the magnetic magnetic stirrer for every trial. stirrer Temperature °C Temperature is kept constant by conducting the experiment at room temperature (about 25 °C) for every triplicate trial. Surface area / cm2 / cm3 The same visking tubing is used for every triplicate trial to volume ratio of ensure that the width of the visking tubing is constant. In visking tubing addition, the visking tubing is cut into same lengths – 15cm – to keep the surface area / volume ratio constant.Table 1: List of Variables
  4. 4. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Apparatus and Materials:  Electronic balance (±0.001g)  Spatula  50 cm3 burette (±0.05 cm3)  Glucose  10 cm3 pipette (±0.02 cm3)  Distilled water  Five 50 cm3 beakers for serial dilution  Scissors  2 large beakers  Magnetic & plastic stirrer  Visking tubing  Conductivity probe  Sodium Chloride  Logger ProProcedures:Preparation of 10% sodium chloride solution 1. 25g of sodium chloride and 250cm3 of distilled water are poured into a large beaker. 2. The beaker is stirred several times using a plastic stirrer until a homogenous solution is made.Preparation of glucose solution of various concentrations (serial dilution) 15 cm3 distilled water 15 cm3 15 cm3 15 cm3 15 cm3 10% 5% 2.5% 1.25% 0.625% Figure 2: Serial Dilution of Glucose Solution
  5. 5. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065 3. 3g of glucose and 30cm3 of distilled water is poured into a small beaker. 4. The beaker is stirred several times using a plastic stirrer until a homogenous solution is made, thus creating 10% glucose solution. 5. 15 cm3 of the obtained solution is transferred into another small beaker using the 50cm3 burette and another 15 cm3 of distilled water is added using the same sized burette. The beaker is then stirred using a stirrer until a homogenous solution is made, thus creating 5% glucose solution. 6. Step 5 is repeated 3 more times to obtain 2.5%, 1.25%, and 0.625% glucose solutions. The burette is washed every time a new serial dilution is performed.Conducting the experiment Conductivity probe Visking tubing Magnet Magnetic Stirrer Figure 3: Diagram of the Apparatus for Gathering Data 7. 16 visking tubing of about 15cm in length are prepared. A knot is tied on one end of each of the visking tubing’s. 8. Logger Pro is turned on, and the conductivity probe is connected to Logger Pro. The range is set at 2000μm. 9. 15 cm3 of sodium chloride solution is poured into a visking tubing using the 50cm3 burette. A large beaker is filled up to the 200cm3, then placed on top of the magnetic stirrer. The magnetic stirrer is turned on to the first increment only. The visking tubing is put inside the beaker to start the diffusion process, and the rate is measured using the conductivity probe and Logger Pro for 60 seconds. (This step gathers data for the control) 10. 10 cm3 of sodium chloride solution is poured into a visking tubing using the 50cm3 burette. 5cm3 of 10% glucose solution is added into the same visking tubing using the 10cm3 pipette. 11. Visking tubing is placed inside a large beaker filled up to 200cm3 with distilled water, and the beaker is put on top of the magnetic stirrer running at first-increment speed. 12. The rate of diffusion is measured using conductivity probe and Logger Pro for 60 seconds. 13. Steps 10-12 are repeated triplicate trials for all five concentrations of glucose.
  6. 6. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Data Collection:Qualitative Data:  To the naked eye, the change in concentration of glucose solutions did not seem to make a significant difference in the diffusion of sodium chloride.  The presence of visking tubing seemed to get in the way of the magnetic stirrer at times, causing a slight disruption in the stirring.Quantitative Data:*** Refer to the Appendix for a complete table of raw data from Logger Pro.
