Introduction to Digital Marketing


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Part of a series on Global Information Management. Provides a high level view of why digital strategies are added to marketing arsenals,best practice implementations, and what Third Party Solutions offer.

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Introduction to Digital Marketing

  1. 1. An Introduction to Digital Marketing Why Digital Matters - How to Proceed - When to use Third Party Solutions June 2010 Walter Kitchenman
  2. 2. Part of a Series on Global Information Management This presentation is part of a series of work by Walter Kitchenman ( covering the importance and use of Information. Earlier studies documented the availability, use and benefits of shared consumer and other data and how such transparency shapes businesses globally; inhibitors to sharing information resources within large organizations; and solutions for implementing Best Practice Information Products and Knowledge Management.
  3. 3. Purpose This presentation describes the importance of adding a well-conceived Digital Strategy to the marketing arsenal and provides a general overview of Best Practice Digital Campaigns and Third Party solutions providers. • Identify steps and processes that underpin successful Digital Campaigns • Explain how Digital and Traditional Campaigns and metrics are integrated • Advise on the use of Third Party Vendors in the fluid Web 2.0 Universe . 2
  4. 4. Agenda 1. Overview …..………………………………………………………….. 3 2. Phases ………………………………………………………………. 15 3. Processes ……..……………………………………………………..…. 23 4. Marketing 2.0 .………………………………………………………….. 38 5. Vendor Assessment …………………………………………………… 45 6. Summary ………………………………………………………………… 51 3
  5. 5. Introduction to Digital Marketing OVERVIEW 4
  6. 6. OVERVIEW> DEFINITIONS What are Some Well Known Digital Assets? The practices and user communities of some emerging Mobile and Social Networks make them more suitable to some Campaigns than others. A Few Important Emerging Digital Marketing Channels 1. iPhone Apps (Mobile) 2. Proprietary Web Sites 3. Campaign-Focused Marketing Pages 4. Facebook 5. Linkedin 6. WordPress 7. MediaWiKi 5
  7. 7. OVERVIEW> DEFINITIONS Why Digital Marketing Online spending is only about 5% of ad dollars today but is projected to reach 21% of US marketing dollars by 2014 (US$55 billion).* • Two thirds of US consumers are online • Mobile and internet technologies are being adopted even faster outside the US • Digital Marketing campaigns are measurable (assuming data is reliable) • Online tools and analytics are better for direct response • Online campaigns may generate more immediate sales • Online tools and analytics are less expensive than traditional methods • Numerous Third Party Solutions are available to help manage digital campaigns, determine their effectiveness and target dollars * Source: Forrester Research 6
  8. 8. OVERVIEW> DEFINITIONS What is Digital Marketing? Digital Marketing is a combination of Push and Pull Internet technologies used to execute marketing campaigns • Traditional media including radio, TV, billboard and print, yields response/reaction data collected, analyzed and acted upon after a campaign • Digital marketing provides for immediate reporting and feedback while using the internet to both Push and Pull marketing content: – E.g., Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Email, IM, RSS, Social Media, Texting on Mobile, and Voice Broadcast are used to Push a message – E.g., Banner ads and Pay Per Click (PPC) searches Pull viewers to a message or another viewer refers them, as in “here is content I liked seeing and you might enjoy seeing too” (e.g., viral video) • The objective of Digital Marketing is the Conversion of Visitors into customers and improving retention of existing customers 7
  9. 9. OVERVIEW> SAMPLE ONLINE CONTENT Some Examples of OnLine Digital Content Used to Promote a Major Brand MOBILE APPS - VISA ONLINE VIDEO GAME - VISA BANNER AD - VISA 8
  10. 10. OVERVIEW> FACEBOOK PAGE Example of a Major Brand’s Facebook Page 9
  11. 11. OVERVIEW> iPHONE APP Example of MasterCard iPhone Application LANDING 10
  12. 12. OVERVIEW> GOOD DIGITAL STRATEGIES>TACTICS What Good Digital Marketing Strategies Achieve A good Digital Campaign is consistent with overall business objectives, quantifies success for each channel and has appropriate metrics in place. The Six Broad Tactics of Best Practice Digital Marketing 1. Clarify and finalize Campaign objectives 2. Define the target audience(s) 3. Identify the online and Mobile channels available and appropriate 4. Develop a strategy with unique tactics for each digital asset 5. Define success through industry specific and relevant metrics 6. Know the landscape and benchmark results against competitors 11
