Renew nonrenew

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Renew nonrenew

  1. 1. Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources Environmental Science
  2. 2. Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels <ul><li>A fossil fuel is a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the energy we use comes from fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>We use fossil fuels to run cars, ships, planes, and factories and to produce electricity. </li></ul>Chapter 17
  3. 3. Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Fossil fuels are central to life in modern societies, but there are two main problems with fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The supply of fossil fuels is limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining and using them has environmental consequences. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 17
  4. 4. How Fossil-Fuel Deposits Form <ul><li>Fossil fuel deposits are not distributed evenly. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an abundance of oil in Texas and Alaska, but very little in Maine. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern United States produces more coal than other areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The reason for this difference lies in the geologic history of the areas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Coal Formation <ul><li>Coal forms from the remains of plants that lived in swamps hundreds of millions of years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>As ocean levels rose and fell, swamps were repeatedly covered with sediment. </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of sediment compressed the plant remains, and heat and pressure within the Earth’s crust caused coal to form. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the coal in the United States formed about 300 to 250 million years ago. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oil and Natural Gas Formation <ul><li>Oil and natural gas result from the decay of tiny marine organisms that accumulated on the bottom of the ocean millions of years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>These remains were buried by sediments and then heated until they became complex energy-rich carbon molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time these molecules migrated into the porous rock formations that now contain them. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>In the 1950s and 1960s, nuclear power plants were seen as the power source of the future because the fuel they use is clean and plentiful. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s and 1980s, however, many planned nuclear power plants were cancelled and others under construction were abandoned. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>accounts for 17% of the </li></ul><ul><li>world’s electricity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fission: Splitting Atoms <ul><li>Nuclear power plants get their power from nuclear energy . </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy is the binding energy of the atomic nucleus energy released by a fission or fusion reaction </li></ul><ul><li>The forces that hold together a nucleus of an atom are more than 1 million times stronger than the chemical bonds between atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>In nuclear power plants, the element uranium is used as the fuel. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fission: Splitting Atoms <ul><li>The nuclei of uranium atoms are bombarded with atomic particles called neutrons . These collisions cause the nuclei to split in a process called nuclear fission . </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fission releases a tremendous amount of energy and more neutrons, which in turn collide with more uranium nuclei. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Renewable Energy <ul><li>Renewable energy is energy from sources that are constantly being formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of renewable energy includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solar energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wind energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the power of moving water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember, all sources of energy, including renewable sources, affect the environment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Solar Energy—Power from the Sun <ul><li>Nearly all renewable energy comes directly or indirectly from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct solar energy is used every day, like when the sun shines on a window and heats a room. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy can also be used indirectly to generate electricity in solar cells. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Passive solar heating <ul><li>Passive solar heating is the use of sunlight to heat buildings directly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large windows that face the sun can be used to heat a home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active solar heating is the gathering of solar energy by collectors that are used to heat water or heat a building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A liquid is heated by the sun as it flows through solar collectors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hot liquid is then pumped through heat exchangers, which heats water for the building. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Photovoltaic Cells <ul><li>Photovoltaic cells are solar cells that convert the sun’s energy into electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar cells have no moving parts, and they run on nonpolluting power from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they produce a very small electrical current. Meeting the electricity needs of a small city would require covering hundreds of acres with solar panels. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Wind Power <ul><li>Energy from the sun warms the Earth’s surface unevenly, which causes air masses to flow (wind) </li></ul><ul><li>Wind power, which converts the movement of wind into electric energy, is the fastest growing energy source in the world. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wind Farms <ul><li>Windmills spin a turbine, which is used to capture the energy from the wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Large arrays of wind turbines are called wind farms . Large wind farms supply electricity to thousands of homes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In windy rural areas, small wind farms with 20 or fewer turbines are also becoming common. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because wind turbines take up little space, some farmers can add wind turbines to their land and still use the land for other purposes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Biomass—Power from Living Things <ul><li>Biomass fuel consists of plant material, manure, or any other organic matter that is used as an energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels can be thought of as biomass energy sources, although they are nonrenewable. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable biomass fuels, such as wood and dung, are major sources of energy in developing countries. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Methane <ul><li>When bacteria decompose organic wastes, one byproduct is methane gas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane can be burned to generate heat or electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In China, more than 6 million households use biogas digesters to ferment manure and produce gas for heating and cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>Some landfills in the United States generate electricity by using the methane from the decomposition of trash. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Alcohol <ul><li>Liquid fuels can also be derived from biomass. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, ethanol can be made by fermenting fruit or agricultural waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Cars and trucks can run on ethanol or gasohol , a blend of gasoline and ethanol. Gasohol produces less air pollution than fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Some states require the use of gasohol in vehicles as a way to reduce air pollution. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hydroelectricity—Power from Moving Water <ul><li>Hydroelectric energy is electrical energy produced by falling water. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric energy accounts for 20% of the world’s electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>The water in a reservoir is released to turn a turbine in a dam, which generates electricity. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Geothermal Energy—Power from the Earth <ul><li>Geothermal energy is the energy produced by heat within the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Although geothermal energy is considered a renewable resource, the water that is used must be managed carefully so that it is not depleted. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Geothermal Energy <ul><li>Geothermal power plants generate electricity using the following steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam rises through a well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam drives turbines, which generate electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leftover liquid is pumped back into the hot rock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The leftover liquid, water, is returned to Earth’s crust because it can be reheated by geothermal energy and used again. </li></ul>

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