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Respiration & photosynthesis


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Respiration & photosynthesis

  1. 1. Energy Transformations: Photosynthesis & Respiration
  2. 2. Read pages 218-220 <ul><li>What is energy? </li></ul><ul><li>List 2 processes (in the cell) that require energy (the ability to do work). </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between an autotroph and a chemotroph? </li></ul><ul><li>What is metabolism? </li></ul>
  3. 3. ATP & ADP <ul><li>ATP: Adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><li>adenine + ribose + 3 phosphates </li></ul><ul><li>Energy storing molecule, only stores energy for a few minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Source of all cell energy </li></ul><ul><li>When one phosphate group breaks off, energy is released </li></ul>Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups
  4. 4. <ul><li>ADP: Adenosine diphosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine + ribose + 2 phosphates </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule that results from ATP losing one P </li></ul><ul><li>Another P may be added later </li></ul>ADP ATP Energy Energy Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  5. 5. Describe organelles involved in energy transformation <ul><li>Energy transformation is when energy is converted from one form to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy transformations involve photosynthesis and respiration. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Photosynthesis
  7. 7. <ul><li>CHLOROPLASTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Found in plant cells, some protists & bacteria not animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contain pigment called chlorophyll (green) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows plants to go through photosynthesis by converting light into energy for the cell </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overview Photosynthesis <ul><li>Photosynthesis: process using energy from sunlight to convert water and CO 2 into oxygen and carbohydrates (sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>Two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Light dependent reactions: produce O 2 & converts ADP to ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin cycle (dark reactions): use ATP from light reactions to produce sugars </li></ul>Light Energy CO 2 + H 2 O Sugars + O 2 Chloroplast
  9. 9. <ul><li>Chlorophyll : green pigment in cells that absorbs blue & red light energy </li></ul><ul><li>Moves energy to electrons that drive reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Equation for photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 +6H 2 O + energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>MITOCHONDRIA: “powerhouse” of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Releases energy from food molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Found in both animal and plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>A cell that needs more energy has more mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: muscles, growing cells, areas of repair </li></ul>
  11. 11. Overview cellular respiration <ul><li>Respiration: process that releases energy by breaking down food when oxygen is present </li></ul><ul><li>Equation for Respiration: </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Anaerobic respiration: (fermentation) occurs without oxygen present </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic: form ethyl alcohol and CO 2 as waste products; used to make bread rise </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid: produces lactic acid in muscles when exercising without enough oxygen </li></ul>
  13. 13. Photosynthesis Respiration Function Energy storage Energy release Location Chloroplasts Mitochondria Reactants Carbon dioxide water Glucose oxygen Products Glucose oxygen Carbon dioxide water Equation <ul><li>6CO 2 +6H 2 O + energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 +6H 2 O + energy