  13. 13. OVERVIEW> GOOD DIGITAL STRATEGIES>OBJECTIVES What Good Digital Objectives Achieve Strategy is how you reach Objectives - Objectives are what you want to achieve and they are often quantifiable. Three Broad Objectives of Best Practice Digital Marketing 1. Distribute Specific Content , e.g., introduce new subscription-based service 2. Achieve Specific Financial Gains, e.g., increase online sales x% 3. Target Specific Audience, e.g., reach x% of consumers of data about banks 12
  14. 14. OVERVIEW> GOOD DIGITAL STRATEGIES>HOW DIGITAL MEDIA DIFFERS How Traditional and Digital Media Differ The best digital strategies integrate with, and complement, the messages sent through traditional media and channels to form a unified experience. Traditional Media Digital Media • Uses established market research • Business models and (focus groups and sampling) demographics are fluid • A campaign is generally a Message • A campaign is a Conversation • Marketers control message length • Visitors use exact search terms • Campaigns not optimized • Sponsored search has +-70 immediately characters to entice click through • Data is collected long afterwards • Campaigns tweaked instantly • Costs are relatively high with immediate feedback • Costs are relatively low 13
  15. 15. OVERVIEW> GOOD DIGITAL STRATEGIES>TRADITIONAL MEDIA METRICS Inhibitors to a Fully Integrated Digital Media Campaign Traditional Media metrics and metrics generated from Digital Campaigns may not yield “apple-to-apple” comparisons. Five Key Elements of Traditional Advertising metrics 1. Reach is the % of people within a given universe exposed to a particular campaign at least once during a defined time period 2. Universe is typically based on total households 3. Gross Rating Points (GRP) are calculated by dividing Gross Impressions of a media buy by the population reached 4. Targeted Ratings Points (TRP) are GRPs for a specific target segment 5. Effective Reach is the % of the Universe reached at a particular frequency 14
  16. 16. OVERVIEW> GOOD DIGITAL STRATEGIES>CONVERTING DIGITAL METRICS Converting Digital Metric “Oranges” to Traditional “Apples” to Facilitate Comparisons Reach prediction data supplement GRP metrics because of fragmentation of users, variance of frequency across individuals and less certain demographics. Four Key Elements Must be “Translated” for Comparisons 1. Reach is very difficult to calculate in terms of Digital Marketing and often requires Third Party solutions and expertise 2. Online Universe is based on total households with Internet access (which may now include mobile access) 3. GRP are calculated by dividing Gross Impressions on a web site, online design element or other digital asset by audience size 4. TRP are calculated by multiplying forecasted GRPs by the demographic composition of the site 15
  17. 17. OVERVIEW> GOOD DIGITAL STRATEGIES>CONVERTING DIGITAL METRICS Predicting Reach in the Digital Universe The distribution of sites, the run rate (number of impressions in a given time period), site overlap and other variables must be considered. Three Key Considerations to Predict Online Reach 1. In traditional media Reach is basically the total number of viewers of a particular campaign 2. Online a campaign of one million impressions on a site with one million unique users may reach only a small percentage of the site’s population 3. Online impressions compose a fraction of total monthly impressions on a site 16
  18. 18. Introduction to Digital Marketing PHASES 17
  19. 19. PHASES> DEFINITIONS The Successful Digital Marketing Campaign has Four Broad Phases Strategy is an important step across every phase of a campaign. Phases are not always sequential and may be iterative as content is tweaked. 1 2 3 4 Strategize Implement Benchmark Optimize 18
  20. 20. PHASES> STRATEGY Strategize A Digital Campaign should be consistent with overall business objectives and complement offline efforts that employ traditional media. Five Keys to a Comprehensive Strategy 1. Align online marketing and analytics with general business objectives 2. Align online marketing and web analytics with offline campaigns 3. Identify key areas for improvement 4. Identify effective business processes 5. Identify Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and other measurements specific to the industry and Digital Asset 19