  7. 7. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Data Processing: Glucose Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride / ΔμScm-1s-1Concentration /% Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 10.000 10.41 10.02 10.45 5.000 10.66 9.987 (16.90)2 2.500 10.47 9.237 (12.61) 1.250 10.14 9.92 (14.16) 0.625 (15.04) 10.09 10.50Table 2: Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride for All Trials3 Glucose Calculation Average Rate of Diffusion Concentration / % (±Standard Deviation)4 / ΔμScm- 1 -1 s 10.000 10.29 ± 0.24 5.000 10.32 ± 0.48 2.500 9.85 ± 0.87 1.250 10.03 ± 0.16 0.625 10.30 ± 0.29Control (no glucose added): 10.08 ΔμScm-1s-1Table 3: Calculation of Average Rates of Diffusion2 Values in parentheses were excluded as outliers due to their extreme deviation from the norm.3 The rate of diffusion was determined by finding the slope of conductivity vs. time graph using linearregression on Logger Pro software.4 The processing of standard deviation is shown in table 4
  8. 8. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Data Presentation: LEGEND Red Lines: 10% glucose concentration (Run 1) Blue Lines: 5% glucose concentration (Latest 3) Green Lines: 2.5% glucose concentration (Run 3) Orange Lines:1.25% glucose concentration (Run 4) Purple Lines: 0.625% glucose concentration (Latest 6)Figure 4: Graph of Raw Data from Logger Pro55 Slopes of lines that have values closest to the average slope value for each concentration of glucose are shown in boxes.
  9. 9. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065 Effect of Glucose Concentration / % on the Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride / ΔμScm-1s-1 12 Average Rate of Diffusion, ΔμScm-1s-1 11 10 y = 0.022x + 10.074 R² = 0.1931 9 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 Concentration of Glucose, %Figure 5: Graph of Average Rate of Diffusion against Concentration of Glucose6 76 Vertical error bars represent standard deviation for triplicate trials.7 Horizontal error bars represent absolute uncertainty for concentration of glucose. (Difficult to see on graph because error is minute)
  10. 10. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Uncertainties:Standard Deviation: Glucose Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride / ΔμScm-1 s-1 Average / ΔμScm-1s-1 Concentration / % (±Standard Deviation) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 10.000 10.41 10.02 10.45 10.29 ± 0.24 5.000 10.66 9.987 ( – )8 10.32 ± 0.48 2.500 10.47 9.237 (–) 9.85 ± 0.87 1.250 10.14 9.92 (–) 10.03 ± 0.16 0.625 (–) 10.09 10.50 10.30 ± 0.29Table 4: Standard Deviation at Different Concentrations of GlucoseExample of Standard Deviation Calculation:[Glucose Concentration] = 10% ≒ 0.237557 ≒ 0.24Same calculations were done for 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, and 0.625% glucose concentrations.8 Data marked with (-) represent outliers.
  11. 11. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Uncertainty due to dilution of glucose solution:*Uncertainty due to 50cm3 burette = ±0.05 cm3Concentration of Uncertainties Glucose / % Volume of Volume of distilled Total percentage Absolute uncertainty glucose solution water added / cm3 error for for concentration of added / cm3 concentration of glucose / % glucose / % 10.000 – – – – 3 3 5.000 15.00 ± 0.05cm = 15.00 ± 0.05cm = ±0.6 0.030 15.00 ± 0.3% 15.00 ± 0.3% 2.500 15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = ±0.6 0.015 15.00 ± 0.3% 15.00 ± 0.3% 1.250 