Water use & distribution


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Water use & distribution

  1. 1. WATER USE & DISTRIBUTION Environmental Science
  2. 2. Key H 2 0 Characteristics <ul><li>Water is the prime constituent of all living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves easily-from one physical state to another, and from one place to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Water slowly absorbs and releases large quantities of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is a superior solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies </li></ul>(Source: Wright & Nebel 2002)
  3. 3. Available Water <ul><li>Total = 326 million cubic miles </li></ul><ul><li>97% of Earth’s water is in oceans </li></ul><ul><li>2.997% is locked up in ice caps and glaciers </li></ul><ul><li>0.003% is easily accessible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html Water Supply & Use
  5. 5. Use of Fresh Water <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>41% agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>38% power plant cooling </li></ul><ul><li>11% industry </li></ul><ul><li>10% public </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>87% agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>7% industry </li></ul><ul><li>6% public </li></ul>
  6. 6. Water Use Globally People and Planet <ul><li>70% of water for human use is soaked up by agriculture ( in the form of irrigation) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry accounts for 23% </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic use (household, drinking water, sanitation) accounts for about 7 % </li></ul>
  7. 7. Agriculture-70% <ul><li>Early forms of irrigation water never reaches crop. Much is lost to evaporation b/c they use flood or furrow irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers are more efficient & can be used on uneven land. Cost $ and still have problem with evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Best method- Drip irrigation- system of tubes deliver water directly to roots. Efficient but $$$ </li></ul>
  8. 9. Industry- 23% <ul><li>Cooling power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Generating electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Many industries locate on rivers b/c </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in manufacturing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for transportation of goods </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Domestic Use- 7% <ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing </li></ul><ul><li>Clothes washing </li></ul><ul><li>Flushing toilet </li></ul><ul><li>Washing Car </li></ul>
  10. 11. Water Use - (minimum 13 gallons) People and Planet <ul><li>average person in the U. S. uses between 65-80 gallons of water per day for drinking, cooking bathing, and watering their yard. </li></ul><ul><li>average person in the Netherlands uses 27 gallons per day. </li></ul><ul><li>average person in the African nation of Gambia uses 1.2 gallons per day. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Depleting Groundwater <ul><li>Major pumping from well causes ground water to be depleted. </li></ul><ul><li>Saltwater intrusion= when salt water rises up and is pumped out of well. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Desalination (removing salt from ocean water <ul><li>Heat salt water and collect fresh water that condenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly in Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive process because is uses too much energy. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Water Management Projects <ul><li>Methods to bring and store water to areas where there is not enough ground or surface water. </li></ul><ul><li>Dams and reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Hoover dam, Lake Lanier & Lake Allatoona </li></ul>
  14. 15. Large Dams <ul><li>PROS </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and store water from rain and snow </li></ul><ul><li>Produce electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigate land </li></ul><ul><li>Control flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Provide water to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide recreation such as swimming, boating, fishing </li></ul><ul><li>CONS </li></ul><ul><li>loss of water due to evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people </li></ul><ul><li>Danger of dam collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Migration and spawning of fish disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Causes water wars between states </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to build </li></ul>
  15. 16. Three Gorges Dam <ul><li>World's largest hydroelectric dam, Three Gorges, Yangtze River. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 - 1.9 million people will be displaced. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire project is to be completed in 2009. </li></ul>