  21. 21. PHASES> STRATEGY>EXAMPLE OF CHANNEL-SPECIFIC KPI Example of Specific KPI Designed to Measure the Impact of Blogging KPI for any channel should measure your brand reputation and/or content for your digital campaign as well as collect similar KPI for competitors. There are At Least Six KPI Specific to Blogs 1. Average Number of New Blog Entries 2. Percentage of Unique Visitors/Members writing comments 3. Average Number of Trackbacks per Blog Post 4. Percentage of New Commentators (compared to total commentators) 5. Number of RSS Subscribers 6. Percentage of New RSS Subscribers 20
  22. 22. PHASES> STRATEGY>SCOPE It is Important to Define the Scale of the Digital Marketing Objectives A good Digital Strategy will quantify the scope of the desired campaign prior to the development effort. • Are you targeting millions of viewers and thousands of websites or hundreds? • What web trends will be tracked? Are Webtrends or Google Analytics enough? • Are Reporting Requirements quantitative or qualitative? – Are there Executive Level Summaries? • What Creative and other Design Elements are involved? • Do you need heavy statistical support to compute online Reach and other metrics for comparisons with Traditional Media? • Do you anticipate using A/B and other testing to optimize the Campaign? • How will relevant digital content be kept current/accurate going forward? • Will the campaign employ iPhone apps and other targeted mobile? 21
  23. 23. PHASES> IMPLEMENTATION Implement SEO terms may be optimal in theory but individual page and other tags should be audited and reviewed regularly to ensure results in practice. Six Keys to a Successful Implementation 1. Identify the proper scope of the effort at inception 2. Provide Award-Caliber Creative that enhances the user experience 3. Develop or contract the appropriate technologies or solutions 4. Maximize SEO and audit Page Tags to maximize the number of viewers 5. Plan on how online digital content stays current and accurate 6. Integrate online digital data with data from traditional media for a comprehensive view 22
  24. 24. PHASES> BENCHMARKING Benchmark Visitor Engagement Measurements and KPI should be customizable both by industry and specific client positioning as practices may vary greatly. Four Keys to Successful Benchmarking 1. Define Key Performance Indicators (KPI) 2. Customize Visitor Engagement Measurements by industry 3. Determine the client’s and its’ competitors’ baseline 4. Facilitate reporting and distribution of data and analytics with a well designed database and Dashboard 23
  25. 25. PHASES> OPTIMIZATION Optimize Digital’s real-time feedback makes Optimization an ongoing process. Good analytics allow you to adjust the variables of a Digital Campaign (content, website, design elements) that best drive conversion and satisfaction. Four Keys to Successful Optimization of Large B2C Campaigns 1. Use A/B and Multivariate Testing of many combinations to simulate hundreds/thousands of campaigns to inform the Digital Campaign 2. Use behavioral targeting of potential viewers 3. Proactively analyze Digital Campaigns to remain relevant and engaging 4. Convert website visitors into customers more quickly and at a relatively lower customer acquisition cost than traditional media 24
  26. 26. Introduction to Digital Marketing PROCESSES 25
  27. 27. PROCESSES> DEFINITIONS Key Processes in the Successful Digital Marketing Campaign Like the overall campaign itself, each major Process involves Strategy, Implementation and Optimization. Five Key Processes from Campaign Inception through Optimization 1. Creative 2. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) 3. Database and Development 4. Analysis and Reporting 5. Marketing 2.0 26
  28. 28. PROCESSES> CREATIVE Creative Generally Encompasses Eight Major Digital Content Types Generally there are only 70 characters available to generate a click- through. Creative must maximize the online presence and adapt established Brand guidelines meant for print and traditional media. 1. Web sites 2. Logos and other branding 3. Commercials produced for the Web 4. Banner Ads 5. Specialized web-based marketing pages 6. Online Newsletters and Journals 7. eMail Graphics 8. Content optimized for Mobile Apps 27
  29. 29. PROCESSES> SEARCH SEO is Generally Considered the Most Critical Process in Digital Marketing Search Engine Optimization (SEO), is the process of maximizing the placement and number of search results (ranking) for core marketing terms. Three Characteristics of Good SEO 1. Natural Search Processes 2. Pay Per Click (Sponsorship) 3. Natural Language 28