15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = ±0.6 0.008 15.00 ± 0.3% 15.00 ± 0.3% 0.625 15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = ±0.6 0.004 15.00 ± 0.3% 15.00 ± 0.3%Table 5: Uncertainty Table for Concentration of Glucose Solution Glucose Concentration Average Rate of Diffusion (±Standard (±Uncertainty) / % Deviation) / ΔμScm-1s-1 10.000 10.29 ± 0.24 5.000 ± 0.003 10.32 ± 0.48 2.500 ± 0.015 9.85 ± 0.87 1.250 ± 0.008 10.03 ± 0.16 0.625 ± 0.004 10.30 ± 0.29 Table 6: Combined Uncertainties of Independent & Dependent Variables
  12. 12. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Conclusion / Evaluation: The relationship between the concentration of glucose solution and the rate of diffusion can beseen in Figure 5. As the linear regression shows, there is hardly any relationship between theconcentration and rate of diffusion. The slight rise in the slope and the slight variation among the datapoints can be concluded as outcome of experimental error. Therefore, the data supports the hypothesis;the concentration of glucose solution inside the visking tubing indeed had no effect on the rate ofdiffusion of sodium chloride. The general trend of all 15 trials in the experiment seems to be similar. As can be seen in figure4, most trials display more or less the same rate of change in conductivity over time, with the exceptionof a few that deviate. These deviations (the top four lines on the graph in figure 4) were consideredoutliers and rejected during data processing. These outliers were due to experimental error during theexperiment, which will be discussed later. The results are reliable because the uncertainties are fairly low. The uncertainties in theindependent variable – percentage of glucose concentration – are minimal and almost negligible. Thiscan be seen through the miniscule horizontal error bars in the graph in figure 5. The uncertainties in thedependent variable – the average rate of diffusion – determined by the standard deviation of the ratesof diffusion, are small in relation to the actual average rates. These uncertainties are displayed on thegraph in figure 5 through vertical error bars. The one vertical error bar that is abnormally large – thestandard deviation for 2.5% glucose concentration – is due to the fact that only two trials were takeninto account for the average. Such magnitude in uncertainty can be improved by increasing the numberof trials. Furthermore, because the results correspond with the accepted scientific theory – that theconcentration of glucose does not affect the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride across a visking tubing– the results can be concluded as reliable. The only glaring problem in the procedures was that, in the process of diffusion of sodiumchloride across the visking tubing, the conductivity probe and the visking tubing itself got in the way ofthe magnetic stirrer, causing the stirrer to stop spinning at times. This problem could have caused adeficiency during the process of sodium chloride spreading throughout the distilled water. As a result, itcould have caused a discrepancy in the conductivity reading measured by Logger Pro. Nonetheless, thestoppage of the stirrer was only for a couple of seconds, and it could not have impacted the experimentsignificantly enough to cause a glaring error in the results. Still, the problem could be the cause of thehigh number of outliers and the sizeable standard deviation. The investigation would be much improvedif the apparatus could be improved to eliminate this issue.
