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Unit 1 ch3 s3 the hydrosphere & biosphere


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Unit 1 ch3 s3 the hydrosphere & biosphere

  1. 1. Section 3: The Hydrosphere & Biosphere Standards: SEV1d, SEV2b
  2. 2. What is the hydrosphere? All the water on or near the Earth’s surface. Includes  Oceans  Lakes  Rivers  Wetlands  Icecaps  Clouds  Soil  Rock layers beneath surface
  3. 3. What are the parts of the hydrologic (water) cycle? Evaporation  Heated by sun & turns into water vapor  Comes from bodies of water, plants (transpiration), and animals Condensation  Water vapor forms droplets on dust particles, form clouds when they collide & stick Precipitation  Large droplets fall from clouds  Can be rain, snow, sleet, hail Runoff/Percolation  Water can run off land into nearest body of water  Water can percolate through layers of soil and get stored underground in aquifers.
  4. 4. How is water distributed on Earth? 97% salty ocean water 3% freshwater  Of the 3%...  2% is unusable icecaps & glaciers  1% is usable surface or groundwater.
  5. 5. What is the difference betweenocean water & freshwater? Ocean water is 3.5% salt. Salt comes from erosion from rocks on land over millions of years and underwater volcanic eruptions. Salinity can vary depending on depth of ocean & areas of evaporation  EX: estuary- where freshwater river meets ocean.
  6. 6. What are the major oceans of theworld? Pacific  Largest ocean  165,640,000 km2 & avg. depth is 4,280 meters  Deepest point (11,033 m) is Challenger Deep near Philippines.  Divided into  North Pacific- above equator and flows clockwise  South Pacific- below equator and flows counterclockwise
  7. 7. What are the major oceans of theworld? Atlantic  Second largest ocean  81,630,000 km2  Like Pacific, divided into north & south with clockwise & counterclockwise movement.
  8. 8. What are the major oceans of theworld? Indian  Third largest ocean  73,420,000 km2  Average depth is 3,890 meters
  9. 9. What are the major oceans of theworld? Arctic  Smallest ocean  14,350,000 km2  Covered by floating ice called pack ice
  10. 10. What are the temperature zones ofthe ocean? Surface zone  Warmed by sun  Can be mixed with cooler layers below Thermocline  Middle layer where temperatures drop fast with increased depth Deep zone  Coldest layer b/c sun does not reach
  11. 11. What is the relationship betweenthe ocean and atmosphere? Ocean has the ability to store and radiate heat to help control Earth’s temperature. Absorbs over half the solar radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface Direction of ocean current creates climates in inland areas.  EX: warm Gulf currents bring warm moist air over north to British Isles
  12. 12. Where is usable freshwater found? Surface water  Moving water  Fast, cold, more oxygen  Rivers, streams  Watershed- area of land that dumps into a tributary.  Tributaries- small streams that empty into larger river systems.  EX: MHS campus is watershed for Noses creek which is a tributary to the Chattahoochee River McEachern  Standing water High School  Slow, warm, less oxygen  Lakes, ponds, reservoirs
  13. 13. Where is usable freshwater found? Groundwater  Water the seeps through soil and gets stored in underground rock formations called aquifers  Surface of land where water seeps is called recharge zone.
  15. 15. What is the biosphere? Narrow layer around Earth’s surface in which life can exist. Layer that gets sunlight for plants, which provide for animals Also layer that has water, energy and moderate temperatures Consists of  Uppermost part of geosphere  Most of the hydrosphere  Lower part of the atmosphere.
  16. 16. What is the difference between anopen & closed system? Closed system- energy enters and leaves but matter does not.  EX: Earth- energy from sun enters & reradiates but energy trapped by plants (and eventually animals) does not leave Earth. Open system- both matter & energy are exchanged by a system.  EX: When Earth was first forming it was open because constantly hit by comets & meteors