  30. 30. PROCESSES> SEARCH SEO is Generally Considered the Most Critical Process in Digital Marketing, cont. Free search functions available through tagging and other processes can be termed Natural Search Processes. Seven Essential Natural Search Processes 1. Ensuring Search Visibility 2. Search forensics 3. International SEO 4. On-Line Public Relations 5. Copywriting for SEO 6. On-Line Reputation Monitoring 7. Linking Programs 29
  31. 31. PROCESSES> SEARCH SEO is Generally Considered the Most Critical Process in Digital Marketing, cont. Sponsored searches such as ads by Google account for 30 – 40% of all search results and speed-up a subject’s inclusion in free search results. Four Characteristics of a Successful Pay-Per-Click Campaign 1. Adapted to marketing calendars 2. PPC Search Terms audited 3. Key Words researched and identified 4. Ad Creative makes most of 70 characters to generate a click through 30
  32. 32. PROCESSES> SEARCH SEO is Generally Considered the Most Critical Process in Digital Marketing, cont. Best Practice SEO expands beyond inhouse jargon, correctly anticipating how potential customers use language naturally in online searches. Three Best Practice Uses of Natural Language 1. Use common terms for your subject, product or campaign 2. Expand beyond industry and inhouse jargon 3. Advanced approaches may include likely variations (and even misspellings) 31
  33. 33. PROCESSES> ANALYTICS>DEFINITIONS Analytics and Reporting Analyses and Reporting (and other key Processes) in a Digital Campaign are broadly divided into Media Monitoring and Media Engagement. Media Monitoring Media Engagement (Marketing 2.0) • Data Discovery • eMail Marketing • Analytical Reporting • Social Media Marketing • Analytical Dashboard • Modeling 32
  34. 34. PROCESSES> ANALYTICS>BEST PRACTICE Best Practice Analytics are Proactive and Provide for Data Integration and Competitor Analysis • Proactive Analysis – Third party campaign-specific tracking • Data Integration • Competitor Analysis • Optimization Services ensure constant improvement – Customer Segmentation – Testing and Targeting 33
  35. 35. PROCESSES> ANALYTICS>BEST PRACTICE Reasons to Engage in Testing For consumer-oriented campaigns testing can eliminate inhouse disputes by letting customers decide. Only 26% of Digital Marketers Test Despite Five Good Reasons 1. Increase sales and conversion rates 2. Improve landing pages 3. Get more leads 4. Decrease Cost Per Acquisition (CPA) 5. Eliminate guesswork from design elements 34
  36. 36. PROCESSES> ANALYTICS>REPORTING Reporting Should Provide Immediate Feedback About Visitor Behavior The most useful tools show the domains, campaigns, demographics and geography of where visitor to customer conversions are taking place. • Domains Report (where conversations take place) • Geo Mapping (locations of conversations) • Blogger tags (comments by identifiable author) • Theme Clouds (words most associated with the campaign) • Comparisons by Date of Chatter • Demographics Report (gender, age estimated for visitors tracked) Webtrends Reports 35
  37. 37. PROCESSES> DATABASES AND DEVELOPMENT Database and Development Databases can provide a comprehensive view across all media, speed to market for content management, feedback for alternative campaigns, flexible selection criteria and personalization by segments and individuals. Media Monitoring Media Engagement • Data Visualization • Campaign Management • Modeling • Segment Selection Management • Web Crawl for Updates • Web Content Management • Mobile Apps 36
  38. 38. PROCESSES> DATABASES AND DEVELOPMENT IT is Used to Constantly Search for and Display Content Relevant to the Campaign As part of Media Monitoring, IT solutions can integrate a search agent application that crawls the web and collects the latest relevant content. Web Crawlers Capture Two Main Types of Content Automatically 1. Comments and other content related to the campaign 2. Comments and other content related to competitors’ campaigns 37
  39. 39. PROCESSES> DATABASES AND DEVELOPMENT>DATA VISUALIZATION Best Practice Data Visualization: A Dashboard Reporting generally provides too much data rather than too little. Best Practice includes a top level display of highly relevant data and insights. A Well Designed Dashboard Has Four Key Elements 1. Aggregates data from all available sources 2. Summarizes data through a simple user interface 3. Displays a comprehensive analysis 4. Includes competitor digital content, bringing email and banners, etc., for comparison 38
  40. 40. PROCESSES> DATABASES AND DEVELOPMENT>DATA VISUALIZATION Examples of Data Visualization: Sample Marketing Dashboard 39