  13. 13. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065Improving the Investigation: Error Impact ImprovementThe serial dilution was Some of the water molecules The entire experiment could beconducted over a evaporated. As a result, there was not conducted in one day; in one timeperiod of two days, due enough glucose solution left at the far period, without any rest within theto time constraints ends of the serial dilution. Although experiment. This way, the effects of the evaporation caused minimal the evaporation of water would be difference of less than 1 cm3, it still minimized. increased error.Occasionally, the The conductivity probe and the visking The conductivity probe and theconductivity probe and tubing disrupted the rotational motion visking tubing could each be held inthe visking tubing got in of the magnetic stirrer. As a result, the place, so that it does not drift intothe way of the sodium chloride diffusing out of the the rotational motion of themagnetic stirrer. visking tubing may not have been magnetic stirrer. In this case, completely dissolved and distributed another human helper would be evenly throughout the beaker with required. Another way of improving distilled water. Therefore, error in the this error would be to use a larger measurement of conductivity, and beaker; placing the conductivity thus the rate of diffusion, could have probe and the visking tubing at the been increased. far ends of a larger beaker would lessen the chances of them bumping into the magnetic stirrer.50 cm3 burettes were The large burette – relatively large in A smaller burette could be used;used to transfer 15 cm3 comparison to amount necessary – perhaps a 20 cm3 burette, tosolutions increased the percentage uncertainty. decrease the percentage uncertainty.Table 7: Ways to Improve the Investigation
  14. 14. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 Appendix: 10% Trial 1 5% Trial 1 2.5% Trial 1 1.25% Trial 1 0.625% Trial 1Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) 0 26.82404 0 20.48969 0 63.53741 0 21.5885 0 23.59222 1 27.21185 1 14.67242 1 70.19495 1 22.2995 1 22.94586 2 26.50085 2 41.23792 2 76.98175 2 17.51642 2 84.86737 3 24.69104 3 63.66669 3 80.34283 3 84.0271 3 166.9554 4 27.21185 4 81.8941 4 83.05756 4 102.6423 4 150.861 5 27.59967 5 93.91644 5 88.42236 5 131.2115 5 156.2258 6 24.4325 6 106.4559 6 101.5435 6 119.6417 6 170.8982 7 70.06567 7 123.132 7 106.4559 7 119.9002 7 182.5974 8 81.05383 8 150.2792 8 129.7896 8 117.9611 8 194.8782 9 78.08057 9 156.4843 9 158.8759 9 135.4129 9 221.0559 10 76.78784 10 165.2748 10 182.5974 10 185.8292 10 236.1161 11 88.22845 11 193.6501 11 217.1131 11 197.8515 11 233.4661 12 127.398 12 202.8285 12 296.3571 12 210.0031 12 250.4008 13 157.1953 13 207.8701 13 289.1179 13 218.9229 13 255.6363 14 184.2779 14 208.064 14 303.2732 14 245.3591 14 310.9003 15 197.4637 15 215.4972 15 294.8058 15 262.6816 15 305.4062 16 233.9185 16 229.2647 16 276.126 16 254.5375 16 329.5155 17 227.0024 17 242.0627 17 267.6586 17 275.5443 17 332.2302 18 234.4356 18 249.4312 18 283.7531 18 248.4617 18 340.5683 19 244.7774 19 264.4268 19 302.8207 19 280.5212 19 364.6776 20 253.8265 20 258.2217 20 328.6752 20 311.0295 20 407.2083 21 263.7158 21 268.1111 21 344.0587 21 326.8654 21 425.7589 22 264.8793 22 277.3541 22 357.6323 22 319.7554 22 497.3758 23 287.308 23 281.3615 23 358.925 23 320.725 23 487.4218 24 290.152 24 293.9009 24 367.0692 24 339.728 24 491.8171 25 303.9842 25 318.0749 25 392.5358 25 345.2221 25 508.7518 26 312.5808 26 323.1812 26 394.2164 26 339.6634 26 567.5707 27 326.1544 27 323.6982 27 379.6732 27 356.2103 27 565.4377 28 343.2184 28 325.9605 28 386.7186 28 376.1182 28 589.2885 29 349.1649 29 332.0363 29 413.6719 29 414.2536 29 592.8435 30 362.8678 30 345.8038 30 416.2573 30 412.1206 30 599.0486 31 356.4042 31 369.7839 31 422.4624 31 411.0218 31 606.1586 32 373.4681 32 390.7906 32 462.86 32 404.8167 32 613.721 33 397.3189 33 410.5693 33 463.571 33 405.3338 33 696.9078