  41. 41. Introduction to Digital Marketing MARKETING 2.0 40
  42. 42. MARKETING 2.0>DEFINITIONS Marketing 2.0 With the advent of Web 2.0, successful digital strategies incorporate Public Relations and Customer Relationship Management. Digital Marketing is largely comprised of two key functions 1. Public Relations 2.0 (ePR) 2. Customer Relationship Management 2.0 (eCRM) 41
  43. 43. MARKETING 2.0> DIGITAL MEDIA Digital Marketing Strategy Involves Customization by Specific Digital Medium Business models and practices are evolving rapidly. The suitability of each digital forum should be assessed for each particular industry and campaign. • Blogs (e.g., LiveJournal, Typepad, WordPress, etc.) • Microblogs (e.g.,Twitter, Plurk, Identica, etc) • Message Board/Forums • Wiki (sites that allow the public to make changes) • Video/Photo Sharing (e.g.,YouTube, Flickr, etc) • Social Networks (e.g., Facebook, Myspace, Linkedin) • Mainstream Media Blogs (e.g., Wall Street Journal, CNN, etc.) • Mobile Apps (iPhone) 42
  44. 44. MARKETING 2.0> PUBLIC RELATIONS Public Relations for Web 2.0 (ePR or PR 2.0) ePR refers to marketing techniques that enable clients to receive high- impact placements on influential websites, mobile apps and blogs. • Blogs and Mainstream Digital Media – Online features/reviews, premiere content, placement of exclusive clips and features, high profile interviews, online contests, press coverage • Social Media Sites – Place content in front of millions of eyeballs at a very low price point – Turn viewers/customers into advocates • Mobile – .e.g., iPhone apps (including emerging such as iPad), and Web 2.0 sites specific to mobile 43
  45. 45. MARKETING 2.0> PUBLIC RELATIONS>KEY STEPS Six Key ePR Strategies Figure Prominently in Successful Digital Campaigns Successful ePR develops appropriate social networking strategies for each channel or platform (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, iPhone, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create Social Update & Filter Develop Social Convert Respond to & Maintain Inappropriate Media Widgets Visitors Messages Mobile Profiles Content Comments 44
  46. 46. MARKETING 2.0> CRM>DEFINITIONS Customer Relationship Management for Web 2.0 (eCRM or CRM 2.0) For consumer focused businesses, rapid adoption of Web 2.0 and Social Media means traditional CRM, customer acquisition and retention strategies must integrate eCRM to capture the entire customer journey. • Holistic approach to CRM and implementation; communication and data planning; multi channel campaign management; and customer data management • Customer engagement from acquisition to retention and advocacy across all channels, traditional and digital • Creating a global online customer dialogue platform 45
  47. 47. MARKETING 2.0> MOBILE>DEFINITIONS Digital Marketers Adjust to the Mobile Boom Applications for mobile devices such as the Apple iPhone and the Palm Pre are redefining the mobile marketing landscape. Two examples of Digital Marketing and Mobile Apps 1. Starwood hotels rewards their top twenty commercial clients – An iPhone app. presents detailed info for 200 Starwood hotels, including 500MB of photos, maps, contact details, floor plans and capacity information – The iPhone app includes orientation-sensitive interface, faceted search, an RSS feed and support for "favorites“ 2. The McKinsey Quarterly alerts subscribers and in real-time – An iPhone app provides Alerts to the latest articles and thought leadership using the iPhone’s touch interface and app-Safari interoperability – The iPhone app fits McKinsey’s longer term mobile strategy to use mobile devices to customize content delivery by both user preference and past reading habits 46
  48. 48. Introduction to Digital Marketing VENDOR ASSESSMENT 47
  49. 49. VENDOR ASSESSMENT> DEFINITIONS Vendor Assessment May be the Most Important Process in a Digital Marketing Campaign Optimizing the results of a Campaign and Digital Presence generally involves using Third Party Solutions and/or outsourcing. Typical Third Party Solutions Used in Digital Campaigns 1. Best Creative normally requires partnering with outside agencies 2. Professional Services Providers advise on optimum strategies, the competitive landscape and the latest analytics 3. Professional Services Providers offer deeper expertise in key social media and other emerging channels (e.g., iApp development) 4. Third Parties provide relatively low cost Content and Campaign Management Solutions 5. Third Parties help navigate more complex statistical challenges such as calculating Online Reach and general integration of online metrics 6. Monitoring and updating of digital content post-campaign can be outsourced 48