  15. 15. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 34 394.3456 34 430.2188 34 494.9843 34 415.6756 34 665.0422 35 402.5544 35 424.5954 35 495.1782 35 409.0827 35 638.3474 36 415.8695 36 419.8123 36 491.3 36 424.9832 36 645.1342 37 409.0827 37 425.8881 37 505.9078 37 470.681 37 632.9826 38 437.2641 38 438.88 38 542.6858 38 473.5897 38 654.8297 39 442.4996 39 439.3971 39 516.8313 39 468.4834 39 666.7227 40 446.5071 40 444.1155 40 522.6486 40 485.0303 40 684.8209 41 447.7352 41 480.6996 41 530.0817 41 478.4374 41 709.3826 42 467.837 42 475.1409 42 531.3745 42 490.5244 42 731.2297 43 477.8557 43 472.2969 43 553.674 43 520.1924 43 782.6801 44 490.589 44 476.4337 44 553.8679 44 508.4932 44 751.0084 45 503.4516 45 483.6729 45 547.7921 45 508.6225 45 756.6964 46 513.0178 46 485.6766 46 575.4564 46 525.8804 46 770.076 47 510.1738 47 504.9382 47 571.1904 47 556.4533 47 798.3867 48 513.858 48 504.4211 48 578.6882 48 556.2594 48 803.5576 49 528.7244 49 514.0519 49 590.5812 49 578.1064 49 821.2679 50 534.2184 50 521.9376 50 610.7477 50 576.5552 50 854.0385 51 539.3247 51 525.7511 51 637.0547 51 587.608 51 847.1224 52 551.1531 52 544.3663 52 642.2902 52 602.9914 52 860.1143 53 556.8411 53 566.989 53 637.7657 53 623.7396 53 886.4859 54 580.1748 54 559.0388 54 639.5755 54 615.4016 54 902.3218 55 581.5322 55 560.6547 55 650.0466 55 629.8801 55 905.0365 56 581.7907 56 566.6658 56 650.8868 56 638.3474 56 888.9421 57 591.8093 57 579.3992 57 661.9396 57 633.2411 57 914.9258 58 597.6266 58 591.874 58 694.8395 58 639.0584 58 925.0737 59 617.276 59 589.03 59 669.1143 59 633.629 59 936.8375 60 621.9298 60 614.6259 60 678.7451 60 652.4381 60 961.5286 10% Trial 2 5% Trial 2 2.5% Trial 2 1.25% Trial 2 0.625% Trial 2Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) 0 2.90863 0 3.619629 0 196.882 0 3.102539 0 2.391541 1 23.85077 1 3.231812 1 200.6955 1 8.144165 1 26.11304 2 25.14349 2 20.8775 2 211.7483 2 3.102539 2 26.11304 3 59.72388 3 36.97192 3 221.0559 3 3.102539 3 26.50085 4 99.28125 4 157.7124 4 243.6786 4 7.756348 4 21.45923 5 93.20545 5 166.2444 5 246.0701 5 148.5987 5 24.94959 6 100.8325 6 169.9287 6 246.3287 6 184.2133 6 19.58478 7 163.2711 7 221.573 7 259.3206 7 241.6749 7 39.49274 8 171.8677 8 193.1977 8 269.2099 8 239.2833 8 89.52118 9 178.9777 9 238.2491 9 297.8438 9 217.0485 9 175.552
  16. 16. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-06510 191.7757 10 216.4021 10 289.5703 10 224.0292 10 219.181511 209.486 11 219.7632 11 319.1737 11 256.218 11 203.927312 201.665 12 262.4231 12 327.6411 12 255.9595 12 226.097513 220.4742 13 278.8407 13 318.0749 13 282.7835 13 233.918514 228.683 14 347.6137 14 333.0705 14 276.7077 14 235.275915 249.108 15 321.5006 15 350.5869 15 280.3273 15 231.914816 255.7656 16 298.0377 16 363.8373 16 292.0911 16 230.81617 256.7351 17 312.1284 17 363.2556 17 321.436 17 224.029218 262.9402 18 321.0482 18 396.0262 18 303.2086 18 255.50719 298.1669 19 328.8045 19 381.6123 19 312.8394 19 271.601420 288.1483 20 325.4434 20 396.4786 20 336.7548 20 281.749321 306.8928 21 353.1077 21 402.6837 21 347.2905 21 314.390622 339.1463 22 388.1406 22 401.391 22 350.4576 22 297.326723 330.8082 23 403.8472 23 411.6035 23 350.5223 23 300.299924 339.8573 24 385.6198 24 426.1467 24 361.3165 24 315.424825 350.2637 25 396.6079 25 453.8756 25 369.2668 25 314.261426 348.971 26 408.6303 26 437.3287 26 384.4563 26 343.800127 406.9497 27 428.926 27 452.8414 27 388.9808 27 356.210328 410.8925 28 425.0479 28 460.7271 28 403.9764 28 355.951729 430.0895 29 454.9744 29 475.2702 29 402.4252 29 369.783930 431.77 30 468.8066 30 475.1409 30 412.4438 30 383.939231 424.3369 31 464.2821 31 484.901 31 433.6445 31 413.736532 423.3027 32 460.21 32 504.098 32 442.3704 32 421.945333 435.5836 33 477.5325 33 501.3186 33 448.1876 33 414.253634 433.4506 34 505.6492 34 512.3068 34 454.8452 34 449.157235 425.6942 35 508.7518 35 526.1389 35 462.0844 35 460.856336 469.5176 36 512.8885 36 529.4354 36 466.8029 36 439.397137 491.1707 37 523.0364 37 532.4733 37 499.4442 37 428.861438 525.7511 38 537.9027 38 549.8604 38 512.7592 38 445.343639 521.9376 39 539.1954 39 562.2059 39 493.9501 39 464.863840 510.497 40 536.3514 40 566.5366 40 512.436 40 466.544341 513.858 41 550.1836 41 565.567 41 521.3558 41 475.011742 538.4198 42 548.3092 42 582.631 42 532.4733 42 491.946443 534.7355 43 561.301 43 591.5508 43 528.4012 43 492.398844 567.3768 44 578.5589 44 596.5278 44 538.4198 44 497.375845 577.8479 45 589.4824 45 603.8317 45 559.9437 45 516.120346 584.3762 46 579.1406 46 615.4662 46 559.6205 46 514.892247 565.1146 47 608.9379 47 631.3667 47 561.3657 47 551.864148 557.3582 48 617.4053 48 657.6737 48 574.81 48 539.2601
  17. 17. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 49 553.1569 49 632.2716 49 654.9589 49 589.2885 49 537.0624 50 587.7373 50 622.8994 50 661.6165 50 596.4631 50 557.0997 51 589.9995 51 633.1119 51 672.4754 51 613.01 51 567.8293 52 570.4794 52 642.0963 52 719.4013 52 606.0939 52 570.0916 53 603.5731 53 661.6165 53 694.8395 53 617.0175 53 582.2432 54 583.5359 54 675.4486 54 712.2266 54 633.629 54 589.8702 55 615.2723 55 680.4256 55 709.7705 55 630.7203 55 599.4364 56 605.2537 56 695.809 56 717.0097 56 639.9633 56 635.1802 57 614.432 57 693.2236 57 736.9177 57 653.0198 57 621.542 58 654.3772 58 690.7028 58 734.3969 58 652.8259 58 636.7962 59 674.3498 59 704.2764 59 739.7617 59 653.5369 59 643.2598 60 691.1552 60 729.6784 60 756.1146 60 659.9359 60 651.921 10% Trial 3 5% Trial 3 2.5% Trial 3 1.25% Trial 3 0.625% Trial 3Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) 0 2.779358 0 2.391541 0 3.490356 0 23.26904 0 4.4599 1 24.69104 1 23.26904 1 21.32996 1 22.94586 1 12.79797 2 69.48395 2 22.88123 2 24.36786 2 22.10559 2 20.29578 3 186.4109 3 38.07074 3 48.41254 3 149.9561 3 319.7554 4 225.128 4 171.4799 4 121.9686 4 215.9496 4 330.0972 5 215.3679 5 241.6749 5 112.4024 5 213.8813 5 325.3142 6 228.2305 6 225.9683 6 113.2427 6 216.3375 6 322.0177 7 215.4972 7 237.2796 7 271.9246 7 236.8918 7 294.2241 8 217.1131 8 274.8333 8 266.2366 8 258.2217 8 319.9493 9 223.4475 9 327.124 9 268.6282 9 286.0153 9 384.4563 10 250.1422 10 337.0133 10 260.1608 10 301.9805 10 353.5602 11 261.0011 11 360.7348 11 300.8817 11 314.7138 11 365.3886 12 271.7307 12 391.5017 12 285.4336 12 336.3023 12 353.4955 13 275.8674 13 459.6282 13 322.3409 13 356.081 13 383.8746 14 284.2055 14 525.7511 14 307.0867 14 370.8827 14 375.0194 15 320.6603 15 590.2581 15 317.8163 15 380.3842 15 413.2841 16 331.5192 16 560.4608 16 355.9517 16 397.9006 16 404.5582 17 316.2651 17 573.6466 17 378.9622 17 410.634 17 412.056 18 324.0214 18 608.8087 18 361.3165 18 424.4661 18 436.8763 19 351.9443 19 615.854 19 402.6837 19 445.2144 19 432.2225 20 342.9598 20 592.1325 20 367.7802 20 451.4194 20 447.9291 21 355.8871 21 608.6794 21 398.3531 21 464.7345 21 422.721 22 355.1115 22 616.1772 22 394.0871 22 477.9849 22 473.2019 23 388.4638 23 657.0919 23 403.7179 23 501.1247 23 457.1074 24 384.7148 24 703.1776 24 404.1057 24 516.1203 24 482.9619