  50. 50. VENDOR ASSESSMENT> BASIC WEB ANALYTICS Simple Web Analytics May be Enough for Many Digital Marketing Efforts Webtrends is the overwhelming market leader in web analytics and is believed to provide the highest quality data. Six Key Considerations in Assessing Webtrends 1. Webtrends provides metrics for social media and Twitter 2. Webtrends provides both Client and Server-side tracking while most competitors support one or the other 3. There are a large number of sophisticated built-in reports covering all areas of a site including technical, marketing and sales 4. There is both a hosted and a software version, with the software version offering full control of data 5. Cost is a minimum US$5,000 per license 6. Set-up and support will probably require expertise inhouse 49
  51. 51. VENDOR ASSESSMENT> BASIC WEB ANALYTICS Simple Web Analytics May be Enough for Many Digital Marketing Efforts, cont. Google Analytics provides a free, user-friendly and immediate solution for web analytics that may suit many Digital Marketing Efforts (especially B2B). Five Key Considerations in Assessing Google Analytics 1. Easy Set-Up: Simple new account creation with exact JavaScript provided to insert into online pages (implementation in under 1 hour) 2. Built-in Reports and Polished Graphs for the most important statistics including tooltips and drill-downs 3. Custom Reporting and Export: Custom reports can be created using a drag- drop function 4. Data Export API facilitates the build of a customer User Interface 5. Analytics are free, but user data is hosted and in the cloud, security and control over which may be considered inadequate for certain digital efforts 50
  52. 52. VENDOR ASSESSMENT>GOOGLE ANALYTICS SAMPLE An Example of a Google Analytics Graph 51
  53. 53. VENDOR ASSESSMENT>MAJOR VENDORS Digital Marketing – Some Major Vendors by Key Process Analytics Web Trends Campaign Management Alterian Webtrends Vignette Partners MediaSurface Stratigent Google Analytics Interwoven Documentum Omniture SiteCore Partners FatWire Site Catalyst Percussion Umbraco Websidestory Dbases, Development IT, Integration Search (SEO) Oracle SAP Omniture HBX Microsoft Siebel Endeca Java (BEA Star) PeopleSoft Google Epiphany FAST IBM SmartLogic Microsoft Autonomy/Verity 52
  54. 54. Introduction to Digital Marketing SUMMARY 53
  55. 55. SUMMARY>KEY DEVELOPMENTS Key Developments • Two thirds of US consumers are online • Adoption rates for mobile and internet tech is more rapid outside the US • Twenty one percent of all marketing dollars may be spent online by 2014 • ePR and eCRM becoming essential to track the entire customer experience • Digital Marketing may provide for faster sales and lower CPA than Traditional Marketing efforts • Fluid and uncertain business models in emerging online media may require specific expertise (e.g., iAPPS, social media such as Facebook and Twitter) 54
  56. 56. SUMMARY>BEST PRACTICES Digital Marketing Efforts Best Practices are Likely to Include Third Party Solutions • Assess basic scope of the Digital Marketing effort: – Are basic web trends analytics sufficient? – Will you test alternative campaigns and design elements to assess the best strategies that convert viewers to customers? – Must you predict online Reach or perform other complex statistical analyses for comparisons with the metrics yielded by Traditional Media? • Integrate with Traditional Media for a unified viewer experience • Put appropriate KPI in place before the start of a campaign • Benchmark metrics for the subject Digital Campaign against those for similar campaigns and competitors • Consider the use of appropriate Third Party Solutions from Strategy to Optimization to hedge against the fluid Web 2.0 environment 55
  57. 57. For More Info – Walter Kitchenman is an author and consultant on strategic issues in financial services. He spent more than a decade as an international banker in Latin America and Europe and helped launch the leading boutique advisory firm covering the strategic use of IT. Most recently he managed several digital platforms at MasterCard Worldwide which were winners of the International Web Designers Award and the New York IABC’s Award of Merit. He has a graduate degree from Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and BA with special honors from the Elliot School of George Washington University. 2010 Walter Kitchenman
  58. 58. An Introduction to Digital Marketing Why Digital Matters - How to Proceed - When to use Third Party Solutions July 2010 Walter Kitchenman