  18. 18. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-06525 422.0746 25 702.7251 25 445.4729 25 522.5193 25 489.102426 412.4438 26 712.8084 26 467.2553 26 537.4503 26 487.551127 427.4394 27 707.2496 27 454.1342 27 551.9934 27 513.405628 433.6445 28 700.3336 28 495.3721 28 578.1711 28 526.332829 468.548 29 739.5678 29 492.722 29 592.7142 29 527.754830 458.3355 30 751.7194 30 539.5833 30 605.4476 30 518.511831 459.0465 31 780.2886 31 564.0158 31 623.0933 31 514.439832 477.7264 32 791.2767 32 523.6181 32 631.3667 32 520.838833 490.7183 33 833.2903 33 593.2313 33 636.6022 33 529.241534 503.9687 34 812.4774 34 590.9691 34 651.1454 34 536.868535 505.0029 35 801.4893 35 568.2171 35 656.3163 35 546.887236 518.5118 36 831.2866 36 629.4276 36 668.985 36 570.220837 531.1159 37 845.3773 37 588.0604 37 682.5586 37 578.946738 533.6367 38 862.0534 38 650.6283 38 699.4933 38 587.995839 568.411 39 875.4978 39 636.3437 39 714.2304 39 607.774540 558.3278 40 898.8314 40 607.1281 40 724.8953 40 610.87741 574.9393 41 900.8998 41 670.5363 41 738.9214 41 615.466242 565.3085 42 891.5922 42 637.895 42 744.8033 42 623.351843 600.212 43 914.2149 43 640.1572 43 755.2744 43 626.195844 583.5359 44 917.4467 44 624.9031 44 768.137 44 627.036145 609.5197 45 941.4267 45 665.0422 45 776.3458 45 634.469246 607.3867 46 955.1942 46 718.6903 46 789.5962 46 647.331947 621.4127 47 983.4403 47 753.8524 47 809.6334 47 662.650648 629.5569 48 974.2619 48 729.2906 48 814.6104 48 665.300749 673.8973 49 970.4484 49 724.6368 49 828.7011 49 670.083850 655.4114 50 1011.816 50 747.7766 50 842.4686 50 676.612151 648.8831 51 1010.07 51 752.5596 51 851.9055 51 686.501452 675.6425 52 1013.173 52 743.1228 52 860.7607 52 693.223653 673.0571 53 1069.859 53 712.4852 53 870.5854 53 708.800954 679.3914 54 1055.768 54 754.8865 54 889.3299 54 716.557355 687.2124 55 1058.741 55 766.715 55 900.0595 55 727.416156 692.8358 56 1084.855 56 753.0121 56 912.5343 56 727.868657 694.8395 57 1115.492 57 786.8168 57 928.758 57 734.655458 723.2148 58 1101.918 58 859.0802 58 935.9326 58 743.96359 739.5678 59 1120.017 59 830.317 59 944.4 59 764.452760 750.2327 60 1142.769 60 776.7336 60 959.3956 60 767.426
  19. 19. Seung Soo (Jason) Lee002213-065 Control (No Glucose Added) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) Time (s) Con.(μS/cm) 0 15.8359 31 536.222 1 105.874 32 544.56 2 144.462 33 551.993 3 167.472 34 566.601 4 181.692 35 578.947 5 202.053 36 581.08 6 221.379 37 590.064 7 233.789 38 599.307 8 245.682 39 620.702 9 265.59 40 624.386 10 278.453 41 634.469 11 294.677 42 641.256 12 312.581 43 646.879 13 316.394 44 656.187 14 341.344 45 668.403 15 358.537 46 685.079 16 363.32 47 700.98 17 373.727 48 706.409 18 385.555 49 717.527 19 404.429 50 730.196 20 424.337 51 741.765 21 422.204 52 754.693 22 434.614 53 770.722 23 443.857 54 777.962 24 458.659 55 789.208 25 469.776 56 800.326 26 479.859 57 811.443 27 489.232 58 809.246 28 503.904 59 806.854 29 511.854 60 817.519 30 530.082

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